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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 October 2004

Volume 101, Issue 7

Pages 1479–1702

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Leukemogenic effect of chemotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma : Is it a real concern? (pages 1479–1481)

      Nuhad K. Ibrahim

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20525

      The data presented by Kaplan and colleagues in the current issue of Cancer do not appear to be sufficiently mature to suggest the absence of an association between agents used in the treatment of breast carcinoma and the development of secondary leukemia. The updating of these data over an adequate follow-up period may prove critical to the conclusions that are drawn. In addition, stratification of data according to accepted risk factors for secondary leukemia is warranted.

      See pages 1529–36.

  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      The role of aromatase inhibitors in the adjuvant treatment of breast carcinoma : The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center evidence-based approach (pages 1482–1489)

      Paolo Morandi, Roman Rouzier, Kadri Altundag, Aman U. Buzdar, Richard L. Theriault and Gabriel Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20522

      Current data support anastrozole as first-line adjuvant hormone therapy, or a change to aromatase inhibitors after 2–3 years of tamoxifen, or the use of letrozole at the end of a 5-year course of tamoxifen as first-choice treatment options for the management of hormone receptor–positive breast carcinoma in postmenopausal women.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Association of hormone replacement therapy to estrogen and progesterone receptor status in invasive breast carcinoma (pages 1490–1500)

      Wendy Y. Chen, Susan E. Hankinson, Stuart J. Schnitt, Bernard A. Rosner, Michelle D. Holmes and Graham A. Colditz

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20499

      Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was found to be associated with the development of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive breast carcinoma, but not with the development of ER-negative/PR-negative breast carcinoma. This association was evident among patients receiving estrogen replacement therapy as well as patients receiving combination HRT (estrogen plus progesterone), although it was stronger among patients receiving the latter type of therapy.

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      The cumulative risk of a false-positive recall in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (pages 1501–1507)

      Solveig Hofvind, Steinar Thoresen and Steinar Tretli

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20528

      It was calculated that women ages 50–51 who participate in biennial breast cancer screening run a cumulative risk of 20.8% for a false-positive recall and a risk of 3.9% for undergoing benign fine-needle aspiration cytology during a screening period of 2 decades. The risk of undergoing an open biopsy with benign morphology was estimated at 0.9%.

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      Colitis in patients with breast carcinoma treated with taxane-based chemotherapy (pages 1508–1513)

      Zhiyong Li, Nuhad K. Ibrahim, Jay K. Wathen, Michael Wang, Rosario P. Mante Menchu, Vicente Valero, Richard Theriault, Aman U. Buzdar and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20546

      The authors identified patients with breast carcinoma who were treated with taxane-based chemotherapy between January 1997 and December 1999. Patients diagnosed with colitis were identified and their presentation and clinical outcomes were analyzed.

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      The effect of ethnicity on immediate reconstruction rates after mastectomy for breast cancer (pages 1514–1523)

      Jennifer F. Tseng, Steven J. Kronowitz, Charlotte C. Sun, Allison C. Perry, Kelly K. Hunt, Gildy V. Babiera, Lisa A. Newman, S. Eva Singletary, Nadeem Q. Mirza, Frederick C. Ames, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Merrick I. Ross, Barry W. Feig, Geoffrey L. Robb and Henry M. Kuerer

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20529

      African-American women underwent immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy at significantly lower rates than white, Hispanic, and Asian women. After adjusting for covariates such as age and disease stage, African-American and Asian women had lower rates of reconstruction compared with white women. The factors that contribute to these differences appear multifactorial and warrant further study.

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      Metastatic breast carcinoma confined to bone : Portrait of a clinical entity (pages 1524–1528)

      Evangelos Briasoulis, Vasilis Karavasilis, Lida Kostadima, Michael Ignatiadis, George Fountzilas and Nicholas Pavlidis

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20545

      Bone-confined metastatic breast carcinoma has an indolent clinical course that alleviates the need for vigorous follow-up and calls into question aggressive therapeutic approaches in these patients. The current study was performed to study metastatic breast carcinoma that remains confined to bone.

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      Leukemia incidence following primary breast carcinoma treatment (pages 1529–1536)

      Henry G. Kaplan, Judith A. Malmgren and Mary Atwood

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20475

      The authors did not find an increased risk of leukemia among patients who received adjuvant treatment for breast carcinoma, regardless of whether that treatment involved radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In particular, no significant association was found between leukemia risk and the receipt of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy together with standard-dose cyclophosphamide.

