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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 May 2004

Volume 100, Issue 10

Pages 2047–2668

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. A Note from History
    4. Review Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      A brief note about a new series! (page 2047)

      Raphael E. Pollock

      Article first published online: 14 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20225

  2. A Note from History

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. A Note from History
    4. Review Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      Greco-Roman thought about cancer (pages 2048–2051)

      Steven I. Hajdu

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20198

      Drawing on his broad-based international and historical perspectives in oncology while incorporating original source materials from his own large personal collection of antiquarian books concerning the area of medical history, Dr. Hajdu has kindly volunteered to author a new series on the history of oncology. We hope you enjoy his first article in this issue of Cancer.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. A Note from History
    4. Review Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      Cardiac profiles of liposomal anthracyclines : Greater cardiac safety versus conventional doxorubicin? (pages 2052–2063)

      Maria Theodoulou and Clifford Hudis

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20207

      Conventional doxorubicin displays widespread antitumor activity; however, its clinical utility is limited by the risk of cardiotoxicity. Nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin provide a favorable advantage over conventional doxorubicin in terms of cardiac safety.

  4. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. A Note from History
    4. Review Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
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      Beyond chronic myelogenous leukemia : Potential role for imatinib in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders (pages 2064–2078)

      Jorge Cortes and Hagop Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20211

      The realization that myeloproliferative diseases can be caused by dysregulated signal transduction has provided new treatment options for these diseases. Imatinib, a specific protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of myeloproliferative diseases linked to dysregulated and Kit receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. A Note from History
    4. Review Articles
    5. Review Article
    6. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      The development of interval breast malignancies in patients with BRCA mutations (pages 2079–2083)

      Ian K. Komenaka, Beth-Ann Ditkoff, Kathie-Ann Joseph, Donna Russo, Prakash Gorroochurn, Marie Ward, Elizabeth Horowitz, Mahmoud B. El-Tamer and Freya R. Schnabel

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20221

      In the current study, nearly half of all BRCA-positive women who chose to undergo close surveillance developed a breast malignancy less than a year after exhibiting normal findings on a screening mammogram. These results suggest that screening of BRCA-positive women at more frequent intervals should be strongly considered.

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      β-Catenin and p53 analyses of a breast carcinoma tissue microarray (pages 2084–2092)

      Gina G. Chung, Maciej P. Zerkowski, Idris Tolgay Ocal, Marisa Dolled-Filhart, Jung Y. Kang, Amanda Psyrri, Robert L. Camp and David L. Rimm

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20232

      β-Catenin, members of its signaling pathway, and p53 were analyzed immunohistochemically in a breast carcinoma tissue microarray of 346 lymph node-negative breast carcinomas. The coexpression of β-catenin and p53 was associated significantly with worse survival independent of stage.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Patterns and predictors of colorectal cancer test use in the adult U.S. population (pages 2093–2103)

      Laura C. Seeff, Marion R. Nadel, Carrie N. Klabunde, Trevor Thompson, Jean A. Shapiro, Sally W. Vernon and Ralph J. Coates

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20276

      Data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey demonstrate that less than half of the U.S. population age ≥ 50 years underwent colorectal cancer tests within the recommended time intervals. Educational initiatives for patients and providers, efforts to reduce disparities in test use, and efforts to ensure that all persons have access to routine primary care may help increase screening rates.

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      A prospective evaluation of radiocolloid and immunohistochemical staining in colon carcinoma lymphatic mapping (pages 2104–2109)

      Lane C. Patten, David H. Berger, Miguel Rodriguez-Bigas, Paul Mansfield, Ebrahim Delpassand, Karen R. Cleary, Shawn P. Fagan, Steven A. Curley, Kelly K. Hunt and Barry W. Feig

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20233

      To date, the utility of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy has not been established in patients with colon carcinoma. In this study, the addition of radiocolloid to isosulfan blue dye did not improve the accuracy of this procedure. The prognostic significance of an immunohistochemically positive sentinel lymph node awaits the results of longer term follow-up.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Long-term bladder function in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and type 3–4 radical hysterectomy (pages 2110–2117)

      Pierluigi Benedetti-Panici, Marzio Angelo Zullo, Francesco Plotti, Natalina Manci, Ludovico Muzii and Roberto Angioli

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20235

      The authors evaluated the incidence of long-term bladder dysfunction after type 3–4 radical hysterectomy in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among patients who underwent type 4 radical hysterectomy, the extent of caudal resection of rectovaginal ligaments and vaginal tissue was found to be more strongly associated with bladder dysfunction than was the extent of lateral parametrial resection.

