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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 December 2004

Volume 101, Issue 11

Pages 2491–2712

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
      Therapeutic potential of antisense Bcl-2 as a chemosensitizer for cancer therapy (pages 2491–2502)

      Ryungsa Kim, Manabu Emi, Kazuaki Tanabe and Tetsuya Toge

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20696

      The authors reviewed the current clinical and preclinical evaluations of antisense Bcl-2. In this report, they discuss the potential of antisense Bcl-2 to act as a chemosensitizer and enhance the therapeutic effect of cancer chemotherapy.

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      Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (pages 2503–2508)

      William M. Mendenhall, Robert A. Zlotecki and Mark T. Scarborough

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20678

      In the current review, the authors set out to discuss the natural history and treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), a rare indolent cutaneous tumor. The optimal treatment for DFSP is wide excision, which is associated with cure rates of ≥ 90%. Adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated for patients who have close or positive surgical margins, with this intervention improving cure rates to 85–90% for such patients.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      A tool for predicting breast carcinoma mortality in women who do not receive adjuvant therapy (pages 2509–2515)

      Michael W. Kattan, Dilip Giri, Katherine S. Panageas, Amanda Hummer, Milicent Cranor, Kimberly J. Van Zee, Clifford A. Hudis, Larry Norton, Patrick I. Borgen and Lee K. Tan

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20635

      The authors used the competing-risk method to predict disease-specific mortality in 348 women with breast carcinoma who had been treated with mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection between 1976 and 1979. The novel prognostic model that emerged from this process was found to be more accurate than the Nottingham Prognostic Index in terms of concordance index. Although external validation is necessary, the authors believe that their model will be useful in the counseling of patients with breast carcinoma, particularly in regard to whether adjuvant therapy is warranted.

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      A combination of HER-2 status and the St. Gallen classification provides useful information on prognosis in lymph node-negative breast carcinoma (pages 2516–2522)

      Jong-Mu Sun, Wonshik Han, Seock-Ah Im, Tae-You Kim, In Ae Park, Dong-Young Noh, Dae Seog Heo, Yung-Jue Bang, Kuk Jin Choe and Noe Kyeong Kim

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20665

      In the current study, HER-2 status and the St. Gallen classification provided independent and complementary prognostic information for patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma. The combination of HER-2 overexpression and the St. Gallen classification predicted the risk of disease recurrence in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      A population-based study of colorectal cancer test use : Results from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey (pages 2523–2532)

      David A. Etzioni, Ninez A. Ponce, Susan H. Babey, Benjamin A. Spencer, E. Richard Brown, Clifford Y. Ko, Neetu Chawla, Nancy Breen and Carrie N. Klabunde

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20692

      The authors used the 2001 California Health Interview Survey to evaluate 1) the rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) test use, 2) predictors of receipt of tests, and 3) reasons for nonuse of CRC tests. Latinos and women were less likely to receive CRC testing, and the findings suggested a need for physicians to recommend CRC testing to patients.

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      Two schedules of second-line irinotecan for metastatic colon carcinoma : Economic evaluation of a randomized trial (pages 2533–2539)

      Craig C. Earle, Ambrose Kwok, G. Scott Gazelle and Charles S. Fuchs

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20691

      A schedule of irinotecan once every 3 weeks for patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma was more costly compared with weekly treatment but achieved lower toxicity with an acceptable cost.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Conservative treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma by transurethral resection, protracted intravenous infusion chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy : Long-term results (pages 2540–2548)

      Donatella Tirindelli Danesi, Giorgio Arcangeli, Enrico Cruciani, Pierluigi Altavista, Antonella Mecozzi, Bianca Saracino and Filina Orefici

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20654

      The current study evaluated the long-term results of a schedule of concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil administered as protracted intravenous infusions during hyperfractionated radiotherapy with organ-sparing intent in patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The authors showed that this combined treatment provided high local response (90.3%) and 5-year cystectomy-free survival (76.1%) rates, without deferring overall survival, and can be offered as an alternative to radical cystectomy in selected patients who refuse or are unsuitable for surgery.

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      Natural history of disease progression in patients who fail to achieve an undetectable prostate-specific antigen level after undergoing radical prostatectomy (pages 2549–2556)

      Craig G. Rogers, Masood A. Khan, M. Craig Miller, Robert W. Veltri and Alan W. Partin

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20637

      The authors performed an analysis of pretreatment and posttreatment clinical and pathologic variables that predicted the natural history of disease progression to distant metastasis in 160 men whot underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and never achieved an undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. The combination of RRP Gleason score, seminal vesicle status, and lymph node status resulted in 3 risk groups for the prediction of distant metastasis-free survival. In a subset of patients, a PSA slope (between 3–12 months after RRP) of ≥ 0.05 was found to be even more predictive of distant metastasis-free survival.