    7. Endocrine Disease
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      Cystic adrenal neoplasms (pages 1537–1544)

      Lori A. Erickson, Ricardo V. Lloyd, Robert Hartman and Geoffrey Thompson

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20555

      Adrenal neoplasms, including adrenal cortical carcinomas, may be associated with benign-appearing cysts. Extensive pathologic sampling of resected tissues is important to rule out malignancy in patients with cystic adrenal lesions.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      Active chemotherapy for sarcomatoid and rapidly progressing renal cell carcinoma (pages 1545–1551)

      David M. Nanus, Alexandria Garino, Matthew I. Milowsky, Maureen Larkin and Janice P. Dutcher

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20541

      Sarcomatoid and rapidly progressive renal carcinoma are not responsive to immunotherapy. The authors reported that the combination of doxorubicin and gemcitabine is an active regimen to treat the patients with poor prognosis renal carcinoma.

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      The superior prognostic value of humoral factors compared with molecular proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma (pages 1552–1562)

      Jan Lehmann, Margitta Retz, Nils Nürnberg, Uta Schnöckel, Uta Raffenberg, Matthias Krams, Udo Kellner, Stefan Siemer, Klaus Weichert-Jacobsen and Michael Stöckle

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20549

      Routine serum parameters, such as alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium, thrombocyte count, and erythrocyte sedimentatoin rate, provided superior long-term prognostic information for patients with nonmetastatic renal cell carcinoma who underwent radical nephrectomy compared with a more cost-intensive and time-intensive assessment of the molecular proliferation markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, topoisomerase II-α, and p100.

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      Bladder neck invasion is an independent predictor of prostate-specific antigen recurrence (pages 1563–1568)

      Christopher K. Poulos, Michael O. Koch, John N. Eble, Joanne K. Daggy and Liang Cheng

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20551

      Bladder neck involvement was found in 6% of radical prostatectomy specimens. Bladder neck involvement versus no bladder neck involvement was significantly associated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, higher pathologic classification, larger tumor volume, and positive surgical margins. In multivariate analysis, bladder neck involvement was an independent predictor of PSA recurrence. The data demonstrated the importance of continued assessment of bladder neck invasion and supported the placement of tumors with bladder neck involvement in a stage that recognizes the prognostic implications of such involvement.

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      Rosiglitazone versus placebo for men with prostate carcinoma and a rising serum prostate-specific antigen level after radical prostatectomy and/or radiation therapy (pages 1569–1574)

      Matthew R. Smith, Judith Manola, Donald S. Kaufman, Daniel George, William K. Oh, Elisabetta Mueller, Susan Slovin, Bruce Spiegelman, Eric Small and Philip W. Kantoff

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20493

      Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist that has been approved to treat type 2 diabetes, did not increase prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time or prolong the time to disease progression more than placebo in men with rising PSA levels who had undergone radical prostatectomy and/or received radiation therapy.

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      Local lymph node involvement does not predict poor outcome in pediatric renal cell carcinoma (pages 1575–1583)

      James I. Geller and Jeffrey S. Dome

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20548

      In the current study, children with lymph node–positive renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the absence of distant metastatic disease had a survival rate approximately 3 times that for adult patients with a similar presentation, irrespective of whether adjuvant treatment was administered. Until highly effective therapies for RCC are identified, pediatric patients should not be treated with adjuvant therapy. The authors recommended further investigation of the biologic characteristics of pediatric RCC to better explain this distinct clinical behavior.

    13. Head and Neck Disease
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      Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma : A prospective study on disease control and preservation of salivary function (pages 1584–1593)

      Dora L. W. Kwong, Edmond H. N. Pow, Jonathan S. T. Sham, Anne S. McMillan, Lucullus H. T. Leung, W. Keung Leung, Daniel T. T. Chua, Ashley C. K. Cheng, Po M. Wu and Gordon K. H. Au

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20552

      Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was used in the treatment of patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma in an attempt to reduce the radiation dose to the parotid glands and to reduce radiation-induced xerostomia. Preliminary results showed good locoregional control and both quantitative and qualitative recovery of salivary function after IMRT.

