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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 June 2004

Volume 100, Issue 11

Pages 2269–2489

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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      Repeat breast-conserving surgery for in-breast local breast carcinoma recurrence : The potential role of partial breast irradiation (pages 2269–2280)

      Henry M. Kuerer, Douglas W. Arthur and Bruce G. Haffty

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20257

      Mastectomy is considered to be the current standard of care after in-breast local recurrence of breast carcinoma previously treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast irradiation. A review of the limited world literature concerning repeat breast-conserving surgery suggests that the risk of a secondary local in-breast recurrence is high after this approach. The rapid evolution of radiation therapy techniques has brought partial breast irradiation (PBI) to the forefront as a potential local treatment for women with in-breast local recurrence after repeat breast-conserving surgery. This review provides an overview of the biologic rationale for PBI; reviews techniques, potential benefits, and complications of PBI; and describes a planned multicenter trial evaluating the use of PBI after repeat breast-conserving surgery.

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      The role of Fas ligand and transforming growth factor β in tumor progression : Molecular mechanisms of immune privilege via Fas-mediated apoptosis and potential targets for cancer therapy (pages 2281–2291)

      Ryungsa Kim, Manabu Emi, Kazuaki Tanabe, Yoko Uchida and Tetsuya Toge

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20270

      The authors review the clinical significance of the expression patterns of Fas ligand and transforming growth factor β as features of immune privilege accompanying tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, the authors discuss potential strategies for choosing molecules that can serve as good therapeutic targets for patients with malignant disease.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      The cognitive sequelae of standard-dose adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast carcinoma : Results of a prospective, randomized, longitudinal trial (pages 2292–2299)

      Jeffrey S. Wefel, Renato Lenzi, Richard L. Theriault, Robert N. Davis and Christina A. Meyers

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20272

      In a prospective, randomized, longitudinal trial, 61% of women with breast carcinoma exhibited a decline in cognitive function at the completion of a standard-dose regimen of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide. One year later, approximately 50% of the women who experienced cognitive declines demonstrated improved cognitive functioning, whereas the remaining 50% did not experience any change in cognitive functioning.

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      Diversity matters: Unique populations of women and breast cancer screening (pages 2300–2307)

      Carol Magai, Nathan Consedine, Francine Conway, Alfred Neugut and Clayton Culver

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20278

      Ethnic differences in breast cancer screening behaviors are well established, although there remains a lack of understanding regarding exactly what causes these differences and which characteristics in low-screening populations should be targeted in an effort to modify screening behavior. Although women from clearly operationalized ethnic groups continue to screen at rates substantially below those of the majority groups, these differences appear to be explained substantially by differences in attitudinal and emotional variables.

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      The association between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl conenzyme A inhibitor use and breast carcinoma risk among postmenopausal women : A case–control study (pages 2308–2316)

      Denise M. Boudreau, Jacqueline S. Gardner, Kathleen E. Malone, Susan R. Heckbert, David K. Blough and Janet R. Daling

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20271

      In the current population-based, case–control study, the authors found that statin use was not associated with an increased risk of breast carcinoma and that long-term statin use (> 5 years) may slightly decrease breast carcinoma risk. Additional studies are warranted to further clarify this potential association.

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      The prognostic significance of multiple morphologic features and biologic markers in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast : A study of a large cohort of patients treated with surgery alone (pages 2317–2327)

      Dennis B. Cornfield, Juan P. Palazzo, Gordon F. Schwartz, Shanth A. Goonewardene, Albert J. Kovatich, Inna Chervoneva, Terry Hyslop and Roland Schwarting

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20260

      Routine histopathologic parameters, particularly tumor size and degree of necrosis, are predictive of local recurrence in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast after undergoing wide local excision alone. No significant correlations were found between a variety of biologic markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, HER-2/neu, Ki-67, p21, and bcl-2) and recurrence of DCIS.

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      Hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast carcinoma incidence rate ratios : A prospective Danish cohort study (pages 2328–2337)

      Anne Tjønneland, Jane Christensen, Birthe L. Thomsen, Anja Olsen, Kim Overvad, Marianne Ewertz and Lene Mellemkjær

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20250

      The authors prospectively investigated the relation between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast carcinoma, with particular attention paid to the type of HRT used and to the association of HRT type with estrogen receptor status and tumor histology. An increased breast carcinoma risk was found to be associated with current HRT use. In addition, relative to other types of HRT regimens, continuous estrogen + progestin regimens were found to be associated with an increased risk of breast carcinoma, and particularly estrogen receptor–positive breast carcinoma.

