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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 February 2004

Volume 100, Issue 4

Pages 657–880

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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      Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition as therapy for hematologic malignancies (pages 657–666)

      Amit Panwalkar, Srdan Verstovsek and Francis J. Giles

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20026

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      The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates numerous aspects of cell growth, including cytoskeletal organization, membrane traffic, protein degradation, ribosome biogenesis, and transcription. Rapamycin analogues (CCI-779, RAD001, and AP23573) currently are under investigation in patients with hematologic malignancies.

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      Intensive sequential chemotherapy with hematopoietic growth factor support for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (pages 667–676)

      Régis T. Costello, Hacène Zerazhi, Aude Charbonnier, Jean-Marc Schiano de Colella, Claude Alzieu, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Rolande Cohen, Valérie-Jeanne Bardou, Luc Xerri, Daniel Olive, Meyer Nezri, Gérard Lepeu and Jean-Albert Gastaut

      Version of Record online: 12 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20019

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      In the current study, the authors demonstrated the feasibility of high-dose chemotherapy for patients with human immunodeficiency virus–related lymphoma. In addition, they identified prognostic factors and evaluated the effects of intensive chemotherapy on immune status and viral status.

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      Children, cancer, and nutrition—A dynamic triangle in review (pages 677–687)

      Alessandra Sala, Paul Pencharz and Ronald D. Barr

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11833

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      The importance of nutritional status in children with cancer is related to its possible influence on the course of the disease and survival. In this article, the authors review methods of nutritional assessment and the pathogenesis of nutritional morbidity in children with cancer as well as correlations of nutritional status with diagnosis, treatment, and outcome.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Effect of breast-conserving therapy versus radical mastectomy on prognosis for young women with breast carcinoma (pages 688–693)

      Niels Kroman, Helle Holtveg, Jan Wohlfahrt, Maj-Britt Jensen, Henning T. Mouridsen, Mogens Blichert-Toft and Mads Melbye

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20022

      The authors retrospectively examined the use of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) versus radical mastectomy (RM) in treating premenopausal women with primary breast carcinoma who were age < 50 years at diagnosis. Despite the increased risk of local recurrence for young women, the risk of death was not elevated among women who received BCT relative to women who underwent RM, regardless of age at diagnosis.

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      Evaluation of the synergistic effect of insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factors on the risk of breast carcinoma (pages 694–700)

      Alecia Malin, Qi Dai, Herbert Yu, Xiao-Ou Shu, Fan Jin, Yu-Tang Gao and Wei Zheng

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20023

      A recent area of interest in breast carcinoma research is the interplay between insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in relation to risk of breast carcinoma. Insulin has been shown to have a mitogenic effect in some in vitro systems, inducing a dose-dependent growth response in breast carcinoma cell lines. The authors recently reported a positive relation between blood levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and C-peptide with breast carcinoma risk in a small ancillary study within the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study. In the current study, the authors reevaluated these associations using a larger sample size and explored possible interactions between C-peptide and IGF-1, IGF-2, and IGFBP-3.

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      Access to multidisciplinary cancer care : Is it linked to the use of breast-conserving surgery with radiation for early-stage breast carcinoma? (pages 701–709)

      Laura-Mae Baldwin, Stephen H. Taplin, Harvey Friedman and Roger Moe

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20030

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      In the current study, less than one-third of women with early-stage breast carcinoma consulted with a radiation oncologist preoperatively. At the same time, a preoperative visit with a radiation oncologist was associated strongly with the use of breast-conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR). More should be done to evaluate the role of multidisciplinary consultation in the decision to use BCSR.

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      Evaluation of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 mammograms and the use of stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in a nonacademic community practice (pages 710–714)

      Angela Mendez, Fernando Cabanillas, Miguel Echenique, Keyvan Malekshamran, Iris Perez and Edwin Ramos

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20017

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      The frequent use of stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (SVABB) for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) Category 3 abnormalities reflected uncertainty about diagnosis rather than the financial incentive of performing a biopsy. SVABB was unnecessary in BI-RADS 3 lesions without microcalcifications or with nonlinear microcalcifications. Lesions with linear microcalcifications should not be considered BI-RADS 3 abnormalities.