    14. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Aspergillus terreus : An emerging amphotericin B–resistant opportunistic mold in patients with hematologic malignancies (pages 1594–1600)

      Ray Y. Hachem, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Maha R. Boktour, Claude Afif, Catherine Cooksley, Gerald P. Bodey, Ioannis Chatzinikolaou, Cheryl Perego, Hagop M. Kantarjian and Issam I. Raad

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20554

      Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has emerged as a common cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In the current study, the authors compare the risk factors and outcomes associated with IA caused by Aspergillus terreus infection and IA caused by A. fumigatus infection.

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      Clinical relevance of immunophenotype in a retrospective comparative study of 297 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unspecified, and 496 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas : Experience of the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi (pages 1601–1608)

      Fortunato Morabito, Andrea Gallamini, Caterina Stelitano, Vincenzo Callea, Cesare Guglielmi, Santo Neri, Antonio Lazzaro, Lorella Orsucci, Fiorella Ilariucci, Stefano Sacchi, Umberto Vitolo and Massimo Federico

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20531

      Patients who had peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, were retrospectively compared with patients who had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to assess the impact of T-cell/B-cell phenotype on clinical outcome. Along with performance status, lactic acid dehydrogenase concentration, and number of extranodal sites, immunophenotype was found to be independently correlated with response; however, immunophenotype did not emerge as an independent prognostic factor with respect to overall or disease-free survival.

    16. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Mac-2-binding protein is a diagnostic marker for biliary tract carcinoma (pages 1609–1615)

      Jens Koopmann, Paul J. Thuluvath, Marianna L. Zahurak, Troels Z. Kristiansen, Akhilesh Pandey, Richard Schulick, Pedram Argani, Manuel Hidalgo, Stefano Iacobelli, Michael Goggins and Anirban Maitra

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20469

      The authors evaluated the measurement of Mac-2-binding protein (Mac-2BP) levels in bile as a novel candidate diagnostic marker for biliary tract carcinoma. Mac-2BP levels showed promise in this role, especially when they were used in conjunction with biliary CA19-9 levels.

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      Characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis C who develop hepatocellular carcinoma after a sustained response to interferon therapy (pages 1616–1622)

      Akiko Makiyama, Yoshito Itoh, Akinori Kasahara, Yasuharu Imai, Sumio Kawata, Kentaro Yoshioka, Hirohito Tsubouchi, Kendo Kiyosawa, Shinichi Kakumu, Kiwamu Okita, Norio Hayashi and Takeshi Okanoue

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20537

      Among patients with chronic hepatitis C, sustained responders in a group at high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma after interferon therapy were older, more often were male, and had more advanced-stage histologic disease. Such patients should be followed carefully periodically for > 10 years after completing interferon therapy.

    18. Lung Disease
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      Stereotactic hypofractionated high-dose irradiation for stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinoma : Clinical outcomes in 245 subjects in a Japanese multiinstitutional study (pages 1623–1631)

      Hiroshi Onishi, Tsutomu Araki, Hiroki Shirato, Yasushi Nagata, Masahiro Hiraoka, Kotaro Gomi, Takashi Yamashita, Yuzuru Niibe, Katsuyuki Karasawa, Kazushige Hayakawa, Yoshihiro Takai, Tomoki Kimura, Yutaka Hirokawa, Atsuya Takeda, Atsushi Ouchi, Masato Hareyama, Masaki Kokubo, Ryusuke Hara, Jun Itami and Kazunari Yamada

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20539

      Patients (n = 245) with Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (T1N0M0, n=155; T2N0M0, n=90) were treated with hypofractionated high-dose stereotactic irradiation in 13 institutions. Local control and survival rates in selected patients (medically operable, biologic effective dose ≥ 100 gray) were excellent, and were potentially equivalent to those of surgery.

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      Expression of syndecan-1 and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor are associated with survival in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1632–1638)

      Lori Shah, Kristin L. Walter, Alain C. Borczuk, Steven M. Kawut, Joshua R. Sonett, Lyall A. Gorenstein, Mark E. Ginsburg, Kenneth M. Steinglass and Charles A. Powell

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20542

      Expression of either of the nonsmall cell lung carcinoma histology classifiers, syndecan-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, on tissue microarray analysis was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of death, with this reduction being independent of histology and other confounders. The results of the current study suggest that loss of expression of these histologic classifiers is associated with biologic aggressiveness in lung tumors and with poor outcome for patients who have such tumors.