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      Breast carcinoma screening and risk perception among women at increased risk for breast carcinoma : Results from a national survey (pages 2338–2346)

      Susan A. Sabatino, Risa B. Burns, Roger B. Davis, Russell S. Phillips, Ya-Hua Chen and Ellen P. McCarthy

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20274

      In a nationally representative sample, 15.7% of women had an increased breast carcinoma risk using the Gail score. High-risk women perceived higher cancer risk and more often received screening. However, nearly one in three high-risk women did not receive recent screening and most did not perceive increased risk.

    7. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Preoperative induction of CPT-11 and cisplatin chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy in patients with locoregional carcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction (pages 2347–2354)

      Jaffer A. Ajani, Garrett Walsh, Ritsuko Komaki, Jeff Morris, Stephen G. Swisher, Joe B. Putnam Jr., Patrick M. Lynch, Tsung-Teh Wu, Roy Smythe, Ara Vaporciyan, Josephine Faust, Deborah S. Cohen, Rebecca Nivers and Jack A. Roth

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20284

      Patients with localized esophageal carcinoma often develop locoregional and distant disease recurrence. The current study investigated the outcome of new chemotherapy combinations as induction therapy before preopertaive chemoradiotherapy.

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      Phase II study of oral S-1 for treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma (pages 2355–2361)

      Kuniaki Shirao, Atsushi Ohtsu, Hideho Takada, Yasushi Mitachi, Kosei Hirakawa, Noboru Horikoshi, Takeshi Okamura, Koichi Hirata, Soh Saitoh, Hiroharu Isomoto and Atsushi Satoh

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20277

      The authors sought to evaluate the objective response rate and toxicity associated with the oral fluoropyrimidine drug S-1, which contains tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine, and potassium oxonate, in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal carcinoma. S-1 was found to be active in this setting (response rate, 39.5%) and had an acceptable toxicity profile.

    9. Genitourinary Disease
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      Heterogeneity of Gleason grade in multifocal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (pages 2362–2366)

      Rebecca Arora, Michael O. Koch, John N. Eble, Thomas M. Ulbright, Lang Li and Liang Cheng

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20243

      In the current investigation of 115 totally embedded, serially sectioned, whole-mount prostatectomy specimens, the authors demonstrated that multifocal prostate tumors were common (87%) in prostatectomy specimens and that there often was extensive histologic heterogeneity among lesions within a given specimen. Individual tumor foci within the same prostate specimen frequently had at least one Gleason grade that was different from the corresponding overall grade of the specimen. The Gleason grades of the index tumor were the same as the corresponding overall Gleason grades in approximately two-thirds of all specimens. These findings may have important implications with respect to future biomarker and tissue array studies.

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      Expression of cell cycle proteins in T1a and T1b urothelial bladder carcinoma and their value in predicting tumor progression (pages 2367–2375)

      Paulette Mhawech, Vincent Greloz, Chantal Oppikofer, Idliko Szalay-Quinodoz and Francois Herrmann

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20306

      Cyclin D1 and p27 expression levels were associated significantly with tumor grade and stage in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Potentially, p21/p16 may be useful for distinguishing T1b (invasive) tumors from T1a (minimally invasive) tumors, although this finding must be investigated first in a much larger series. None of the markers evaluated appeared to have the ability to predict disease progression in patients with T1a or T1b tumors.

    11. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Prognostic significance of erythropoietin expression in human endometrial carcinoma (pages 2376–2386)

      Geza Acs, Xiaowei Xu, Christina Chu, Peter Acs and Ajay Verma

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20244

      In the current study, human endometrial carcinomas were found to express erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo receptor. In benign endometrial tissue samples, Epo expression was mediated by estrogen and progesterone, whereas in endometrial carcinoma samples, increased Epo expression was associated with tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible autocrine Epo signaling in endometrial carcinomas may contribute to tumor progression and increased aggressiveness. Increased Epo expression in endometrial carcinomas was an independent prognostic and/or predictive factor.

