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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 August 2004

Volume 101, Issue 4

Pages 657–877

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
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      Estimation of an optimal radiotherapy utilization rate for gastrointestinal carcinoma : A review of the evidence (pages 657–670)

      Geoff Delaney, Michael Barton and Susannah Jacob

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20443

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      The authors developed an evidence-based benchmark for the proportions of patients with esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, colon, and rectal malignancies who should receive radiotherapy at least once by reviewing treatment guidelines and merging the indications for radiotherapy with epidemiologic data. The resulting optimal radiotherapy utilization rates were then compared with actual radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in clinical practice.

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      Estimation of an optimal radiotherapy utilization rate for gynecologic carcinoma : Part I–Malignancies of the cervix, ovary, vagina, and vulva (pages 671–681)

      Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob and Michael Barton

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20444

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      With the goal of developing an evidence-based benchmark for radiotherapy use in patients with malignancies of the cervix, ovary, vagina, and vulva, the authors reviewed existing guidelines regarding the use of radiotherapy to treat such malignancies. Optimal radiotherapy usage rates were calculated and compared with rates recorded in actual practice.

      See also pages 682–92.

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      Estimation of an optimal radiotherapy utilization rate for gynecologic carcinoma : Part II–Carcinoma of the endometrium (pages 682–692)

      Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob and Michael Barton

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20445

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      To develop an evidence-based benchmark of radiotherapy utilization in patients with endometrial carcinoma, the authors undertook a review of treatment guidelines concerning the use of radiotherapy in patients with endometrial carcinoma. The optimal radiotherapy utilization rate was calculated and compared with radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in actual practice.

      See also pages 671–81.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      A relevant immunomagnetic assay to detect and characterize epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells in bone marrow from patients with breast carcinoma : Immunomagnetic purification of micrometastases (pages 693–703)

      Valérie Choesmel, Philippe Anract, Hanne Høifødt, Jean-Paul Thiery and Nathalie Blin

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20391

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      The authors developed a highly efficient and reproducible, single-step immunomagnetic assay that can be performed directly on crude human bone marrow aspirates, and can detect as few as 10 carcinoma cells among 50 million hematopoietic cells. The results also demonstrated that some rare bone marrow cells (CD45-positive or CD34-positive) may express the epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and may therefore contaminate the purified micrometastatic cell fraction.

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      Concomitant versus sequential administration of epirubicin and paclitaxel as first-line therapy in metastatic breast carcinoma : Results from the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest Randomized Trial (pages 704–712)

      Pier Franco Conte, Valentina Guarneri, Paolo Bruzzi, Tiziana Prochilo, Barbara Salvadori, Angelo Bolognesi, Daniela Aldrighetti, Marco Venturini, Riccardo Rosso, Serafina Mammoliti, Flavio Carnino, Piergiorgio Giannessi, Massimo Costantini, Alfredo Moyano, Editta Baldini and on behalf of the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20400

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      The authors conducted a Phase III randomized trial of concomitant versus sequential epirubicin plus paclitaxel as first-line treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma. The sequential administration of epirubicin and paclitaxel at full doses was as active as their association. Therefore, both the sequential and the combined administration appear to be acceptable options.

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      Changes in management techniques and patterns of disease recurrence over time in patients with breast carcinoma treated with breast-conserving therapy at a single institution (pages 713–720)

      Helen Pass, Frank A. Vicini, Larry L. Kestin, Neal S. Goldstein, David Decker, Jane Pettinga, John Ingold, Pamela Benitez, Kurt Neumann, Murray Rebner, Nayana Dekhne and Alvaro Martinez

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20410

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      The impact of screening mammography and substantial changes in surgical, pathologic, radiotherapeutic, and systemic therapy recommendations were observed over time in the study population. These changes were associated with improvements in 5-year and 12-year local and distant control rates and suggested that improvements in outcome can be realized through adherence to best practice guidelines and continuous monitoring of treatment outcome data.

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      Increasing evidence for a human breast carcinoma virus with geographic differences (pages 721–726)

      Paul H. Levine, Beatriz G.-T. Pogo, Afifa Klouj, Stephanie Coronel, Karen Woodson, Stella M. Melana, Nejib Mourali and James F. Holland

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20436

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      There is increasing evidence from multiple laboratories that there is a breast carcinoma virus in humans that resembles the mouse mammary tumor virus. The results of this study indicated that this putative virus has a geographic pattern resembling oncogenic viruses that are not easily transmissible, such as human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and human herpesvirus type 8.

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      MammoSite and interstitial brachytherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation : Factors that affect toxicity and cosmesis (pages 727–734)

      Neenad M. Shah, Todd Tenenholz, Douglas Arthur, Thomas DiPetrillo, Bruce Bornstein, Gene Cardarelli, Zhen Zheng, Mark J. Rivard, Seth Kaufman and David E. Wazer

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20424

      When only chemotherapy-naïve patients were compared, toxicity and cosmesis were found to be similar between patients who received interstitial brachytherapy and patients who received MammoSite brachytherapy, suggesting a complex interplay between the effects of irradiated volumes, dose homogeneity, and chemotherapy. The relation of doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide chemotherapy to toxicity in this scenario is intriguing and warrants further investigation.

