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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 June 2005

Volume 103, Issue 11

Pages 2209–2433

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control (pages 2209–2215)

      Amelie G. Ramirez, Kipling J. Gallion, Lucina Suarez, Aida L. Giachello, Jose R. Marti, Martha A. Medrano, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, Gregory A. Talavera and Edward J. Trapido

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21053

      The Redes En Acción key opinion leaders survey generated nationwide public involvement of Hispanic–Latino communities in determining the priority issues significant to Latino cancer prevention and control. The data collected and assessed as a result of this participatory research project provided the foundation for a national agenda to help guide future Latino cancer research, training, and public education.

  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Estimation of an optimal external beam radiotherapy utilization rate for head and neck carcinoma (pages 2216–2227)

      Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob and Michael Barton

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21084

      An evidence-based benchmark for the proportion of patients with carcinoma of the head and neck who should receive radiotherapy at least once was developed by reviewing treatment guidelines and merging the indications for radiotherapy with epidemiological data. The resulting optimal radiotherapy utilization rates were then compared with actual radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in clinical practice.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Polymorphisms in CYP1A1 and breast carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study of Chinese women (pages 2228–2235)

      Sonia M. Boyapati, Xiao Ou Shu, Yu-Tang Gao, Qiuyin Cai, Fan Jin and Wei Zheng

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21056

      Results from the current study suggested that homozygosity for the CYP1A1*2A and CYP1A1*2C alleles in the CYP1A1 gene may be associated with a reduced risk for breast carcinoma, particularly among women with low, but long-term, endogenous estrogen exposure.

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      Management of suspicious or indeterminate calcifications and impact on local control (pages 2236–2240)

      Brian E. Lally, Bruce G. Haffty, Meena S. Moran, Joseph M. Colasanto and Susan A. Higgins

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21044

      The current study was undertaken to determine the potential advantage associated with complete removal of suspicious or indeterminate calcifications (SIC) before initiation of irradiation as part of breast conservation therapy. The removal of all SIC was associated with better local control compared with patients with breast carcinoma who did not have documented removal of all SIC.

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      Hormone receptor status and survival in a population-based cohort of patients with breast carcinoma (pages 2241–2251)

      Victor R. Grann, Andrea B. Troxel, Naseem J. Zojwalla, Judith S. Jacobson, Dawn Hershman and Alfred I. Neugut

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21030

      Using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data base, the authors found that hormone receptor status was an independent predictor of outcome in patients with breast carcinoma and was associated with mortality, even when patient age, disease stage, tumor histology, race/ethnicity, and metropolitan/statewide residence areas were taken into account.

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      HER-2/neu expression as a predictor of response to neoadjuvant docetaxel in patients with operable breast carcinoma (pages 2252–2260)

      Peter A. Learn, I-Tien Yeh, Michelle McNutt, Gary B. Chisholm, Brad H. Pollock, Dennis L. Rousseau Jr., Frances E. Sharkey, Anatolio B. Cruz and Morton S. Kahlenberg

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21037

      Among multiple prognostic factors that were evaluated, HER-2/neu was identified as a potential predictive marker in neoadjuvant treatment with docetaxel. Whereas patients with HER-2/neu-positive tumors responded well to standard anthracycline-based therapy either with or without the addition of docetaxel, patients with HER-2/neu-negative tumors demonstrated marked improvements in clinical response with the addition of docetaxel.

    5. Endocrine Disease
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      Evidence that one subset of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from papillary carcinomas due to BRAF and p53 mutations (pages 2261–2268)

      Roderick M. Quiros, Helen G. Ding, Paolo Gattuso, Richard A. Prinz and Xiulong Xu

      Article first published online: 3 MAY 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21073

      This study profiled several genetic alterations including BRAF, RAS, RET, and p53 in a panel of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The investigators provided strong evidence that a subset of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from papillary thyroid carcinomas due to accumulation of BRAF and p53 mutations.

