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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 January 2005

Volume 103, Issue 1

Pages 1–212

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Thalidomide for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma : Is this a real alternative? (pages 1–4)

      Scott Wadler

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20731

      According to recent reports, thalidomide is only marginally active in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is relatively toxic for many debilitated patients. Thus, thalidomide's status as a viable alternative for the treatment of HCC is subject to debate.

      See also pages 85–91.

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      That certain age (pages 5–10)

      Cornelius O. Granai

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20748

      At different times and from different vantages, patients of a “certain age” have been assumed to be noncandidates for certain treatments (i.e., that the risks of treatment are too much and that the benefits are too little). However, the consequences of well intended but misplaced assumptions could compromise the health of the very patients who should be served and protected.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Society of Urologic Oncology position statement: Redefining the management of hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma (pages 11–21)

      Sam S. Chang, Mitchell C. Benson, Steven C. Campbell, Juanita Crook, Robert Dreicer, Christopher P. Evans, M. Craig Hall, Celestia Higano, W. Kevin Kelly, Oliver Sartor and Joseph A. Smith Jr.

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20726

      A physician panel selected by the Society of Urologic Oncology examined hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. This panel's position statement provided practicing clinicians with therapy options that can be individualized for their patients.

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      Recent perspectives in the role of chemotherapy in the management of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 22–31)

      Brigette B. Y. Ma and Anthony T. C. Chan

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20768

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      This article critically reviews the recent literature concerning the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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      New approaches in the treatment of myelofibrosis (pages 32–43)

      Bryan T. Hennessy, Deborah A. Thomas, Francis J. Giles, Hagop Kantarjian and Srdan Verstovsek

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20752

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      The status of clinical trials with various modalities such as angiogenesis inhibitors (e.g., thalidomide), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., imatinib mesylate), farnesyl transferase inhibitors (e.g., R115777), and other agents was reviewed in the current article. The potential role of autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation was also investigated.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Appropriateness of breast-conserving treatment of breast carcinoma in women with germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 : A clinic-based series (pages 44–51)

      Mark Robson, Tiffany Svahn, Beryl McCormick, Patrick Borgen, Clifford A. Hudis, Larry Norton and Kenneth Offit

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20728

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      The discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 1994 and 1995, respectively, has raised a number of questions regarding the optimal management of women with hereditary breast carcinoma. The appropriateness of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for women with hereditary breast carcinoma is an area of ongoing discussion. In the current study, the authors evaluate the appropriateness of BCT in women with BRCA mutations.

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      Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and survival after chemotherapy for invasive breast carcinoma (pages 52–58)

      Gong Yang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Zhi-Xian Ruan, Qiu-Yin Cai, Fan Jin, Yu-Tang Gao and Wei Zheng

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20729

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      Genetic polymorphisms in certain glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which are important in detoxifying cytotoxins generated by chemothepeutic agents, were evaluated for associations with overall survival in 1034 patients who were treated with chemotherapy for invasive breast carcinoma. A reduction of approximately 60% in overall mortality was found in patients who were homozygous for the variant GSTP1105Val allele (encoding a low-activity allozyme) compared with patients who were homozygous for the common Ile allele. This result has potential implications with regard to the individualized planning of therapy for patients with breast carcinoma.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Implications of mediastinal uptake of 131I with regard to surgery in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (pages 59–67)

      Jan Willem Haveman, Ha T. T. Phan, Thera P. Links, Piet L. Jager and John T. M. Plukker

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20725

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      Mediastinal uptake of 131I after surgical treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is frequently found on whole-body scans. Based on the authors' experience and on reports in the literature, the authors developed a flow chart for adequate treatment.

    4. Genitourinary Disease
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      Original and reviewed nuclear grading according to the Fuhrman system : A multivariate analysis of 388 patients with conventional renal cell carcinoma (pages 68–75)

      Vincenzo Ficarra, Guido Martignoni, Nicola Maffei, Matteo Brunelli, Giacomo Novara, Luisa Zanolla, Maurizio Pea and Walter Artibani

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20749

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      The authors evaluated the reproducibility of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system and its independent predictive value in a series of patients with conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The concordance between original and reviewed Fuhrman nuclear grades was moderate; however, both grading systems were independently predictive of disease-specific survival in patients with conventional RCC.

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      Prostate carcinoma incidence in relation to prediagnostic circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and insulin (pages 76–84)

      Chu Chen, S. Kay Lewis, Lynda Voigt, Annette Fitzpatrick, Stephen R. Plymate and Noel S. Weiss

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20727

      In a nested case–control study within the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort, the authors investigated the association between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio, and insulin in relation to the risk of prostate carcinoma. Results of statistical analysis indicated that increased circulating levels of IGF-I were not associated with an increased risk of prostate carcinoma, whereas increased IGFBP-3 levels were associated with a modest decrease in risk.