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      Intratumoral administration of a 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3- dimethylhydroxyethyl ammonium bromide/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine formulation of the human interleukin-2 gene in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 2557–2566)

      Evanthia Galanis, Patrick A. Burch, Ronald L. Richardson, Bradley Lewis, Henry C. Pitot, Stephen Frytak, Catherine Spier, Emmanuel T. Akporiaye, Prema P. Peethambaram, Judith S. Kaur, Scott H. Okuno, Krishnan K. Unni and Joseph Rubin

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20653

      The authors investigated the safety and efficacy of in situ vaccination with a cationic lipid formulation of the human interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene in 31 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Treatment was well tolerated and resulted in three objective responses (two partial and one complete), lasting from 32 months to 6 years, and seven cases of disease stabilization. Laboratory analysis of tumor samples revealed that posttreatment, IL-2 plasmid DNA was present in six of eight patients, IL-2 expression in tumor cells was increased in four of eight patients, and tumor infiltration by CD8-positive lymphocytes was increased in five of eight patients.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation : Patterns of failure according to histologic phenotype (pages 2567–2573)

      David I. Rosenthal, Jerry L. Barker Jr., Adel K. El-Naggar, Bonnie S. Glisson, Merrill S. Kies, Eduardo M. Diaz Jr., Gary L. Clayman, Franco DeMonte, Ugur Selek, William H. Morrison, K. Kian Ang, K. S. Clifford Chao and Adam S. Garden

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20693

      The authors studied the natural history of various sinonasal neuroendocrine malignancies and present their findings along with treatment recommendations for each histologic type.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Cost-effectiveness of imatinib versus interferon-α plus low-dose cytarabine for patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (pages 2574–2583)

      Shelby D. Reed, Kevin J. Anstrom, Jennifer A. Ludmer, G. Alastair Glendenning and Kevin A. Schulman

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20694

      Compared with interferon-α plus low-dose cytarabine, imatinib is a cost-effective first-line therapy for patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. In the current study, the authors estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of imatinib versus interferon-α plus low-dose cytarabine as first-line therapy for these patients.

      See accompanying article on pages 2584–92.

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      Long-term survival estimates for imatinib versus interferon-α plus low-dose cytarabine for patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (pages 2584–2592)

      Kevin J. Anstrom, Shelby D. Reed, Andrew S. Allen, G. Alastair Glendenning and Kevin A. Schulman

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20674

      If the relation between cytogenetic response and survival holds for patients treated with imatinib, the higher rate of complete cytogenetic response observed among patients treated with imatinib will result in 6.23 life-years gained compared with treatment with interferon-α plus low-dose cytarabine.

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      Initial immunoglobulin M ‘flare’ after rituximab therapy in patients diagnosed with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia : An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (pages 2593–2598)

      Irene M. Ghobrial, Rafael Fonseca, Philip R. Greipp, Emily Blood, Montserrat Rue, David H. Vesole and Morie A. Gertz

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20658

      The authors set out to characterize the initial upsurge in immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels after treatment with rituximab in patients with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Twenty-nine of the 54 patients in the current study (54%) experienced this IgM ‘flare’ after treatment with rituximab; however, most saw their IgM levels decrease to normal levels within 4 months after the initiation of therapy. Therefore, patients should not be discouraged, as responses to rituximab may develop slowly. Longer follow-up will reveal whether overall and progression-free survival are poorer for patients who experience an IgM flare compared with those who do not.

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      Neovascularization of bone marrow in patients with diffuse multiple myeloma : A correlative study of magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic findings (pages 2599–2604)

      Andrea Baur, Reiner Bartl, Christoph Pellengahr, Vivian Baltin and Maximilian Reiser

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20697

      In the current study, the authors set out to assess the correlation between bone marrow histology and contrast enhancement in infiltrative diffuse myeloma. It was found that as a consequence of increased microvessel density, decreased fat cell content, and increased cellularity, the presence of diffuse bone marrow infiltration in patients with multiple myeloma could be verified using gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    13. Neuro-Oncology
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      Carcinoid metastasis to the brain (pages 2605–2613)

      Roman Hlatky, Dima Suki and Raymond Sawaya

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20659

      Approximately 1.5% of patients with carcinoid tumors had a diagnosis of brain metastasis. Prolonged survival was observed in patients < 65 years old as well as in those who underwent surgery and received whole-brain radiotherapy in comparison with other treatments.