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      Breast surgery in the ‘Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination’ (ATAC) trial : American women are more likely than women from the United Kingdom to undergo mastectomy (pages 735–740)

      Gershon Y. Locker, J. Richard Sainsbury and Jack Cuzick

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20435

      Various factors affect patients' decisions regarding whether to undergo surgery for the treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma. In the current study, the authors found that American women enrolled in the ‘Arimidex, Tamoxifen Alone or in Combination’ (ATAC) trial were more likely to undergo aggressive surgery compared with their counterparts from the United Kingdom.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Synchronous bilateral ureteral and renal pelvic carcinomas : Incidence, etiology, treatment, and outcome (pages 741–747)

      Sten Holmäng and Sonny L. Johansson

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20395

      The long-term outcome among patients with synchronous bilateral urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract is largely unknown. The authors reported outcomes for 15 patients diagnosed in a large region during a 28-year period.

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      Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy among men with normal preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen levels (pages 748–753)

      Stephen J. Freedland, William J. Aronson, Christopher J. Kane, Martha K. Terris, Joseph C. Presti Jr., Bruce Trock and Christopher L. Amling

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20390

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      Many men with normal prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have prostate carcinoma, although it remains unclear whether malignancies in such men are associated with better outcomes. Using a large multicenter database, the authors observed that men who had normal PSA levels had significantly fewer high-grade tumors and significantly better biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy. On the whole, men with normal PSA levels who undergo radical prostatectomy represent a favorable risk group.

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      Urinary and rectal complications of contemporary permanent transperineal brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma with or without external beam radiation therapy (pages 754–760)

      Michael F. Sarosdy

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20446

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      Contemporary prostate brachytherapy may be associated with more urinary and rectal complications than previously reported. Such complications may increase significantly in frequency, nature, and severity when brachytherapy is used in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Quality assurance and technique are important, but do not completely prevent complications, especially when EBRT is added to brachytherapy.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Validation of the composite laryngeal recurrence staging system (pages 761–767)

      Peter D. Lacy, John T. Kennedy and Jay F. Piccirillo

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20438

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      In this study, the authors tested the external validity of the Composite Laryngeal Recurrence Staging System and showed that it outperformed the revised TNM classification system in its ability to stage more patients and to predict survival in patients with recurrent laryngeal carcinoma.

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      Phase II trial of dose-dense paclitaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin with filgrastim support in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 768–775)

      Ricardo Hitt, Antonio Jimeno, Jose María Millán, Daniel Castellano and Hernán Cortés-Funes

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20439

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      The current study evaluated the combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin administered on a biweekly schedule to patients with recurrent or unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The feasibility, favorable toxicity profile, and efficacy associated with this combination were documented.

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      Prospective validation of serum CYFRA 21-1, β-2-microglobulin, and ferritin levels as prognostic markers in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing radiotherapy (pages 776–781)

      Brigette B. Y. Ma, Sing F. Leungm, Edwin P. Hui, Frankie Mo, Wing H. Kwan, Benny Zee, Joyce Yuen and Anthony T. C. Chan

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20430

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      The pretreatment serum CYFRA 21-2 level was an independent predictor of poor survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent radical radiotherapy.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Depression, cigarette smoking, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome (pages 782–789)

      Grace Chang, E. John Orav, Tay McNamara, Mei-Yee Tong and Joseph H. Antin

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20431

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      In this prospective cohort study of 114 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the results demonstrated that depressive symptoms posttransplantation and cigarette smoking prior to transplantation had an adverse affect on long-term survival and disease recurrence.

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      Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias : A retrospective review (pages 790–795)

      Rachid Baz, Carlos Alemany, Ralph Green and Mohamad A. Hussein

      Version of Record online: 7 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20441

      In the current study, vitamin B12 deficiency was prevalent in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD), especially in patients with the immunoglobulin A subtype. Serum vitamin B12 measurements should be part of the initial evaluation and subsequent workups for anemia in patients with PCD.

    15. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Reevaluation of prognostic factors for survival after liver resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese nationwide survey (pages 796–802)

      Iwao Ikai, Shigeki Arii, Masamichi Kojiro, Takafumi Ichida, Masatoshi Makuuchi, Yutaka Matsuyama, Yasuni Nakanuma, Kiwamu Okita, Masao Omata, Kenichi Takayasu, Yoshio Yamaoka and The Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20426

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      In this study, the authors evaluated prognostic factors for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese nationwide data base who underwent liver resection between 1990 and 1999. The 5-year survival rate for resected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was 50.5%.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients with pathologic stage IA nonsmall cell lung carcinoma : Subnormal levels as an indicator of favorable prognosis (pages 803–809)

      Noriyoshi Sawabata, Hajime Maeda, Soichiro Yokota, Shin-ichi Takeda, Masaru Koma, Toshiteru Tokunaga and Masami Ito

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20421

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      Among patients with pathologic Stage IA nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, those who had an extremely favorable prognosis were distinguished by their subnormal postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. The 5-year survival rate was 87% for patients with subnormal CEA levels (n = 146), 75% for patients with normal CEA levels (n = 80), and 53% for patients with high CEA levels (n = 16) (P < 0.0001).