    6. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Cervical carcinoma in the elderly : An analysis of patterns of care and outcome (pages 85–91)

      Jason D. Wright, Randall K. Gibb, Sajeena Geevarghese, Matthew A. Powell, Thomas J. Herzog, David G. Mutch, Perry W. Grigsby, Feng Gao, Kathryn M. Trinkaus and Janet S. Rader

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20751

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      Elderly women with cervical carcinoma are more likely to receive primary radiation therapy or forego treatment than their younger counterparts. Even after adjusting for other prognostic factors, elderly patients are more likely to die from their disease.

      See also pages 1–4.

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      Long-term results of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (pages 92–101)

      Takashi Nakano, Shingo Kato, Tatsuya Ohno, Hirohiko Tsujii, Shinichiro Sato, Kenjiro Fukuhisa and Tatsuo Arai

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20734

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      The results of the current study suggested that the combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) provided comparable outcomes to those of conventional low-dose rate brachytherapy. EBRT and HDR-ICBT had acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of cervical carcinoma.

    8. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Overproduction of BCR-ABL induces apoptosis in imatinib mesylate-resistant cell lines (pages 102–110)

      Vanessa Desplat, Francis Belloc, Valérie Lagarde, Catherine Boyer, Junia V. Melo, Josy Reiffers, Vincent Praloran and François-Xavier Mahon

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20758

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      Chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines resistant to imatinib overexpressed BCR-ABL. In the current study, the authors demonstrated that imatinib removal induced a decrease in BCR-ABL overexpression and apoptosis in these cell lines. This phenomenon was exploited to restore the sensitivity to imatinib in resistant cells.

    9. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma : A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase II Trial (pages 111–118)

      Steven R. Alberts, Hani Al-Khatib, Michelle R. Mahoney, Lawerence Burgart, Peter J. Cera, Patrick J. Flynn, Tom R. Finch, Ralph Levitt, Harold E. Windschitl, James A. Knost and Loren K. Tschetter

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20753

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      Gemcitabine has broad activity in a variety of solid tumors including biliary tract carcinomas. The combination regimen of gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin (LV) is manageable in patients with advanced biliary tract and gallbladder adenocarcinoma. The length of survival observed in the current study suggested that gemcitabine, 5-FU, and LV had benefit equivalent to gemcitabine alone.

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      Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 119–125)

      Albert Y. Lin, Nathalie Brophy, George A. Fisher, Sam So, Christopher Biggs, Torunn I. Yock and Lee Levitt

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20732

      The authors examined the efficacy and toxicity of thalidomide in the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it was tolerated by most patients, treatment with thalidomide alone was associated with only a modest response.

    11. Lung Disease
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      Accumulation of hRad9 protein in the nuclei of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cells (pages 126–132)

      Yoshimasa Maniwa, Masahiro Yoshimura, Vladimir P. Bermudez, Takeshi Yuki, Kenji Okada, Naoki Kanomata, Chiho Ohbayashi, Yoshitake Hayashi, Jerard Hurwitz and Yutaka Okita

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20740

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      hRad9 accumulation was observed in the nuclei of tumor cells in 33% of all nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) specimens examined, and elevated levels of phosphorylated hRad9 were found to be associated with the detection of phosphorylated Chk1. To the authors' knowledge, the current study was the first to describe the overexpression of hRad9 in surgically resected tumor specimens and its phenotypic significance in tumor cells.

    12. Neuro-Oncology
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      Role of temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem glioma in children : Results of a multiinstitutional study (SJHG-98) (pages 133–139)

      Alberto Broniscer, Lisa Iacono, Murali Chintagumpala, Maryam Fouladi, Dana Wallace, Daniel C. Bowers, Clinton Stewart, Matthew J. Krasin and Amar Gajjar

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20741

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      The administration of temozolomide after conventional radiotherapy did not affect the poor prognosis of children with newly diagnosed diffuse brainstem glioma. All patients experienced progression and died of disease after a median survival period of 12 months.

    13. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Understanding of an aggregate probability statement by patients who are offered participation in Phase I clinical trials (pages 140–147)

      Kevin P. Weinfurt, Venita DePuy, Liana D. Castel, Daniel P. Sulmasy, Kevin A. Schulman and Neal J. Meropol

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20730

      A significant minority of patients considering participation in Phase I trials are not able to interpret aggregate probability statements correctly. Because misunderstandings could influence treatment decision making adversely, patients who are likely to misunderstand should be identified and given special consideration when communicating information regarding the potential risks and benefits of treatment.

    14. Diagnostic Imaging
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      The incremental effect of positron emission tomography on diagnostic accuracy in the initial staging of esophageal carcinoma (pages 148–156)

      Hiroyuki Kato, Tatsuya Miyazaki, Masanobu Nakajima, Junko Takita, Hitoshi Kimura, Ahmad Faried, Makoto Sohda, Yasuyuki Fukai, Norihiro Masuda, Minoru Fukuchi, Ryokuhei Manda, Hitoshi Ojima, Katsuhiko Tsukada, Hiroyuki Kuwano, Noboru Oriuchi and Keigo Endo

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20724

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      The purpose of the current study was to assess whether [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) provides incremental value compared with computed tomography (CT), which is the most commonly used conventional imaging modality. The authors compared the respective results of both imaging modalities. The overall incremental value of FDG-PET compared with CT with regard to staging accuracy was 14%. The authors concluded that FDG-PET would be a valuable tool for the initial staging of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

