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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 January 2005

Volume 103, Issue 2

Pages 213–433

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
      Fatigue is becoming an exhausting problem (pages 213–215)

      John C. Ruckdeschel

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20770

      Because profound fatigue is one of the major complaints of patients on chemotherapy, we need to move our exploration of the early events in the development of fatigue far earlier in the pathway that leads to clinical fatigue.

      See also pages 377–82, this issue.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Richter syndrome : Biology, incidence, and therapeutic strategies (pages 216–228)

      Apostolia-Maria Tsimberidou and Michael J. Keating

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20773

      Richter syndrome (RS) occurs in 5% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The large cells of RS may arise through transformation of the original CLL clone or represent a new neoplasm. RS may be triggered by viral infections or by genetic defects, which may cause CLL cells to proliferate and to transform into RS cells. With the current therapeutic strategies, which include intensive chemotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, and stem cell transplantation, prognosis is poor. Novel curative treatment strategies are needed.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Endocrine Disease
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      Microsatellite instability and gene mutations in transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor are absent in small bowel carcinoid tumors (pages 229–236)

      Mark Kidd, Geeta Eick, Michael D. Shapiro, Robert L. Camp, Shrikant M. Mane and Irvin M. Modlin

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20750

      The authors showed that the common colorectal carcinoma molecular events of microsatellite instability and mutations in the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor gene do not occur in carcinoid tumors in the small bowel. They reported that the usually slow-growing and relatively nonaggressive nature of these carcinoid tumors may be associated with the retention of mismatch repair protein function and a microsatellite-stable phenotype.

    2. Genitourinary Disease
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      Physician practices of bone density testing and drug prescribing to prevent or treat osteoporosis during androgen deprivation therapy [An erratum to this Article has been published in Cancer 2006;106(11):2530] (pages 237–241)

      Tawee Tanvetyanon

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20766

      The majority of patients with prostate carcinoma undergoing androgen deprivation therapy did not receive interventions to prevent or treat osteoporosis. Having other concurrent risk factors for osteoporosis was not predictive of receiving dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, bisphosphonates, calcium or vitamin D supplements, calcitonin, or estrogen.

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      Prostate carcinoma detection and increased prostate-specific antigen levels after 4 years in Dutch and Japanese males who had no evidence of disease at initial screening (pages 242–250)

      Kazuto Ito, René Raaijmakers, Monique Roobol, Mark Wildhagen, Hidetoshi Yamanaka and Fritz H. Schröder

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20739

      In the current study, the authors investigated the relation between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and the risk of newly developed prostate carcinoma in Dutch and Japanese men. The risk of developing prostate carcinoma within a given 4-year period was greater for Dutch males ages 55–69 years compared with their Japanese counterparts, although there appeared to be no significant difference in prostate carcinoma risk between Dutch and Japanese males within the same baseline PSA category.

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      De novo renal cell carcinoma of native kidney in renal transplant recipients (pages 251–257)

      Yann Neuzillet, Franck Lay, Aline Luccioni, Laurent Daniel, Yvon Berland, Christian Coulange and Eric Lechevallier

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20745

      Kidney transplant recipients appear to have an increased risk of developing high-grade and papillary malignancies in the native kidney. Consequently, systematic radiologic follow-up of native kidneys must be performed for kidney transplant recipients.

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      Up-regulation of the interferon γ (IFN-γ)-inducible chemokines IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant and monokine induced by IFN-γ and of their receptor CXC receptor 3 in human renal cell carcinoma (pages 258–267)

      Takahito Suyama, Mitsuko Furuya, Mariko Nishiyama, Yoshitoshi Kasuya, Sadao Kimura, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Takeshi Ueda, Takashi Nikaido, Haruo Ito and Hiroshi Ishikura

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20747

      The antiangiogenic CXC chemokines interferon (IFN)-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC) and monokine induced by IFN-γ (Mig) were up-regulated significantly in tissue samples from untreated patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). I-TAC was expressed exclusively in tumor vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, whereas Mig was expressed in tumor endothelial cells. These chemokines in tumor vessels may interact with CXCR3 expressed in tumor cells, with possible pathophysiologic significance in RCC progression.