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      Loss of heterozygosity on the X chromosome is an independent prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma : From the Danish “MALOVA” ovarian carcinoma study (pages 2387–2395)

      Estrid V. S. Høgdall, Andy Ryan, Susanne K. Kjaer, Jan Blaakaer, Lise Christensen, Johannes E. Bock, Eva Glud, Ian J. Jacobs and Claus K. Høgdall

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20213

      The results of a multidisciplinary Danish study on women with primary ovarian carcinoma (OC) correlated loss of heterozygosity at DXS454 with shorter survival in Danish patients with epithelial OC.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Erythropoietin is effective in improving the anemia induced by imatinib mesylate therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (pages 2396–2402)

      Jorge Cortes, Susan O'Brien, Alfonso Quintas, Francis Giles, Jianquin Shan, Mary Beth Rios, Moshe Talpaz and Hagop Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20292

      The authors concluded that erythropoietin is safe and effective in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase who develop anemia with imatinib therapy.

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      High-dose intravenous methotrexate followed by autologous stem cell transplantation as a potentially effective therapy for neurolymphomatosis (pages 2403–2407)

      Irene M. Ghobrial, Francis Buadi, Robert J. Spinner, Joseph P. Colgan, Alexandra P. Wolanskyj, P. James Dyck, Thomas E. Witzig, Ivana N. Micallef and Brian Patrick O'Neill

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20263

      In the current study, the authors present a case from their own experience and review the literature regarding the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with neurolymphomatosis.

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      Low-dose weekly paclitaxel for recurrent or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2408–2414)

      David A. Rizzieri, Gregory J. Sand, Dean McGaughey, Joseph O. Moore, Carlos DeCastro, Nelson J. Chao, James J. Vredenburgh, Cristina Gasparetto, Gwynn D. Long, Elizabeth Anderson, Tracy Foster, Bonnie Toaso, Donna Adams, Donna Niedzwiecki and Jon P. Gockerman

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20245

      Many patients with recurrent, intermediate or high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may not respond to or are not candidates for aggressive salvage chemotherapy. Therefore, effective, less toxic regimens are needed. Different delivery rates may allow for different mechanisms of action and result in a different toxicity profile and response rate for agents not felt to be effective with standard bolus regimens. The current prospective study tested this hypothesis by using low-dose, weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or refractory NHL

    16. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Changes in the characteristics and survival rate of hepatocellular carcinoma from 1976 to 2000 : Analysis of 1365 patients in a single institution in Japan (pages 2415–2421)

      Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada, Seiki Kiriyama, Yasuhiro Sone, Makoto Tanikawa, Yasuhiro Hisanaga, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Takashi Honda, Shusuke Kitabatake, Teiji Kuzuya, Koji Nonogaki, Toshifumi Kasugai and Junichi Shimizu

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20289

      Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma has increased markedly during the past 25 years, which has contributed to the improvement in patient survival rates during this period. However, the survival rate of patients with HCC improved annually, independent of early detection.

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      Radiotherapy combined with transarterial infusion chemotherapy and concurrent infusion of a vasoconstrictor agent for nonresectable advanced hepatic hilar duct carcinoma (pages 2422–2429)

      Shunro Matsumoto, Hiro Kiyosue, Eiji Komatsu, Masaki Wakisaka, Kenichiro Tomonari, Yuzo Hori, Akira Matsumoto and Hiromu Mori

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20265

      External beam radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemotherapy and infusion of a vasoconstrictor was administered to 22 patients with advanced hepatic hilar duct carcinoma. Favorable initial responses (1 patient with a complete response [no stenosis], 8 patients with a partial response [relief of stenosis/obstruction], 11 patients with no change [no significant change in stenosis/obstruction], and 2 patients with progressive deterioration [progressive stenosis/obstruction]) and prolonged median survival (19.5 months) were obtained.

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      Midkine protects hepatocellular carcinoma cells against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through down-regulation of caspase-3 activity (pages 2430–2436)

      Tomoko Ohuchida, Kohji Okamoto, Kazuhisa Akahane, Aiichiro Higure, Hidekazu Todoroki, Yukio Abe, Makoto Kikuchi, Shinya Ikematsu, Takashi Muramatsu and Hideaki Itoh

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20266

      It is believed that midkine (MK), a growth factor that commonly is expressed at high levels in various human carcinomas, plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The authors demonstrated that MK acts as an antiapoptotic factor through the down-regulation of caspase-3 activity.

    19. Lung Disease
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      Weekly combination chemotherapy with docetaxel and gemcitabine as first-line treatment for elderly patients and patients with poor performance status who have extensive-stage small cell lung carcinoma : A Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network Phase II Trial (pages 2437–2441)

      John D. Hainsworth, Donna Carrell, Ronald L. Drengler, Carroll Scroggin Jr. and F. Anthony Greco

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20281

      The goal of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of a novel combination of weekly docetaxel and gemcitabine for elderly patients and patients with poor performance status who had extensive-stage small cell lung carcinoma. Although relatively well tolerated, the study regimen exhibited only modest activity in this group of patients with unfavorable prognosis.