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      Breast carcinoma survival in Europe and the United States : A population-based study (pages 715–722)

      Milena Sant, Claudia Allemani, Franco Berrino, Michel P. Coleman, Tiiu Aareleid, Gilles Chaplain, Jan Willem Coebergh, Marc Colonna, Paolo Crosignani, Arlette Danzon, Massimo Federico, Lorenzo Gafà, Pascale Grosclaude, Guy Hédelin, Josette Macè-Lesech, Carmen Martinez Garcia, Henrik Møller, Eugenio Paci, Nicole Raverdy, Brigitte Tretarre, Evelyn M. I. Williams and European Concerted Action on Survival and Care of Cancer Patients (EUROCARE) Working Group

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20038

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      Breast carcinoma survival rates were higher in the U.S. than in Europe, both overall and for each stage of disease at diagnosis. The overall excess risk of death was significantly higher among European women than U.S. women (referent group). Stage, age, surgery, and the number of lymph nodes evaluated accounted for most of the excess risk. Transatlantic differences in 5-year survival rates for women diagnosed with breast carcinoma between 1990–1992 were mainly attributable to differences in stage of disease at diagnosis. Resources should be invested to achieve an earlier diagnosis of breast carcinoma in Europe, especially for elderly women.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Prognostic significance of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activity in bladder carcinoma (pages 723–731)

      Yoichi Mizutani, Hiromi Wada, Masakazu Fukushima, Osamu Yoshida, Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Yong Nan Li and Tsuneharu Miki

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11955

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      Activity levels of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT) in bladder carcinoma specimens were higher compared with OPRT activity levels in normal bladder tissues, and OPRT activity levels had a positive correlation with the stage and grade of bladder carcinoma. In addition, high OPRT activity levels in patients with superficial bladder carcinoma predicted early recurrence.

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      Fertility after testicular cancer treatments : Results of a large multicenter study (pages 732–737)

      Eric Huyghe, Tomohiro Matsuda, Myriam Daudin, Christine Chevreau, Jean-Marc Bachaud, Pierre Plante, Louis Bujan and Patrick Thonneau

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11950

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      Patients with testicular cancer have an excellent survival rate, and fertility is one of the main concerns of survivors. In this study, which included the largest series reported to date, the authors observed that fertility decreased by 30% after treatments and that radiotherapy seemed to have the most deleterious effect on fertility.

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      The natural history of incidentally detected small renal masses (pages 738–745)

      Alessandro Volpe, Tony Panzarella, Ricardo A. Rendon, Masoom A. Haider, Filippos I. Kondylis and Michael A. S. Jewett

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20025

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      Small renal masses are frequent incidental findings on imaging and are managed surgically as presumed renal cell carcinomas. Only approximately one-third of these small renal masses appear to grow significantly if managed conservatively with serial imaging. These observations raise the possibility of a period of initial observation in selected elderly or infirm patients, with treatment reserved for patients who have tumors with rapid doubling times or tumors reaching a size that has a demonstrated association with an increased risk of disease progression.

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      Multicenter Phase II study of estramustine phosphate plus weekly paclitaxel in patients with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (pages 746–750)

      David J. Vaughn, Archie W. Brown Jr., W. Graydon Harker, Sang Huh, Lance Miller, David Rinaldi and Fairooz Kabbinavar

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11956

      The current Phase II trial demonstrated that estramustine phosphate plus weekly paclitaxel is an active and well tolerated treatment regimen for patients with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma.

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      Survivin expression is associated with features of biologically aggressive prostate carcinoma (pages 751–757)

      Shahrokh F. Shariat, Yair Lotan, Hossein Saboorian, Seyed M. Khoddami, Claus G. Roehrborn, Kevin M. Slawin and Raheela Ashfaq

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20039

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      Survivin is a novel regulator of apoptosis by counteracting cell death and controlling mitotic progression. The authors found that survivin expression increased markedly from normal prostate specimens to primary carcinoma tissue, and was highest in cancerous lymph node tissue. Altered survivin expression was associated with higher Gleason sum, loss of expression of TGF-BR1 and R21 and an increased risk of experiencing biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy.

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      Quality of life and pain relief during treatment with calcitriol and docetaxel in symptomatic metastatic androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (pages 758–763)

      Tomasz M. Beer, Kristine M. Eilers, Mark Garzotto, Yi-Ching Hsieh and Motomi Mori

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20024

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      Calcitriol and docetaxel therapy was associated with significant analgesic activity in patients with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma. Treatment was also associated with worsening of several quality of life domains.