    6. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Mcl-1 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease correlates with clinical outcome : A differential expression study (pages 268–276)

      Pui-Yee Fong, Wei-Cheng Xue, Hextan Y. S. Ngan, Kelvin Y. K. Chan, Ui-Soon Khoo, Siu-Wah Tsao, Pui-Man Chiu, Lai-Shan Man and Annie N. Y. Cheung

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20767

      The up-regulation of Mcl-1 in hydatidiform moles that subsequently developed into persistent disease and required chemotherapy was detected by apoptotic cyclic DNA array and was confirmed by quantitative RNA and immunohistochemistry studies. Mcl-1 may be a potential marker for adverse outcomes in patients with hydatidiform moles.

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      Up-regulated expression of cytoplasmic clusterin in human ovarian carcinoma (pages 277–283)

      Dan Xie, Sze Hang Lau, Jonathan S. T. Sham, Qiu-Liang Wu, Yan Fang, Li-Zhi Liang, Li-Hong Che, Yi-Xin Zeng and Xin-Yuan Guan

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20765

      To determine the potential tumorigenic role of the clusterin gene in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma, the authors investigated staining for clusterin in different ovarian tissues. The results indicated that the overexpression of cytoplasmic clusterin may represent an acquired malignant phenotypic feature of ovarian carcinoma and may be one of the important factors in determining the aggressive nature of ovarian carcinoma.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      Serum levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and in laryngeal leukoplakia (pages 284–292)

      Giovanni Almadori, Francesco Bussu, Jacopo Galli, Gabriella Cadoni, Bruno Zappacosta, Silvia Persichilli, Angelo Minucci, Bruno Giardina and Maurizio Maurizi

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20772

      Serum folate and homocysteine status is impaired significantly in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The data from this report suggest a role for hypofolatemia as a risk factor for head and neck carcinoma, opening intriguing perspectives for chemoprevention.

    9. Hematologic Oncology
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      Lack of association of polyomavirus and herpesvirus types 6 and 7 in human lymphomas (pages 293–298)

      Javier Hernández-Losa, Cesar Giovanni Fedele, Francisco Pozo, Antonio Tenorio, Victor Fernández, Josep Castellví, Carlos Parada and Santiago Ramón y Cajal

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20801

      The real role of viruses in human lymphomas remains very controversial; in fact, many contradictory reports have created great uncertainty. In this article, the authors report on their investigation into the presence of polyomaviruses and herpes viruses 6 and 7 in 83 human lymphomas and 52 normal lymphoid tissues. The results indicate that these viruses are not expressed specifically in lymphomas compared with normal lymphoid tissues, and the association of these viruses with human lymphomas is not supported.

    10. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Microsatellite distribution and indication for locoregional therapy in small hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 299–306)

      Atsushi Sasaki, Seiichiro Kai, Yukio Iwashita, Seitaro Hirano, Masayuki Ohta and Seigo Kitano

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20798

      The distance of microsatellites from small (diameter ≤ 5 cm) HCC tumors correlated significantly with tumor size. Twenty-one of 22 patients with a microsatellite distance > 5 mm had a tumor ≥ 25 mm in greatest dimension, and all 21 tumors were high-grade (moderately to poorly differentiated) HCCs. Locoregional therapies were appropriate for patients with low-grade HCC tumors or with HCC tumors < 25 mm in dimension.

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      Akt phosphorylation is a risk factor for early disease recurrence and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 307–312)

      Kazuaki Nakanishi, Michiie Sakamoto, Susumu Yamasaki, Satoru Todo and Setsuo Hirohashi

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20774

      Thes current clinical study showed that Akt phosphorylation is one of the crucial factors for early disease recurrence and poor prognosis after hepatectomy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The potential benefits of surgery should be assessed carefully in patients with any of these risk factors.