    20. Neuro-Oncology
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      Therapy of meningeal melanocytomas (pages 2442–2447)

      Dirk Rades, Steven E. Schild, Marcos Tatagiba, Hugo A. Molina and Winfried Alberti

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20296

      Complete tumor resection appears to be superior to incomplete resection in the treatment of patients with meningeal melanocytomas, whereas radiotherapy improves outcome after incomplete resection. Radiation doses of 45–55 grays appear to be appropriate.

    21. Sarcoma
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      Retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas : Patterns of recurrence in 167 patients treated at a single institution (pages 2448–2455)

      Alessandro Gronchi, Paolo G. Casali, Marco Fiore, Luigi Mariani, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Rossella Bertulli, Maurizio Colecchia, Laura Lozza, Patrizia Olmi, Mario Santinami and Juan Rosai

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20269

      In a series of 167 patients with retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas who underwent surgery at the same institution, local recurrence after initial surgery and high-grade malignancy were associated with the worst survival. Histologic subtype influenced the pattern of recurrence, which was mainly local in liposarcoma compared with both local and distant recurrences for other histotypes.

    22. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Clinical significance of non-Candida fungal blood isolation in patients undergoing high-risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (1993–2001) (pages 2456–2461)

      Amar Safdar, Seema Singhal and Jayesh Mehta

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20262

      Nonpathogenic, saprophytic fungal isolates from blood culture samples often are regarded as nondisease-causing environmental contaminants. Clinical significance of non-Candida fungal blood isolates in 48 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients showed that in most patients these microorganisms did not result in systemic disseminated mycosis. As occasionally, these organisms may lead to serious life-threatening infections, a reevaluation of the existing diagnostic paradigm is needed so that clinically significant fungemia may be differentiated from pseudofungemia.

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      Assessment of procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with solid tumors and febrile neutropenia (pages 2462–2469)

      Antonio Jimeno, Adelaida García-Velasco, Olga del Val, Enrique González-Billalabeitia, Susana Hernando, Rosario Hernández, Alfonso Sánchez-Muñoz, Ana López-Martín, Ignacio Durán, Luis Robles, Hernán Cortés-Funes and Luis Paz-Ares

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20275

      Baseline procalcitonin levels are higher in febrile neutropenic patients who have bacteremia compared with patients who have a clinical infection or fever of unknown origin. Combined clinical and procalcitonin assessment may improve clinical risk evaluation alone.

    24. Pathology
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      Pathologic evaluation of radical cystectomy specimens : A cooperative group report (pages 2470–2475)

      Harry W. Herr, James R. Faulkner, H. Barton Grossman and E. David Crawford

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20282

      The authors evaluated the pathology of radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node specimens in a cooperative group trial to determine whether current practices conform to suggested pathology practice guidelines. The overall quality of pathologic examination of radical cystectomy specimens was high. Better reporting of soft tissue margin status and pelvic lymph node counts are needed to conform to the standards published by evolving practice protocols.

    25. Psychological Oncology
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      Use of information resources by patients with cancer and their companions (pages 2476–2483)

      Ethan M. Basch, Howard T. Thaler, Weiji Shi, Sofia Yakren and Deborah Schrag

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20261

      In a survey of outpatients with cancer attending an urban academic cancer center, use of print resources was more common than the Internet for gathering health-related content. Although recent publicity and scrutiny have been applied to information available to patients via the Internet, future investigation should also focus on the sources and quality of print products used in this population.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (pages 2484–2485)

      Roberto Stasi, Luca Abriani, Patrizia Beccaglia, Edmondo Terzoli and Sergio Amadori

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20248

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      Author reply (page 2486)

      John P. Geisler and Richard E. Buller

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20249

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      Imatinib mesylate causes hypopigmentation in the skin (pages 2486–2487)

      Kin Wah Leong, Thoong Chow Lee and Ai Sim Goh

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20267

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      Author reply (pages 2487–2488)

      Anne S. Tsao and Moshe Talpaz

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20268

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      Multifocal/multicentric breast carcinoma (pages 2488–2489)

      Leslie H. Sobin and Frederick L. Greene

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20286

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      Author reply (page 2489)

      Aleodor A. Andea, David Bouwman, Tracie Wallis and Daniel W. Visscher

      Article first published online: 23 APR 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20291

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