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      The prognostic value of primary tumor size in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma : A comparative analysis (pages 2269–2273)

      Andreas Machens, Hans-Jürgen Holzhausen and Henning Dralle

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21055

      In the current study, the cumulative risk of distant metastasis was the same in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma when adjusted for primary tumor diameter. The data suggested that suspicious thyroid nodules should be removed surgically before they grow > 20 mm and spread to distant organs.

    7. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Epoetin-α during radiotherapy for stage III esophageal carcinoma : A prospective, nonrandomized study (pages 2274–2279)

      Dirk Rades, Steven E. Schild, Emre F. Yekebas, Hendric Job, Rudolf Schwarz and Volker Rudat

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21042

      In this prospective, nonrandomized study, the authors evaluated the impact of epoetin-α on prognosis in patients with UICC Stage III esophageal carcinoma. Thirty patients received epoetin-α during radiotherapy (Group A), and 30 patients did not (Group B). In 20 Group A patients (67%) and in 3 Group B patients (10%), ≥ 60% hemoglobin levels were 12–14 g/dL (P = 0.003), the optimal range for tumor oxygenation. Epoetin-α improved the 1-year local control rate (66% vs. 38%; P = 0.012) and the 1-year overall survival rate (59% vs. 33%; P = 0.08).

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      Prognostic model of event-free survival for patients with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (pages 2280–2286)

      Michael J. Shulman and Elie A. Benaim

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21054

      A new prognostic model of event-free survival stratified men with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma (AIPC) into three highly significant and independent risk groups. A detailed prostate-specific antigen history and knowledge of metastatic disease alone are sufficient to stratify patients with AIPC based on risk.

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      Acute and late morbidity in the treatment of advanced bladder carcinoma with accelerated radiotherapy, carbogen, and nicotinamide (pages 2287–2297)

      Peter J. Hoskin, Ana M. Rojas, Heather Phillips and Michele I. Saunders

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21048

      In this Phase II trial in patients with advanced bladder carcinoma, the results showed a therapeutic benefit of accelerated radiotherapy combined with carbogen alone or with carbogen plus nicotinamide.

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      Paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium : A Phase II trial of the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network (pages 2298–2303)

      John D. Hainsworth, Anthony A. Meluch, Sharlene Litchy, Frederick M. Schnell, James D. Bearden, Kathleen Yost and F. Anthony Greco

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21078

      The combination of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and gemcitabine was an active and tolerable regimen for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. However, the regimen was more toxic and showed no obvious incremental increase in efficacy when it was compared retrospectively with various two-drug regimens.

    11. Gynecologic Oncology
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      The molecular genetics and morphometry-based endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia classification system predicts disease progression in endometrial hyperplasia more accurately than the 1994 World Health Organization classification system (pages 2304–2312)

      Jan P. Baak, George L. Mutter, Stanley Robboy, Paul J. van Diest, Anne M. Uyterlinde, Anne Ørbo, Juan Palazzo, Bent Fiane, Kjell Løvslett, Curt Burger, Feja Voorhorst and René H. Verheijen

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21058

      In this comparison of the accuracy of disease progression prediction between the Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN) and World Health Organization 1994 (WHO94) classification systems, the authors evaluated 477 patients with endometrial hyperplasia who had a required 1-year minimum disease-free interval and 197 patients with < 1 year of follow-up. The EIN classification system (hazard ratio [HR] = 45) predicted disease progression more accurately than the WHO94 classification system (HR = 7) and identified many women with benign changes that were regarded as high-risk according to the WHO94 classification system.

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      Expression of xeroderma pigmentosum A protein predicts improved outcome in metastatic ovarian carcinoma (pages 2313–2319)

      Ellen V. Stevens, Mark Raffeld, Virginia Espina, Gunnar B. Kristensen, Claes G. Trope', Elise C. Kohn and Ben Davidson

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21031

      The xeroderma pigmentosum A (XPA) nucleotide excision repair protein is widely expressed in metastatic ovarian carcinoma effusions and their microenvironment. In the current study, XPA expression was associated with better response to chemotherapy and predicted better disease progression-free survival and overall survival.