    12. Melanoma
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      Postoperative radiotherapy for primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (pages 313–319)

      Stephane Temam, Gerard Mamelle, Patrick Marandas, Pierre Wibault, Marie-France Avril, François Janot, Morbize Julieron, Guy Schwaab and Bernard Luboinski

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20775

      Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck has a poor prognosis and an associated low rate of local control. In the authors' retrospective study of 69 patients, postoperative radiotherapy improved local control rates independent of primary tumor size. Nevertheless, a high rate of distant metastasis (69%) and a poor 5-year overall survival rate of 20% was not influenced by radiotherapy treatment.

    13. Neuro-Oncology
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      Prediction of survival in patients with metastases in the spinal column : Results based on a randomized trial of radiotherapy (pages 320–328)

      Yvette M. van der Linden, Sander P. D. S. Dijkstra, Ernest J. A. Vonk, Corrie A. M. Marijnen, Jan Willem H. Leer and for The Dutch Bone Metastasis Study Group

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20756

      For patients with painful spinal metastases, radiotherapy often is an adequate palliative treatment, as demonstrated in a large, randomized trial. When conditions deteriorate, however, surgical intervention maybe needed in these patients with an overall limited prognosis. A scoring system was developed to predict overall survival and to use as a tool for deciding on treatment.

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      Phase II trial of irinotecan plus celecoxib in adults with recurrent malignant glioma (pages 329–338)

      David A. Reardon, Jennifer A. Quinn, James Vredenburgh, Jeremy N. Rich, Sridharan Gururangan, Michael Badruddoja, James E. Herndon II, Jeannette M. Dowell, Allan H. Friedman and Henry S. Friedman

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20776

      Recurrence is nearly universal for patients with malignant glioma (MG) after conventional therapy comprised of surgical debulking, external beam radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, and typically is accompanied by progressive physical and mental debilitation, culminating in death. Available salvage therapies after disease progression are reported to be ineffective. The role of chemotherapy for patients with MG remains controversial. In the current study, the authors report a Phase II trial of irinotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor active against MG, with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, among MG patients with recurrent disease.

    15. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Use of positron emission tomography in localized extremity soft tissue sarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pages 339–348)

      Scott M. Schuetze, Brian P. Rubin, Cheryl Vernon, Douglas S. Hawkins, James D. Bruckner, Ernest U. Conrad III and Janet F. Eary

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20769

      Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake measured by positron emission tomography correlated with soft tissue sarcoma recurrence after chemotherapy. Patients with extremity sarcomas who had a metabolic response had a significantly lower risk of disease recurrence and improved survival.

    16. Epidemiology
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      Risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma : Disparity between African Americans and other race/ethnic groups (pages 349–357)

      Kenneth J. Chang, Gulshan Parasher, Catherine Christie, Joan Largent and Hoda Anton-Culver

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20771

      African Americans in California had a higher incidence rate of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, had a slightly higher risk of presenting with advanced-stage disease and with nonresectable tumors (i.e., tumors located in the body or tail of the pancreas), and underwent less surgical treatment than all other race/ethnicities. Younger females in all race/ethnic groups had a survival advantage over males of the same age.

    17. Pathology
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      Improving the reproducibility of diagnosing micrometastases and isolated tumor cells (pages 358–367)

      Gábor Cserni, Simonetta Bianchi, Werner Boecker, Thomas Decker, Manuela Lacerda, Fritz Rank, Clive A. Wells and for The European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20760

      The diagnoses of micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer were poorly reproducible in this study by the European Working Group for Breast Screening Pathology. The definitions available for these categories did not appear to permit a consistent distinction between the two entities; therefore, refinements are required and suggested.

    18. Pediatric Oncology
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      Bone marrow recurrence after initial intensive treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 368–376)

      Gaston K. Rivera, Yinmei Zhou, Michael L. Hancock, Amar Gajjar, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Raul C. Ribeiro, John T. Sandlund, Melissa Hudson, Mary Relling, William E. Evans and Ching-Hon Pui

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20743

      In the current study, the authors studied the clinical outcome of 106 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after first bone marrow recurrence. The 5-year survival probability among all patients was 24.2% ± 4.2% (standard error), signaling a poor outcome despite intensive retrieval therapy.

