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Keywords:

  • neuroblastoma;
  • contemporary therapy;
  • MYCN;
  • induction

BACKGROUND

The authors exploited a large database to investigate the outcomes of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in the contemporary era.

METHODS

All patients with high-risk neuroblastoma aged <12 years who were treated during induction at the authors' institution from 2000 through 2011 were studied, including 118 patients with MYCN-amplified [MYCN(+)] disease and 127 patients aged >18 months with MYCN-nonamplified [MYCN(−)] stage 4 disease.

RESULTS

A complete response/very good partial response (CR/VGPR) to induction was correlated with significantly superior event-free survival (EFS) (P < .001) and overall survival (OS) (P < .001) compared with a partial response or less. Patients with MYCN(+) and MYCN(−) disease had similar rates of CR/VGPR to induction (P = .366), and those with MYCN(+) and MYCN(−) disease who attained a CR/VGPR had similar EFS (P = .346) and OS (P = .542). In contrast, only MYCN(+) patients had progressive disease as a response to induction (P < .001), and early death from progressive disease (<366 days after diagnosis) was significantly more common (P < .001) among those with MYCN(+) disease. Overall, among patients who had a partial response or less, MYCN(+) patients had significantly inferior EFS (P < .001) and OS (P < .001) compared with MYCN(−) patients, which accounted for the significantly worse EFS (P = .008) and OS (P = .002) for the entire MYCN(+) cohort versus the MYCN(−) cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with MYCN(−), high-risk neuroblastoma display a broad, continuous spectrum with regard to response and outcome, whereas MYCN(+) patients either have an excellent response to induction associated with good long-term outcome or develop early progressive disease with a poor outcome. This extreme dichotomy in the clinical course of MYCN(+) patients points to underlying biologic differences with MYCN(+) neuroblastoma, the elucidation of which may have far-reaching implications, including improved risk classification at diagnosis and the identification of targets for treatment. Cancer 2014;120:2050–2059. © 2014 American Cancer Society.