Contemporary cost-effectiveness analysis comparing sequential bacillus Calmette-Guerin and electromotive mitomycin versus bacillus Calmette-Guerin alone for patients with high-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer
Sequential bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and electromotive mitomycin (sequential therapy) have been shown in a randomized prospective trial to be superior to therapy with BCG alone in patients with high-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The objective of the current study was to compare the costs and benefits of these 2 treatment strategies by performing a 5-year and 10-year cost-effectiveness study.
A Markov model was developed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio over a 5-year and 10-year period. Estimates of disease progression, death, and treatment efficacy were obtained from what to the authors' knowledge is the only randomized trial comparing the 2 therapies. Costs included: 1) medical costs (physician fees); 2) drug costs (preparation and instillation); and 3) hospital costs (procedure fees, admission fees, and tests and procedures done during surveillance). Patients were allowed a second course of induction therapy.
Sequential therapy was found to be associated with a higher initial material cost for induction and maintenance. The average effectiveness for the patients treated with therapy with BCG alone was 4.39 years with a mean cost of $9236 (95% confidence interval, $9118-$9345) per patient. The sequential group resulted in an average effectiveness of 4.65 years, with a mean cost of $16,468 (95% confidence interval, $16,371-$16,527). The 5-year incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of sequential versus BCG-alone therapy was $27,815 per life-year gained. The corresponding figure over a 10-year period was $8618 per life-year gained.
The results of the current study suggest that sequential therapy is a cost-effective treatment for patients with high-risk non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Cancer 2014;120:2424–2431. © 2014 American Cancer Society.