    19. Psychological Oncology
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      The correlation between fatigue, physical function, the systemic inflammatory response, and psychological distress in patients with advanced lung cancer (pages 377–382)

      Duncan J. F. Brown, Donald C. McMillan and Robert Milroy

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20777

      Objective physical function in patients with advanced lung cancer is poorer with increasing fatigue. Fatigue is not primarily a result of weight loss or anemia but is related to Karnofsky performance status and psychological distress.

      See pages 213–5.

    20. Radiation Oncology
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      Estimating the optimal utilization rates of radiotherapy for hematologic malignancies from a review of the evidence : Part I—Lymphoma (pages 383–392)

      Carolyn Featherstone, Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob and Michael Barton

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20754

      The authors developed an evidence-based benchmark for the proportion of patients with lymphoma that should receive radiotherapy at least once by reviewing treatment guidelines and merging the indications for radiotherapy with epidemiological data. The resulting optimal radiotherapy utilization rates were then compared with actual radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in clinical practice.

      See also pages 393–401.

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      Estimating the optimal utilization rates of radiotherapy for hematologic malignancies from a review of the evidence : Part II—Leukemia and myeloma (pages 393–401)

      Carolyn Featherstone, Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob and Michael Barton

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20755

      The authors developed an evidence-based benchmark for the proportions of patients with leukemia and myeloma who should receive radiotherapy at least once by reviewing treatment guidelines and merging the indications for radiotherapy with epidemiological data. The resulting optimal radiotherapy utilization rates were then compared with actual radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in clinical practice.

      See also pages 383–92.

    22. Sarcoma
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      Validation and adaptation of a nomogram for predicting the survival of patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma using a three-grade system (pages 402–408)

      Luigi Mariani, Rosalba Miceli, Michael W. Kattan, Murray F. Brennan, Maurizio Colecchia, Marco Fiore, Paolo G. Casali and Alessandro Gronchi

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20778

      The performance of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram in predicting long term tumor-specific death of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) was assessed in an independent series of patients with extremity STS. The MSKCC nomogram was shown to be a valuable tool for individual prognostic assessment and could be improved by incorporating a three-level histologic grade classification.

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      Deep-seated, well differentiated lipomatous tumors of the chest wall and extremities : The role of cytogenetics in classification and prognostication (pages 409–416)

      Mikelle D. Bassett, Scott M. Schuetze, Christine Disteche, Thomas H. Norwood, Karen Swisshelm, Xiaoqin Chen, James Bruckner, Ernest U. Conrad III and Brian P. Rubin

      Article first published online: 8 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20779

      A combined approach of histology and cytogenetics was used to stratify patients with deep-seated, well-differentiated lipomatous tumors of the chest wall and extremities into intramuscular lipoma and atypical lipomatous tumor. The diagnosis of atypical lipomatous tumor correlated with local disease recurrence (P = 0.006). The authors advocate this combined approach to better stratify patients for treatment and follow-up strategies.

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      Weekly docetaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma (pages 417–421)

      Soon Thye Lim, Anil Tupule, Byron M. Espina and Alexandra M. Levine

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20780

      A Phase II trial was conducted with weekly docetaxel in patients with advanced-stage Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to assess the drug's safety and antitumor activity. The authors found that weekly docetaxel was safe, with reasonable antitumor activity in patients with advanced-stage, recurrent, or refractory acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related KS.

    25. Translational Research
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      Ethanol stimulates tumor progression and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in chick embryos (pages 422–431)

      Jian-Wei Gu, Amelia Purser Bailey, Amanda Sartin, Ian Makey and Ann L. Brady

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20781

      A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model that bore human fibrosarcoma was used to demonstrate that the administration of physiologically relevant doses of ethanol cause significant increases in both tumor size and intratumoral vascular volume density accompanied by the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tumor expression. These findings support the hypothesis that the induction of angiogenesis and VEGF expression by ethanol represents an important mechanism of cancer progression associated with alcoholic beverage consumption.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Breast carcinoma in men : A population-based study (pages 432–433)

      William F. Anderson and Susan S. Devesa

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20797

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      Author reply (page 433)

      Sharon H. Giordano, Aman U. Buzdar and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20799

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