    12. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Prognostic significance and interobserver variability of histologic grading systems for endometrial carcinoma (pages 764–772)

      Astrid N. Scholten, Vincent T. H. B. M. Smit, Henk Beerman, Wim L. J. van Putten and Carien L. Creutzberg

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20040

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      A two-tiered grading system for endometrial carcinoma, dividing tumors into low grade and high grade based on the proportion of solid growth, has better reproducibility and equal prognostic power compared with the currently used three-tiered International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grading system and the recently proposed binary grading system.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Reduced folate carrier mutations are not the mechanism underlying methotrexate resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 773–782)

      Yotam Kaufman, Stavit Drori, Peter D. Cole, Barton A. Kamen, Jenny Sirota, Ilan Ifergan, Myriam Weyl Ben Arush, Ronit Elhasid, Dvora Sahar, Gert Jan L. Kaspers, Gerrit Jansen, Larry H. Matherly, Gideon Rechavi, Amos Toren and Yehuda G. Assaraf

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20018

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      The authors explored the occurrence of mutations in the methotrexate (MTX) transporter, the reduced folate carrier (RFC), in 246 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) specimens at the time of diagnosis and recurrence. The results demonstrate that RFC mutations are very rare, thereby indicating that they cannot play any significant role in intrinsic or acquired resistance to MTX in childhood leukemia. This is the first study of RFC mutations in multiple pediatric ALL specimens.

    14. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis (pages 783–793)

      Sang Soo Lee, Myung-Hwan Kim, Sung Koo Lee, Se Jin Jang, Moon-Hee Song, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Hong Ja Kim, Dong-Wan Seo, Dong Eun Song, Eunsil Yu, Seung-Gyu Lee and Young Il Min

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20031

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      Biliary papillomatosis (BP) is a rare disease that is characterized by multiple numerous papillary adenomas in the biliary tree. BP should be regarded as a premalignant disease with high malignant potential. The pathogenesis of progression from benign to malignant disease may follow the adenomacarcinoma sequence.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Clinical significance of bone marrow microinvolvement in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma : A long-term follow-up report (pages 794–800)

      Chung-Ping Hsu, Sen-Ei Shai, Jiun-Yi Hsia and Chih-Yi Chen

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20027

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      Bone marrow microinvolvement by the tumor cells was observed frequently in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. The presence of tumor cells in the bone marrow did not necessarily predict early tumor recurrence or poor prognosis, but rather was found to be an epiphenomenon of tumor progression.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Neurologic disorders in 432 consecutive patients with small cell lung carcinoma (pages 801–806)

      Tatjana Seute, Pieter Leffers, Guul P. M. ten Velde and Albert Twijnstra

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20043

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      Greater than half of the patients with small cell lung carcinoma were diagnosed with a neurologic disorder. Brain metastases were found most frequently and they contributed heavily to morbidity as well as mortality.

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      Second-line treatment with carboplatin for recurrent or progressive oligodendroglial tumors after PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy : A Phase II study (pages 807–813)

      Riccardo Soffietti, Mauro Nobile, Roberta Rudà, Marzia Borgognone, Alessandra Costanza, Elena Laguzzi and Roberto Mutani

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20042

      Carboplatin possesses some activity as a second-line chemotherapeutic agent for patients with recurrent or progressive oligodendroglial tumors who experience treatment failure after PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy; however, carboplatin also has a severe toxicity profile. Further improvement of second-line chemotherapy for recurrent and progressive oligodendroglial tumors is necessary.

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      Treatment of atypical neurocytomas (pages 814–817)

      Dirk Rades, Fabian Fehlauer and Steven E. Schild

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20032

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      Complete tumor resection is the best treatment for atypical neurocytomas. Patients benefit from postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection, but not after complete resection.

    19. Sarcoma
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      Adjuvant therapy of osteosarcoma—A Phase II trial : Southwest Oncology Group study 9139 (pages 818–825)

      Mark M. Zalupski, Cathryn Rankin, James R. Ryan, David R. Lucas, Jeffrey Muler, Keith S. Lanier, George Thomas Budd, J. Sybil Biermann, Frederick J. Meyers and Karen Antman

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20021

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      The addition of ifosfamide to the combination of doxorubicin and cisplatin did not appear toimprove outcomes in teenagers and adults with osteosarcoma, with a 5-year survival rate of 58%. New agents or approaches in the treatment of patients with osteosarcoma are needed.