    13. Head and Neck Disease
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      Retromolar trigone squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy alone or combined with surgery (pages 2320–2325)

      William M. Mendenhall, Christopher G. Morris, Robert J. Amdur, John W. Werning and Douglas B. Villaret

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21038

      Radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy combined with surgery were used to treat 99 patients. Those treated with combined surgery and radiotherapy had improved local–regional control and survival rates compared with those treated with definitive radiotherapy.

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      Risk factors for the development of second primary tumors among men after laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma : A multicentric European study (pages 2326–2333)

      Rajesh P. Dikshit, Paolo Boffetta, Christine Bouchardy, Franco Merletti, Paolo Crosignani, Teresa Cuchi, Eva Ardanaz and Paul Brennan

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21051

      Excess risk for developing a second primary tumor of the tongue, mouth, esophagus, and lung was observed after primary laryngeal/hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Alcohol consumption increased the risk of a second primary tumor whereas a protective role of high citrus fruit intake was suggested.

    15. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Itraconazole added to a lipid formulation of amphotericin B does not improve outcome of primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis (pages 2334–2337)

      Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Maha Boktour, Hend Hanna, Harrys A. Torres, Ray Hachem and Issam I. Raad

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21057

      The authors retrospectively studied whether itraconazole added to lipid formulations of amphotericin B (LipoAMB) as primary therapy improved the outcome of invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Both groups (LipoAMB: n = 101; itraconazole and LipoAMB: n = 11) had comparable distributions of risk factors for outcome, and response to therapy was equally poor.

    16. Hepatobiliary Tract
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      The efficacy of epirubicin, cisplatin, uracil/tegafur, and leucovorin in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (pages 2338–2343)

      Kyong-Hwa Park, In-Keun Choi, Seok-Jin Kim, Sang-Chul Oh, Jae-Hong Seo, Chul-Won Choi, Byung-Soo Kim, Sang-Won Shin, Yeul-Hong Kim and Jun-Suk Kim

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21041

      In the current study, combined epirubicin, cisplatin, and uracil/tegafur modulated by leucovorin in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma was active marginally and could stabilize the disease effectively. Because it was a safe and convenient treatment modality, it may be used in outpatient care with only minor toxicity in advanced biliary tract malignancies.

    17. Lung Disease
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      High incidence of disease recurrence in the brain and leptomeninges in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma after response to gefitinib (pages 2344–2348)

      Antonio M. P. Omuro, Mark G. Kris, Vincent A. Miller, Enrico Franceschi, Neelam Shah, Daniel T. Milton and Lauren E. Abrey

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21033

      Patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma who initially responded to gefitinib were at high risk to develop brain and leptomeningeal metastases, and should be carefully monitored for development of neurologic symptoms.

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      Results of combined-modality therapy for limited-stage small cell lung carcinoma in the elderly (pages 2349–2354)

      Steven E. Schild, Philip J. Stella, Burke J. Brooks, Sumithra Mandrekar, James A. Bonner, William L. McGinnis, James A. Mailliard, James E. Krook, Richard L. Deming, Alex A. Adjei, Aminah Jatoi and James R. Jett

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21034

      Despite having more weight loss, poorer performance status, increased pulmonary toxicity, and more deaths due to treatment, survival was not significantly worse in older compared with younger individuals. Future research should focus on ways to decrease toxicity, especially among the elderly.

    19. Neuro-Oncology
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      Neoplastic meningitis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract (pages 2355–2362)

      Pierre Giglio, Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Arthur D. Forman, Robert Wolff and Morris D. Groves

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21082

      In this report, the authors present clinical details and outcomes for 21 patients who had neoplastic meningitis secondary to various gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Despite interventions, outcomes universally were poor. For some patients, palliative care was a reasonable alternative.

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      Polymorphisms in GLTSCR1 and ERCC2 are associated with the development of oligodendrogliomas (pages 2363–2372)

      Ping Yang, Thomas M. Kollmeyer, Kristin Buckner, William Bamlet, Karla V. Ballman and Robert B. Jenkins

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21028

      The authors reported that alterations in GLTSCR1 (or a closely linked gene) are associated with the development and progression of oligodendroglioma.