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      Endothelin axis expression is markedly different in the two main subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (pages 2118–2124)

      Meaghan L. Douglas, Michelle M. Richardson and David L. Nicol

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20222

      The endothelin axis was found to be expressed differently in the two main subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is not appropriate to consider RCC subtypes indiscriminately in regard to treatment.

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      Trastuzumab plus docetaxel in HER-2/neu-positive prostate carcinoma : Final results from the California Cancer Consortium screening and Phase II trial (pages 2125–2131)

      Primo N. Lara Jr., Karen Giselle Chee, Jeff Longmate, Christopher Ruel, Frederick J. Meyers, Carl R. Gray, Regina Gandour Edwards, Paul H. Gumerlock, Przemyslaw Twardowski, James H. Doroshow and David R. Gandara

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20228

      Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that HER-2 overexpression in archival prostate carcinoma specimens was infrequent. There was no apparent correlation among IHC, enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay, or fluorescent in situ hybridization, although the sample size was limited. conclusions regarding the predictive value of HER-2 status on outcome after trastuzumab-based therapy can only be determined after larger scale screening efforts.

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      Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in the treatment of patients with immunotherapy-resistant advanced renal cell carcinoma : Final results of a single-institution Phase II study (pages 2132–2138)

      Camillo Porta, Matteo Zimatore, Ilaria Imarisio, Anna Natalizi, Andrea Sartore-Bianchi, Marco Danova and Alberto Riccardi

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20226

      The association of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin yielded a 14.28% overall response rate (95% confidence interval, 5.43–28.5%) in a cohort of 42 patients who were affected with immunotherapy-resistant advanced renal cell carcinoma and who received treatment in a single-institution Phase II study. Although the results obtained were noteworthy, they should not discourage the search for more active regimens for this patient population.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Granulin-epithelin precursor is a novel prognostic marker in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (pages 2139–2147)

      Ben Davidson, Emilyn Alejandro, Vivi Ann Flørenes, Jeanne-Mette Goderstad, Björn Risberg, Gunnar B. Kristensen, Claes G. Trope and Elise C. Kohn

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20219

      The granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP) was widely expressed in tumor and host cells in epithelial ovarian carcinoma specimens, with down-regulation in carcinoma cells in effusions compared with corresponding solid tumor specimens. GEP expression was a novel predictor of disease outcome in patients with ovarian carcinoma.

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      Carcinosarcoma of the ovary : 19 years of prospective data from a single center (pages 2148–2153)

      Ewan Brown, Moira Stewart, Tzyvia Rye, Awatif Al-Nafussi, Alistair R. W. Williams, Michael Bradburn, John Smyth and Hani Gabra

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20256

      In a review of prospectively recorded data comparing patients with carcinosarcoma with those with serous adenocarcinoma, results confirm that carcinosarcoma of the ovary is a distinct clinicopathologic entity characterized by patients who had an older mean age at the time of onset, an inferior response to platinum-based chemotherapy, and a worse overall survival.

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      Sentinel lymph node biopsy is not accurate in predicting lymph node status for patients with cervical carcinoma (pages 2154–2159)

      Pierangelo Marchiolè, Annie Buénerd, Jean-Yves Scoazec, Daniel Dargent and Patrice Mathevet

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20212

      Multilevel sectioning followed by cytokeratin immunohistochemistry frequently reveals early cervical carcinoma with micrometastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes even when the sentinel lymph nodes are found to be negative for disease on biopsy. This high false-negative rate raises questions regarding the validity of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical carcinoma.