    17. Neuro-Oncology
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      The risk of central nervous system metastases after trastuzumab therapy in patients with breast carcinoma (pages 810–816)

      Rose Lai, Chau T. Dang, Mark G. Malkin and Lauren E. Abrey

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20418

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      Patients with breast carcinoma who were treated with trastuzumab-based therapy were not at increased risk of developing central nervous system (CNS) metastases compared with patients who were not treated with trastuzumab, arguing against a sanctuary phenomenon as the explanation for CNS metastases.

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      Near complete surgical resection predicts a favorable outcome in pediatric patients with nonbrainstem, malignant gliomas : Results from a single center in the magnetic resonance imaging era (pages 817–824)

      Mary Kara Bucci, Amit Maity, Anna J. Janss, Jean B. Belasco, Michael J. Fisher, Zelig A. Tochner, Lucy Rorke, Leslie N. Sutton, Peter C. Phillips and Hui-Kuo G. Shu

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20422

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      The authors report the outcomes of children with nonbrainstem, malignant glioma at their institution. The study was undertaken because few reports were available on the outcomes of patients with these malignancies during the magnetic resonance imaging era. Based on a retrospective review, it was found that macroscopic total resection of tumor was one of the strongest predictors of favorable outcome in patients with malignant gliomas. Thus, the maximal possible resection is recommended for these patients prior to radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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      Initial treatment of melanoma brain metastases using gamma knife radiosurgery : An evaluation of efficacy and toxicity (pages 825–833)

      Andrew E. Radbill, John F. Fiveash, Elizabeth T. Falkenberg, Barton L. Guthrie, Paul E. Young, Sreelatha Meleth and James M. Markert

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20447

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      The current study reviewed 51 patients with melanoma brain metastases who received gamma knife radiosurgery. Patient outcomes were described, and prognostic indicators were identified.

    20. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Mutational spectra of p53 in geographically localized esophageal squamous cell carcinoma groups in China (pages 834–844)

      Wei Cao, Xufeng Chen, Huifang Dai, Huizhen Wang, Binghui Shen, David Chu, Taylor McAfee and Zuo-Feng Zhang

      Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20437

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      Mutation and overexpression of the p53 gene may play important roles in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Changes in p53 may reflect environmental exposure to different combinations of mutagenic factors and genetic instability, as demonstrated by two different Chinese populations in Linxian and Zhejiang.

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      The incidence of testicular recurrence in boys with acute leukemia treated with total body and testicular irradiation and stem cell transplantation (pages 845–850)

      Brian P. Quaranta, Edward C. Halperin, Joanne Kurtzberg, Robert Clough and Paul L. Martin

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20413

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      The rate of failure in the testicles has been reported to be high after total body irradiation (TBI) for childhood leukemia. In the current study in a large series of patients who were treated with TBI and an additional irradiation boost to the testicles, the rate of failure in the testicles was found to be low.

    22. Sympton Control and Palliative Care
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      Cancer patients' expectations of experiencing treatment-related side effects : A University of Rochester Cancer Center-Community Clinical Oncology Program study of 938 patients from community practices (pages 851–857)

      Maarten Hofman, Gary R. Morrow, Joseph A. Roscoe, Jane T. Hickok, Karen M. Mustian, Dennis F. Moore, James L. Wade and Tom R. Fitch

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20423

      The authors investigated the side effects expected by cancer patients undergoing radiation and/or chemotherapy and compared these expectations with demographic data. The results from this multisite Community Clinical Oncology Program survey showed that patients expect a large number of side effects.

    23. Translational Research
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      Intestinal tumor and agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) : Low content in colon carcinoma tissue specimens and inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation in vitro (pages 858–868)

      Gerhard J. Molderings, Bettina Kribben, Anja Heinen, Detlev Schröder, Michael Brüss and Manfred Göthert

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20407

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      In the current study, agmatine substantially inhibited cell growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Accumulations of orally administered agmatine were observed in intestinal tissue and liver specimens. Therefore, it may be possible to treat intestinal and liver carcinoma with orally administered agmatine.

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      Oncolysis by viral replication and inhibition of angiogenesis by a replication-conditional herpes simplex virus that expresses mouse endostatin (pages 869–877)

      John T. Mullen, James M. Donahue, Soundararajalu Chandrasekhar, Sam S. Yoon, Wenbiao Liu, Lee M. Ellis, Hideo Nakamura, Hideki Kasuya, Timothy M. Pawlik and Kenneth K. Tanabe

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20434

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      In preclinical models, infection of tumors by oncolytic strains of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) resulted in the destruction of tumor cells by viral replication and the release of progeny virion that infected and destroyed adjacent tumor cells. The oncolytic HSV-1 mutant, HSV-Endo, provided a two-pronged therapy, namely, inhibition of angiogenesis and direct tumor cell destruction by viral replication.

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