    20. Neuro-Oncology
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      Cranial nerve deficits in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma : Clinical features and treatment outcomes (pages 1639–1643)

      Raymond S. McDermott, Penny R. Anderson, Richard E. Greenberg, Barton N. Milestone and Gary R. Hudes

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20553

      In summarizing the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of 15 men who developed cranial nerve lesions secondary to metastatic prostate carcinoma to the skull base, the authors found that, although this complication often is a feature of late-stage disease, palliative radiation therapy can improve quality of life.

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      Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of first primary tumors of the central nervous system and related organs among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958–1995 (pages 1644–1654)

      Shuji Yonehara, Alina V. Brenner, Masao Kishikawa, Peter D. Inskip, Dale L. Preston, Elaine Ron, Kiyohiko Mabuchi and Shoji Tokuoka

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20543

      Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of first primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and the pituitary gland that were diagnosed in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were consistent with the characteristics of “spontaneous” tumors that were observed in other population-based studies, including Japanese studies. Comparison of incidence patterns that included and excluded tumors that were diagnosed at autopsy provided important insights into age and time trends for CNS and pituitary gland tumors.

    22. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Lung carcinoma symptoms—An independent predictor of survival and an important mediator of African-American disparity in survival (pages 1655–1663)

      C. Martin Tammemagi, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Michael Simoff and Paul Kvale

      Article first published online: 26 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20547

      Multivariate analysis revealed that lung carcinoma symptoms were important, stage-independent predictors of survival and that adverse symptoms explained more African-American disparity in survival than disease stage.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      Vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of pediatric sarcomas : Pilot study for the upcoming European Rhabdomyosarcoma Protocol (pages 1664–1671)

      Michela Casanova, Andrea Ferrari, Gianni Bisogno, Johannes H. M. Merks, Gian Luca De Salvo, Cristina Meazza, Katia Tettoni, Massimo Provenzi, Ida Mazzarino and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20544

      In the current pilot study, combination therapy with intravenously administered vinorelbine and orally administered low-dose cyclophosphamide was found to be feasible and to possess activity against refractory and recurrent sarcomas. The maintenance therapy doses recommended for use in the upcoming European trial involving high-risk patients with rhabdomyosarcoma are cyclophosphamide 25 mg/m2 per day for 28 days and vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15.

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      Expression of Fas ligand in retinoblastoma (pages 1672–1676)

      Subramanian Krishnakumar, Mallikarjuna Kandalam, Adithi Mohan, Anita Iyer, Nalini Venkatesan, Jyotirmay Biswas and Mahesh Palanivelu Shanmugam

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20533

      Loss of Fas and gain of aberrant Fas ligand expression are common features of aggressive retinoblastoma. Based on these insights, the authors conclude that an understanding of the mechanisms that control and implement apoptosis is important in retinoblastoma management.

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      Death during induction therapy and first remission of acute leukemia in childhood : The St. Jude experience (pages 1677–1684)

      Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Shelly Lensing, Yinmei Zhou, John T. Sandlund, Bassem I. Razzouk, Raul C. Ribeiro and Ching-Hon Pui

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20532

      Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially those ≥ 10 years of age, are at signficant risk for toxic death during therapy. The estimated 10-year cumulative incidences of death were 2.9% ± 5.3% for patients with ALL and 7.6% ± 1.9% for those with AML.

    26. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Assessing fatigue in persons with cancer : An instrument development and testing study (pages 1685–1695)

      Horng-Shiuann Wu and Maryellen McSweeney

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20540

      The current study developed a measure of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) from the patient's perspective and determined its psychometric properties for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The preliminary results of content, construct, and criterion-related validity and internal consistency reliability are promising.

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      Glucocorticoid administration in antiemetic therapy : Is it safe? (pages 1696–1702)

      Karsten Münstedt, Dennis Borces, Michael K. Bohlmann, Marek Zygmunt and Richard von Georgi

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20534

      Despite earlier concerns, this retrospective analysis found no evidence that glucocorticoid treatment for antiemetic prophylaxis had a negative effect on patient outcome. On the contrary, glucocorticoids may exert protective effects on the bone marrow during chemotherapy.

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