    12. Head and Neck Disease
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      Better prediction of prognosis for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma using primary tumor volume (pages 2160–2166)

      Mu-Kuan Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen, Jen-Pei Liu, Cheng-Chuan Chang and Wei-Chu Chie

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20210

      Previous studies showed heterogeneity of primary tumor volume among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had the same disease stage and tumor status. The authors proposed a staging method based on primary tumor volume and demonstrated its superior role in prognosis prediction.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      The clinical significance of large cells in bone marrow in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 2167–2175)

      Yupo Ma, Adnan Mansour, B. Nebiyou Bekele, Xian Zhou, Michael J. Keating, Susan O'Brien, Francis J. Giles and Maher Albitar

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20251

      Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who have suspected transformation to Richter syndrome (RS) require confirmation with lymph node biopsies or fine-needle aspirations, which are invasive and may sample the wrong lymph nodes or miss transformed areas. The authors found that patients with CLL who had bone marrow with > 7% large cells and elevated β2-microglobulin levels (> 5 mg/L) had disease that was similar to RS. Their findings indicated that a combination of large cells and elevated β2 microglobulin levels may be used as a surrogate marker for RS.

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      The role of craniospinal irradiation in adults with a central nervous system recurrence of leukemia (pages 2176–2180)

      Kevin E. Sanders, Chul S. Ha, Jorge E. Cortes-Franco, Charles A. Koller, Hagop M. Kantarjian and James D. Cox

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20280

      Craniospinal irradiation with or without intrathecal chemotherapy is effective at eliminating leukemia in the craniospinal axis. However, patients generally develop a recurrence in the bone marrow and still have a poor prognosis.

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      Fludarabine and cyclophosphamide using an attenuated dose schedule is a highly effective regimen for patients with indolent lymphoid malignancies (pages 2181–2189)

      Constantine S. Tam, Max M. Wolf, E. Henry Januszewicz, H. Miles Prince, David Westerman and John F. Seymour

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20234

      In 64 patients with indolent lymphoid malignancies, the administration of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide using an attenuated dose schedule achieved disease control comparable to previous reports using higher dose regimens, with reduced toxicity.

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      Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy as frontline treatment of nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (pages 2190–2194)

      Pier Luigi Zinzani, Vittorio Stefoni, Gerardo Musuraca, Monica Tani, Lapo Alinari, Annalisa Gabriele, Enrica Marchi, Stefano Pileri and Michele Baccarani

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20237

      A fludarabine/mitoxantrone regimen provided an effective frontline (or salvage) treatment option for nongastrointestinal Stage IE mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. This study regimen appeared to be superior to a regimen containing cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone.

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      Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan radioimmunotherapy in Richter syndrome (pages 2195–2200)

      Apostolia-Maria Tsimberidou, James L. Murray, Susan O'Brien, William G. Wierda and Michael J. Keating

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20252

      Seven patients with histologically proven CD20-positive Richter syndrome (RS) were treated with 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan. The median number of previous therapies received for RS was one. No patient responded to 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan therapy. The median time to disease progression was 41 days. 90Y ibritumomab tiuxetan was found to cause severe hematologic toxicity in these pretreated patients with RS.

    18. Neuro-Oncology
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      Safety and efficacy of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with malignant astrocytomas (pages 2201–2207)

      Benjamin Chen, Tauseef Ahmed, Anney Mannancheril, Michael Gruber and Deborah L. Benzil

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20223

      High-dose chemotherapy with thiotepa and carboplatin with concomitant autologous stem cell transplantation was used safely to treat patients with malignant astrocytomas. The mean survival after receipt of this chemotherapy regimen was 34 months. Only three patients experienced Grade 4 toxicities and no treatment-related mortalities were reported.

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      Phase II study of temozolomide without radiotherapy in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme in an elderly populations (pages 2208–2214)

      Olivier-L. Chinot, Maryline Barrie, Elisabeth Frauger, Henry Dufour, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Jacky Palmari, D. Braguer, Khe Hoang-Xuan, Karima Moktari, Jean-Claude C. Peragut, Pierre-Marie M. Martin and François Grisoli

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20224

      The optimal treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in the elderly continues to be debated. In this Phase II study, the authors evaluated the efficacy and safety of temozolomide, an oral alkylating agent, as first-line chemotherapy and exclusive treatment in elderly patients (age > 70 years) with newly diagnosed GBM. Nine of 29 evaluable patients (31%) achieved a partial response, and 12 of 29 patients (41%) maintained stable disease. Temozolomide also was tolerated well and was easy to administer.