    20. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Incidence and distribution of argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency in human cancers : A method for identifying cancers sensitive to arginine deprivation (pages 826–833)

      Brian J. Dillon, Victor G. Prieto, Steven A. Curley, C. Mark Ensor, Frederick W. Holtsberg, John S. Bomalaski and Mike A. Clark

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20057

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      Previous studies demonstrated that several human tumor cell lines were auxotrophic for arginine due to an inability to express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). These data indicated that histochemical detection of ASS may prove an effective means for determining ASS deficiency in human tumors and for identifying patients most likely to respond to arginine deprivation therapy.

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      Results of a prospective study for the treatment of retinoblastoma (pages 834–842)

      Guillermo Chantada, Adriana Fandiño, María T. G. Dávila, Julio Manzitti, Elsa Raslawski, Sandra Casak and Enrique Schvartzman

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11952

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      This prospective study of 169 patients with retinoblastoma showed that patients with intraocular disease and patients with isolated, postlaminar, optic nerve disease do not need adjuvant therapy. A new regimen of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for selected patients was effective for patients with regional disease, but patients with metastatic disease fared poorly.

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      Health care for childhood cancer survivors : Insights and perspectives from a Delphi panel of young adult survivors of childhood cancer (pages 843–850)

      Brad J. Zebrack, Debra A. Eshelman, Melissa M. Hudson, Ann C. Mertens, Kelly L. Cotter, Barbara M. Foster, Lauren Loftis, Margaret Sozio and Kevin C. Oeffinger

      Version of Record online: 9 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20033

      A recent report by the National Cancer Policy Board indicated that survivors of childhood cancer are in need of long-term follow-up care and monitoring for late physiologic and psychosocial effects. However, to the authors' knowledge, there is little literature published to date exploring potential barriers to long-term risk-based follow-up care for young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In the current study, the Delphi method was used to meet these goals by assembling a panel of survivors with a breadth and depth of survivorship experience on a national, state, or local level with the intent of eliciting participation from individuals who could articulate and reflect key issues and struggles in the health care of survivors.

    23. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Symptomatic hypogonadism in male survivors of cancer with chronic exposure to opioids (pages 851–858)

      Arun Rajagopal, Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin, J. Lynn Palmer, Guddi Kaur and Eduardo Bruera

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20028

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      Survivors of cancer who consumed opioids for cancer-related chronic pain developed profound central hypogonadism. Associated with this hypogonadic state were significantly higher levels of sexual dysfunction, depression, and fatigue.

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      A randomized controlled trial of darbepoetin alfa administered as a fixed or weight-based dose using a front-loading schedule in patients with anemia who have nonmyeloid malignancies (pages 859–868)

      Paul J. Hesketh, Francis Arena, Dhimant Patel, Matt Austin, Paul D'Avirro, Gregory Rossi, Alan Colowick and Lee Schwartzberg

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.11954

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      The results of the current Phase II randomized controlled trial indicate that darbepoetin alfa can be administered as a fixed or weight-based dose using a front-loading approach to effectively correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.

    25. Translational Research
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      Therapeutic efficacy of once-daily oral administration of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, bikunin, in a mouse model and in human cancer (pages 869–877)

      Hiroshi Kobayashi, Tatsuo Yagyu, Kiyokazu Inagaki, Toshiharu Kondo, Mika Suzuki, Naohiro Kanayama and Toshihiko Terao

      Version of Record online: 15 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20034

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      Once-daily oral administration of bikunin was found to be safe in mice and humans and exhibited signs of biologic activity. The preliminary data also revealed that oral administration of bikunin significantly reduced urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in malignant tissue specimens.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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      Favorable cardiac risk among elderly breast carcinoma survivors (pages 878–879)

      Elena Conti, Nicola Marchese and Felicita Andreotti

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20041

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      Author reply (page 879)

      Elizabeth B. Lamont

      Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20044

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      Tumor smell reduction with antibacterial essential oils (pages 879–880)

      Patrick H. Warnke, Hendrik Terheyden, Yahya Açil, Ingo N. Springer, Eugene Sherry, Max Reynolds, Paul A. J. Russo, Joachim P. Bredee and Rainer Podschun

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2003 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20020

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