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      Expression of the pro-apoptotic protein ARTS in astrocytic tumors : Correlation with malignancy grade and survival rate (pages 2614–2621)

      Yossi Gottfried, Eugene Voldavsky, Lena Yodko, Edmond Sabo, Ofer Ben-Itzhak and Sarit Larisch

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20675

      ARTS, a proapoptotic mitochondrial protein that is not expressed in normal astrocytes, appears to be expressed in astrocytic tumors. ARTS expression increases with increasing astrocytoma grade and is significantly correlated with apoptotic index and patient survival. Thus, ARTS could serve as a prognostic marker, as well as a therapeutic tool, for patients with astrocytoma.

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      Parathyroid hormone–related protein expression is correlated with clinical course in patients with glial tumors (pages 2622–2628)

      Francisco S. Pardo, Winston W. Lien, Howard S. Fox, Jimmy T. Efird, Joseph A. Aguilera, Douglas W. Burton and Leonard J. Deftos

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20689

      Parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) expression modulates cell survival in a number of human solid tumors. Although PTHrP is expressed in normal developing and neoplastic central nervous system tissue, clinical data indicating the importance of this protein with respect to local control and/or survival in patients with glial tumors are scarce. The authors demonstrated that PTHrP may be an important adjunct to standard immunopathologic criteria in the determination of glial tumor responses. A number of mechanisms were explored to derive a more mechanistic understanding of these translational results.

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      Defining the best available treatment for neurocytomas in children (pages 2629–2632)

      Dirk Rades, Steven E. Schild and Fabian Fehlauer

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20695

      In children, complete resection is superior to incomplete resection for the treatment of neurocytomas. After incomplete resection, radiotherapy improved local control, but not survival. Doses of 50 gray (Gy) were appropriate for long-term freedom from disease recurrence.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Multiple primary soft tissue sarcomas (pages 2633–2635)

      Stephen R. Grobmyer, Neal Luther, Cristina R. Antonescu, Samuel Singer and Murray F. Brennan

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20679

      A single-institution data base of 5505 patients who were treated for soft tissue sarcoma was analyzed with the objective of characterizing the incidence of multiple primary soft tissue sarcomas. Patients with a history of soft tissue sarcoma are at significantly increased risk for the development of second primary soft tissue sarcomas.

    18. Skin
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      Genetic similarities between Spitz nevus and Spitzoid melanoma in children (pages 2636–2640)

      Melissa Gill, Jason Cohen, Neil Renwick, Joan M. Mones, David N. Silvers and Jülide Tok Çelebi

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20680

      Although conventional melanomas harbor a high frequency of mutations in the B-RAF and RAS genes, the current study showed that Spitzoid melanomas in children are not associated with alterations in these genes, further differentiating these tumors from other melanoma subtypes.

    19. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      The role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary tumor (pages 2641–2649)

      Kyle E. Rusthoven, Mary Koshy and Arnold C. Paulino

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20687

      The authors performed a comprehensive review of the efficacy of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the detection of primary tumors in patients with cervical metastases from an unknown primary tumor. FDG-PET detected primary tumors that went undetected by other modalities in approximately 25% of all cases and was sensitive in the detection of previously unknown regional or distant metastases in 27% of all cases. FDG-PET had low specificity for tonsillar tumors and low sensitivity for base-of-tongue malignancies.

    20. Epidemiology
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      Racial differences in knowledge, attitudes, and cancer screening practices among a triracial rural population (pages 2650–2659)

      Electra D. Paskett, Cathy Tatum, Julia Rushing, Robert Michielutte, Ronny Bell, Kristie Long Foley, Marisa Bittoni and Stephanie Dickinson

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20671

      Low-income, minority, and rural women face a greater burden with regard to cancer-related morbidity and mortality and are usually underrepresented in cancer control research. The Robeson County Outreach, Screening and Education Project sought to increase mammography use among low-income, minority, and rural women age > 40 years. The current article reports on racial disparities and barriers to screening, especially those related to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.