    21. Sarcoma
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      Dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcoma: The experience of the Rizzoli Institute (pages 2373–2382)

      Franco Bertoni, Patrizia Bacchini, Eric L. Staals and Peter Davidovitz

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21039

      Dedifferentiation of a conventional parosteal osteosarcoma may occur as either a primary or secondary event and defines the concept of dedifferentiated parosteal osteosarcoma. The high-grade component underlines the high potential for metastases and a bad prognosis. Recognition of dedifferentiated areas with needle biopsy should prompt the adequate treatment: (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy combined with wide surgical resection or wide surgical resection alone are the best treatment options for this type of high-grade surface osteosarcoma.

    22. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Improvement in preoperative staging of gastric adenocarcinoma with positron emission tomography (pages 2383–2390)

      Jian Chen, Jae-Ho Cheong, Mi Jin Yun, Junuk Kim, Joon Seok Lim, Woo Jin Hyung and Sung Hoon Noh

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21074

      Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a prospective method for preoperative evaluation and staging of gastric adenocarcinoma. FDG-PET and computed tomography are expected to play complementary roles, and, together, they should be able to increase the accuracy of preoperative staging.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      The risk of developing second cancers among survivors of childhood soft tissue sarcoma (pages 2391–2396)

      Randi J. Cohen, Rochelle E. Curtis, Peter D. Inskip and Joseph F. Fraumeni Jr.

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21040

      The risk of developing a new malignant neoplasm was increased 6-fold among 1499 children with soft tissue sarcoma who were reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries from 1973 to 2000. The risks of a second cancer were increased for all histologic types of childhood soft tissue sarcomas and were particularly high after patients received combined modality therapy.

    24. Psychological Oncology
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      Physicians' communication with a cancer patient and a relative : A randomized study assessing the efficacy of consolidation workshops (pages 2397–2411)

      Nicole Delvaux, Isabelle Merckaert, Serge Marchal, Yves Libert, Sandrine Conradt, Jacques Boniver, Anne-Marie Etienne, Ovide Fontaine, Pascal Janne, Jean Klastersky, Christian Mélot, Christine Reynaert, Pierre Scalliet, Jean-Louis Slachmuylder and Darius Razavi

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21093

      Although patients with cancer often are accompanied by a relative during medical interviews, to the authors' knowledge little is known regarding the efficacy of communication skills training programs on physicians' communication skills in this context. In the current study, the results showed that 6 consolidation workshops, 3 hours in length, that were conducted after a 2.5-day basic training program improved physicians' communication skills with patients and relatives.

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      Psychological distress in spouses of men treated for early-stage prostate carcinoma (pages 2412–2418)

      David T. Eton, Stephen J. Lepore and Vicki S. Helgeson

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21092

      Psychological distress was moderate in spouses of men treated for early-stage prostate carcinoma, although several factors predicted higher distress level, including education status, marital quality, social support, personal resources, and the patient's mental health. These factors may help to identify certain spouses at risk for distress.

    26. Radiation Oncology
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      Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for portal vein thrombosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 2419–2426)

      Dae Yong Kim, Won Park, Do Hoon Lim, Joon Hyoek Lee, Byung Chul Yoo, Seung Woon Paik, Kwang Cheol Kho, Tae Hyun Kim, Yong Chan Ahn and Seung Jae Huh

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21043

      Radiotherapy (RT) induced a 45.8% objective response rate for portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a dose-response relation existed between RT dose and PVT response. RT may be a treatment option for PVT in patients with HCC and an RT dose ≥ 58 gray10 should be recommended.

    27. Translational Research
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      Mitogen-activated protein kinase expression and activation does not differentiate benign from malignant mesothelial cells (pages 2427–2433)

      Lina Vintman, Søren Nielsen, Aasmund Berner, Reuven Reich and Ben Davidson

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21014

      Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were expressed frequently in clinical specimens of reactive mesothelium and malignant mesothelioma (MM), with comparable levels of expression and activation and with comparable activation ratios. The similar expression in benign and malignant mesothelium suggests that MAPKs may not be involved in the malignant transformation of this tissue and calls into question the validity of MAPKs as molecular therapeutic targets in patients with MM.

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