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      Diagnostic procedures after a positive spiral computed tomography lung carcinoma screen (pages 157–163)

      Paul F. Pinsky, Pamela M. Marcus, Barnett S. Kramer, Matthew Freedman, Hrudaya Nath, Paul Kvale and Douglas Reding

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20746

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      Low-radiation dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), an advance in CT technology introduced during the early 1990s, has recently been proposed as a new modality for lung carcinoma screening. Although several diagnostic algorithms for the workup of positive LDCT screens have been proposed, to the authors' knowledge there is no widely accepted standard to date and there are few nationwide data concerning how such diagnostic workups are actually being performed outside a research protocol setting. In this article, the authors describe in detail the patterns of diagnostic follow-up occurring after a positive LDCT screen.

    16. Pathology
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      Solving the dilemma of the immunohistochemical and other methods used for scoring estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in patients with invasive breast carcinoma (pages 164–173)

      Edwin R. Fisher, Stewart Anderson, Scott Dean, David Dabbs, Bernard Fisher, Richard Siderits, Jeffrey Pritchard, Telma Pereira, Charles Geyer and Norman Wolmark

      Version of Record online: 24 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20761

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      All visual immunohistochemical (IHC) methods studied for scoring estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor based on patient outcomes exhibited comparable interobserver agreement as well as concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive prognostic value with each other as well as the dextran-coated charcoal method and 2 computer-assisted procedures in 402 women with primary, invasive, lymph node-positive breast carcinoma (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project protocol B-09). Consequently, the simple, dichotomous, “any-or-none” procedure appeared to be the most preferable for practical use in assessing the status of these receptors, thus allowing for the identification of more women who may benefit from antiestrogen treatment than in the past.

    17. Pediatric Oncology
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      Enlarged and prominent nucleoli may be indicative of MYCN amplification : A study of neuroblastoma (Schwannian stroma–poor), undifferentiated/poorly differentiated subtype with high mitosis-karyorrhexis index (pages 174–180)

      Chie Kobayashi, Hector L. Monforte-Munoz, Robert B. Gerbing, Daniel O. Stram, Katherine K. Matthay, John N. Lukens, Robert C. Seeger and Hiroyuki Shimada

      Version of Record online: 17 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20717

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      In the current study, the authors examined MYCN amplification in undifferentiated/poorly differentiated neuroblastomas with high mitosis-karyorrhexis indices. Neuroblastomas exhibiting MYCN amplification tended to consist of cells containing large and prominent nucleoli, and such neuroblastomas were associated with a poorer prognosis compared with neuroblastomas that did not exhibit MYCN amplification. Cancer 2005. © 2004 American Cancer Society.

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      Agenesis and microdontia of permanent teeth as late adverse effects after stem cell transplantation in young children (pages 181–190)

      Päivi Hölttä, Satu Alaluusua, Ulla M. Saarinen-Pihkala, Jaakko Peltola and Liisa Hovi

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20762

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      Depending on their age at the time of stem cell transplantation (SCT), 50–100% of pediatric SCT recipients are reported to present with permanent tooth agenesis and/or microdontia at a later date, which may jeopardize occlusal development. Young age (≤ 5.0 years) at the time of SCT was the strongest risk factor, and total body irradiation caused additive impairment.

    19. Radiation Oncology
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      Monitoring myeloablative therapy-induced small bowel toxicity by serum citrulline concentration : A comparison with sugar permeability tests (pages 191–199)

      Ludy C. H. W. Lutgens, Nicole M. A. Blijlevens, Nicolaas E. P. Deutz, J. Peter Donnelly, Philippe Lambin and Ben E. de Pauw

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20733

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      Serum citrulline concentrations were compared with sugar permeability tests as an endpoint for myeloablative therapy-associated intestinal damage in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results suggested the citrulline assay as the first choice for measuring and monitoring cytotoxic treatment-related small bowel damage in clinical studies.

    20. Translational Research
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      A different pattern of cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition against primary and metastatic tumor cells in a patient with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 200–208)

      Tetsuya So, Mitsuhiro Takenoyama, Yoshinobu Ichiki, Makiko Mizukami, Tomoko So, Takeshi Hanagiri, Kenji Sugio and Kosei Yasumoto

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20782

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      Two tumor cell lines derived from primary and metastatic lesions in a patient with lung carcinoma were established to analyze their immunologic responses during the progress of lung carcinoma metastasis. Some tumor-associated antigens were abrogated during the process of metastasis, whereas others were maintained. The identification of these antigens may provide a better understanding of their immunologic role during disease progression in patients with lung carcinoma.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Acceptance of tamoxifen chemoprevention by physicians and women at risk (page 209)

      Andrew McKay, Steve Latosinsky and Wanda Martin

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20744

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      Familial risk and clustering of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guangdong, China (page 211)

      Jeppe Friborg, Jan Wohlfahrt and Mads Melbye

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20759

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      Author reply (page 212)

      Wei-Hua Jia, Yi-Xin Zeng and Yin Yao Shugart

      Version of Record online: 11 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20763

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