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      High-dose thiotepa and etoposide in children with poor-prognosis brain tumors (pages 2215–2221)

      Franca Fagioli, Eleonora Biasin, Luana Mastrodicasa, Alessandro Sandri, Ivana Ferrero, Massimo Berger, Elena Vassallo and Enrico Madon

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20227

      High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) may be beneficial for patients who are affected with recurrent or newly diagnosed high-risk brain tumors and who achieve complete remission before undergoing ASCT. For other patients, new strategies appear to be necessary.

    21. Sarcoma
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      High-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with osteosarcoma : Incidence, treatment, and outcome (pages 2222–2232)

      Brigitte C. Widemann, Frank M. Balis, Beate Kempf-Bielack, Stefan Bielack, Charles B. Pratt, Stefano Ferrari, Gaetano Bacci, Alan W. Craft and Peter C. Adamson

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20255

      Approximately 1.8% of patients with osteosarcoma (68 of 3887 patients) who received high-dose methotrexate developed significant nephrotoxcity, and the mortality among those patients was 4.4% (3 of 68 patients). Dialysis-based methods of methotrexate (MTX) removal had limited effectiveness in removing MTX compared with rapid reductions > 98% in plasma MTX concentrations achieved with carboxypeptidase-G2, which should be considered over hemodialysis to lower plasma MTX concentrations rapidly and efficiently.

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      Time dependence of prognostic factors for patients with soft tissue sarcoma : A Scandinavian Sarcoma Group study of 338 malignant fibrous histiocytomas (pages 2233–2239)

      Jacob Engellau, Harald Anderson, Anders Rydholm, Henrik C. F. Bauer, Kirsten Sundby Hall, Pelle Gustafson, Måns Åkerman, Jeanne Meis-Kindblom, Thor A. Alvegård and Mef Nilbert

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20254

      The importance of prognostic factors for metastasis in 338 patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma was found to vary over time. The predictive value of most prognostic factors (e.g., tumor size, malignancy grade, tumor necrosis, vascular invasion, and mitotic rate) was limited to the first 2 years of follow-up. Local disease recurrence, however, was found to be correlated with prognosis even beyond 2 years of follow-up.

    23. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Phase I evaluation of docetaxel and topotecan for patients with advanced solid tumors (pages 2240–2245)

      Anne S. Tsao, Dong M. Shin, J. Lynn Palmer, Jin S. Lee and Bonnie S. Glisson

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20238

      The authors studied the antitumor activity of the combination of docetaxel and topotecan, supported by granulocyte–colony-stimulating factor, in a Phase I trial. Results of this trial demonstrated that this regimen was generally well tolerated and had promising activity in patients with nasopharyngeal and small cell lung carcinoma.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      Second neoplasms in pediatric patients with primary central nervous system tumors : The St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience (pages 2246–2252)

      Alberto Broniscer, Weiming Ke, Christine E. Fuller, Jianrong Wu, Amar Gajjar and Larry E. Kun

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20253

      The authors conducted a retrospective study of the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital experience involving 24 pediatric patients without neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed a second neoplasm after being diagnosed with a primary central nervous system tumor. The risk of a second malignant neoplasm in this setting was small; however, some subgroups, such as children age ≤ 2 years and patients with choroid plexus tumors, had an increased cumulative incidence that was associated with a genetic predisposition.

    25. Psychological Oncology
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      Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma (pages 2253–2260)

      Lorenzo Cohen, Carla Warneke, Rachel T. Fouladi, M. Alma Rodriguez and Alejandro Chaoul-Reich

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20236

      Research suggests that stress-reduction programs tailored to the cancer setting help patients cope with the acute effects of treatment and improve quality of life after treatment. A seven-session Tibetan yoga program that incorporated poses from the Tsa lung and Trul khor and that included controlled breathing and visualization, and mindfulness was associated with improved sleep-related outcomes in patients with lymphoma.

    26. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Incidence of chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis after modern antiemetics : Perception versus reality (pages 2261–2668)

      Steven M. Grunberg, Robert R. Deuson, Panagiotis Mavros, Olga Geling, Mogens Hansen, Giorgio Cruciani, Bruno Daniele, Gerard De Pouvourville, Edward B. Rubenstein and Gedske Daugaard

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20230

      Chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea and emesis continues to be a significant problem in spite of modern antiemetics. Physicians and nurses markedly underestimated the incidence of delayed nausea and emesis in their own practices.

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