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      Trends in the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome–related malignancies in Thailand (pages 2660–2666)

      Hutcha Sriplung and D. Maxwell Parkin

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20622

      Comparisons of time trends using routinely collected data from five population-based cancer registries in Thailand during the period 1989–2001 revealed a small increase in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) (although KS remains very rare in Thailand compared with other countries) and a more marked increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), albeit primarily among older individuals and in regions with a lower prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The rarity of KS, despite the moderately high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and the observation of increases in NHL incidence in many countries worldwide suggest the absence of a link between time trends in AIDS-related cancer incidence and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Thailand.

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      Incidence of multiple myeloma in Olmsted County, Minnesota : Trend over 6 decades (pages 2667–2674)

      Robert A. Kyle, Terry M. Therneau, S. Vincent Rajkumar, Dirk R. Larson, Matthew F. Plevak and L. Joseph Melton III

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20652

      Published studies have suggested that the incidence of multiple myeloma is increasing in the United States. In contrast, the authors reported that the incidence of multiple myeloma has not changed during the last 56 years in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

    23. Medical Oncology
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      CD4 lymphopenia as a risk factor for febrile neutropenia and early death after cytotoxic chemotherapy in adult patients with cancer (pages 2675–2680)

      Christophe Borg, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Irene Philip, Gilles Clapisson, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare, Christine Menetrier-Caux, Catherine Sebban, Pierre Biron and Jean-Yves Blay

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20688

      Lymphopenia is observed frequently in patients with cancer and correlates with the risk of febrile neutropenia and early death after chemotherapy. The phenotype of the depleted lymphocyte populations was investigated in the current study. Low CD4 count was an independent risk factor for febrile neutropenia and early death in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      Utility of automated counting to determine absolute neutrophil counts and absolute phagocyte counts for pediatric cancer treatment protocols (pages 2681–2686)

      Nobuko Hijiya, Mihaela Onciu, Scott C. Howard, Zhe Zhang, Cheng Cheng, John T. Sandlund, Emily P. Kyzer, Fred G. Behm and Ching-Hon Pui

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20677

      Automated methods of determining absolute neurophil counts (ANCs) and absolute phagocyte counts (APCs) for children undergoing cancer treatment were found to be reliable and can replace manual counting. Blood smear examination to validate ANCs and APCs determined by automated methods was needed only in selected cases.

    25. Radiation Oncology
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      A prospective evaluation of two radiotherapy schedules with 10 versus 20 fractions for the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression : Final results of a multicenter study (pages 2687–2692)

      Dirk Rades, Fabian Fehlauer, Lukas J. A. Stalpers, Ingeborg Wildfang, Oliver Zschenker, Steven E. Schild, Hans J. Schmoll, Johann H. Karstens and Winfried Alberti

      Article first published online: 18 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20633

      Radiotherapy (RT) schedules of 30 gray (Gy) per 10 fractions per 2 weeks and 40 Gy per 20 fractions per 4 weeks provided similar functional outcome in the treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression. Thirty Gy per 10 fractions was preferable, as it required less treatment time and lower costs. Functional outcome was significantly influenced by the type of primary tumor, pretreatment ambulatory status, and time of developing motor deficits before RT.

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      Treatment outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma : A large community-based experience (pages 2693–2700)

      Susan A. McCloskey, Nancy A. Ellerbroek, Lauren McCarthy, Arnold W. Malcolm, May Lin Tao, Robert C. Wollman and Christopher M. Rose

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20690

      Dose escalation to 75.6 gray using a 6-field conformal technique for localized prostate carcinoma was feasible in a community practice setting and resulted in acceptable toxicity and early biochemical outcomes.

    27. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Patient expectation is a strong predictor of severe nausea after chemotherapy : A University of Rochester Community Clinical Oncology Program study of patients with breast carcinoma (pages 2701–2708)

      Joseph A. Roscoe, Peter Bushunow, Gary R. Morrow, Jane T. Hickok, Philip J. Kuebler, Andrew Jacobs and Tarit K. Banerjee

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20718

      Nausea expectancies were assessed in 194 women about to begin chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Patients who believed it was “very likely” that they would have severe nausea from chemotherapy were five times more likely to experience severe nausea than fellow patients who believed its occurrence would be “very unlikely.”

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 2710)

      Andrew M. Kelahan

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20632

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      Recall and detection rates in screening mammography (pages 2710–2711)

      Bonnie C. Yankaskas, Michael J. Schell and Diana L Miglioretti

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20683

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      Author reply (pages 2711–2712)

      David Gur, Jules H. Sumkin and Lara A. Hardesty

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20685

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