• 1
    Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J, Ward E. Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin. 2010;60:277-300.
  • 2
    Burris H, Storniolo AM. Assessing clinical benefit in the treatment of pancreas cancer: gemcitabine compared to 5-fluorouracil. Eur J Cancer. 1997;33(suppl 1):S18-S22.
  • 3
    Conroy T, Desseigne F, Ychou M, et al; Groupe Tumeurs Digestives of Unicancer; PRODIGE Intergroup. FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1817-1825.
  • 4
    Von Hoff DD, Ervin T, Arena FP, et al. Increased survival in pancreatic cancer with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1691-1703.
  • 5
    Genentech. Avastin Prescribing Information. South San Francisco, CA: Genentech Inc; 2013.
  • 6
    Buchler P, Reber HA, Ullrich A, et al. Pancreatic cancer growth is inhibited by blockade of VEGF-RII. Surgery. 2003;134:772-782.
  • 7
    Baker CH, Solorzano CC, Fidler IJ. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling for therapy of metastatic human pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1996-2003.
  • 8
    Bruns CJ, Shrader M, Harbison MT, et al. Effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody DC101 plus gemcitabine on growth, metastasis and angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer growing orthotopically in nude mice. Int J Cancer. 2002;102:101-108.
  • 9
    Van Cutsem E, Vervenne WL, Bennouna J, et al. Phase III trial of bevacizumab in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:2231-2237.
  • 10
    Kindler HL, Niedzwiecki D, Hollis D, et al. Gemcitabine plus bevacizumab compared with gemcitabine plus placebo in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: phase III trial of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB 80303). J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:3617-3622.
  • 11
    Kindler HL, Ioka T, Richel DJ, et al. Axitinib plus gemcitabine versus placebo plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a double-blind randomised phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2011;12:256-262.
  • 12
    Van Cutsem E, Jayson G, Dive C, et al. Analysis of blood plasma factors in the AVITA Phase III randomized study of bevacizumab (bev) with gemcitabine-erlotinib (GE) in patients (pts) with metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) [abstract]. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47(suppl 1):S95S96.
  • 13
    Gaudreault J, Lieberman G, Kabbinavar E, et al. Pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab (BV) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001;69:25.
  • 14
    Lu JF, Bruno R, Eppler S, Novotny W, Lum B, Gaudreault J. Clinical pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2008;62:779-786.
  • 15
    Zondor SD, Medina PJ. Bevacizumab: an angiogenesis inhibitor with efficacy in colorectal and other malignancies. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:1258-1264.
  • 16
    Martin LK, Li X, Kleiber B, et al. VEGF remains an interesting target in advanced pancreas cancer (APCA): results of a multi-institutional phase II study of bevacizumab, gemcitabine, and infusional 5-fluorouracil in patients with APCA. Ann Oncol. 2012;23:2812-2820.
  • 17
    Ko AH, Dito E, Schillinger B, Venook AP, Bergsland EK, Tempero MA. Phase II study of fixed dose rate gemcitabine with cisplatin for metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24:379-385.
  • 18
    Ko AH, Dito E, Schillinger B, et al. A phase II study evaluating bevacizumab in combination with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine and low-dose cisplatin for metastatic pancreatic cancer: is an anti-VEGF strategy still applicable? Invest New Drugs. 2008;26:463-471.
  • 19
    Javle M, Yu J, Garrett C, et al. Bevacizumab combined with gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II study. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1842-1845.
  • 20
    Fogelman D, Jafari M, Varadhachary GR, et al. Bevacizumab plus gemcitabine and oxaliplatin as first-line therapy for metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase II trial. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;68:1431-1438.
  • 21
    Hill ME, Li X, Kim S, et al. A phase I study of the biomodulation of capecitabine by docetaxel and gemcitabine (mGTX) in previously untreated patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011;67:511-517.
  • 22
    Ko AH, Espinoza AM, Jones KA, et al. Optimizing the administration of fixed-dose rate gemcitabine plus capecitabine using an alternating-week schedule: a dose finding and early efficacy study in advanced pancreatic and biliary carcinomas. Am J Clin Oncol. 2012;35:411-417.
  • 23
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2000.
  • 24
    Therneau TM, Grambsch PM. Modeling Survival Data: Extending the Cox Model. New York: Springer-Verlag; 2000.
  • 25
    Therneau GA, Grambsch PM. Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika. 1994;81:515-526.
  • 26
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc. 1958;53:457-481.
  • 27
    Harrington DP, Fleming TR. A class of rank test procedures for censored survival data. Biometrika. 1982;69:553-566.