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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 April 2005

Volume 103, Issue 8

Pages 1537–1760

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Metastasis–An alternative hypothesis (pages 1537–1539)

      Emil J Freireich, Razelle Kurzrock and Zeev Estrov

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20935

      The authors believe that the currently accepted models of metastasis are inconsistent with many clinical observations of the natural history of cancer and its response to therapy. Specifically, they suggest that it is time for a “paradigm shift,” in which the “local, regional, systemic hypothesis” of cancer is rejected and replaced with a hypothesis that distinguishes local malignancy from systemic (metastatic) malignancy, and suggests new approaches to diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: How does it relate to breast cancer in African-American women? (pages 1540–1550)

      Alero Fregene and Lisa A. Newman

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20978

      Disproportionate incidence and mortality rates for breast cancer in African-American compared with White-American women, as well as a younger age distribution for the disease, have prompted speculation regarding a possible hereditary etiology. The current review summarizes available data on the breast cancer burden of women from sub-Saharan Africa, with a comparison to the epidemiology of breast cancer in African-American women.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Recent advances in understanding the cell death pathways activated by anticancer therapy (pages 1551–1560)

      Ryungsa Kim

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20947

      The current review focused on recent advances surrounding the mechanism(s) of cell death induced by anticancer agents and discussed potential molecular targets for enhancing the chemotherapeutic effect(s) of anticancer agents.

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      Improving delivery of antineoplastic agents with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy (pages 1561–1570)

      Anthony D. Yang, Todd W. Bauer, E. Ramsay Camp, Ray Somcio, Wenbiao Liu, Fan Fan and Lee M. Ellis

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20942

      The authors hypothesized that antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy would reduce interstitial fluid pressure in tumors, thereby improving blood flow within the tumor and enhancing the delivery of cytotoxic agents to tumor cells. For this review, the authors described features of the abnormal tumor vasculature and microenvironment that were created under the influence of VEGF, how the tumor microenvironment could impede delivery of antineoplastic agents, and how the combination of anti-VEGF and cytotoxic therapy may maximize the efficacy of antineoplastic treatment regimens.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Clinical outcome of patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma who have sentinel lymph node micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry (pages 1581–1586)

      Anees Chagpar, Lavinia P. Middleton, Aysegul A. Sahin, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Henry M. Kuerer, Barry W. Feig, Merrick I. Ross, Frederick C. Ames, S. Eva Singletary, Thomas A. Buchholz, Vincente Valero and Kelly K. Hunt

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20934

      Extensive evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes with serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry may upstage 18% of patients with breast carcinoma. This stage migration may affect management in > 12% of patients, but the impact of immunohistochemistry detected sentinel lymph node micrometastases on outcome remains unclear.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Early-stage carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract : An analysis of 1914 reported cases (pages 1587–1595)

      Jun Soga

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20939

      Of 1914 cases of gastrointestinal submucosal (GI sm) carcinoids, 1614 exhibited a metastasis rate of 16.4% (264 of 1614) and, for minute carcinoids measuring ≤ 5 mm, the authors found an unexpectedly high metastasis rate of 6.0% (24 of 399) on average, ranging from 3.7% (8 of 216) in the rectum to 17.2% (5 of 29) in the jejunoileum. In 1001 patients with GI sm carcinoids after curative resection, the 5-year survival rates (5YSRs) ranged from 98.3% in the rectum to 89.6% in the stomach (P < 0.05), averaging 96.7% in the entire series.

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      Prediction of survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma using artificial neural networks (pages 1596–1605)

      Fumiaki Sato, Yutaka Shimada, Florin M. Selaru, David Shibata, Masato Maeda, Go Watanabe, Yuriko Mori, Sanford A. Stass, Masayuki Imamura and Stephen J. Meltzer

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20938

      Artificial neural networks and sensitivity analyses were used to predict the survival outcome of patients with esophageal carcinoma. Outcome prediction using the optimal clinicopathologic data set was significantly superior compared with predictions using the TNM classification system.

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      Bile acids induce MUC2 overexpression in human colon carcinoma cells (pages 1606–1614)

      Shumei Song, James C. Byrd, Ja Seok Koo and Robert S. Bresalier

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21015

      Bile acids have been linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and mucin secretion, but their effects on mucin gene expression in colorectal carcinoma is unknown. The authors demonstrated that bile acids induce mucin expression in human colon carcinoma cells by increasing MUC2 transcription through a process involving MAP kinase-independent, protein kinase C-dependent activation of transcription activator protein 1. This may have implications for understanding the biologic behavior of mucinous colorectal carcinomas.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Increasing use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of localized prostate carcinoma (pages 1615–1624)

      Vahakn B. Shahinian, Yong-fang Kuo, Jean L. Freeman, Eduardo Orihuela and James S. Goodwin

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20955

      The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of prostate carcinoma has increased dramatically during the 1990s. Large geographic variations in use may be a reflection of the uncertainty about the risks and benefits of androgen deprivation therapy.

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      Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate : High-risk patient outcomes (pages 1625–1630)

      Kristofer L. Prepelica, Zephaniah Okeke, Alana Murphy and Aaron E. Katz

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20944

      Experience with cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in men with high-risk features for prostate carcinoma who were unwilling to undergo radical surgery or radiation therapy revealed acceptable efficacy and a low morbidity profile. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of this minimally invasive approach.

    8. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 as novel parameters of disease aggressiveness in metastatic ovarian and breast carcinoma (pages 1631–1643)

      Sivan Elloul, Mari Bukholt Elstrand, Jahn M. Nesland, Claes G. Tropé, Gunnar Kvalheim, Iris Goldberg, Reuven Reich and Ben Davidson

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20946

      The Snail, Slug, and Smad-interacting protein 1 (Sip1) transcription factors were expressed differentially in metastatic breast and ovarian carcinoma in effusions, such as the expression of E-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase 2 in these tumor types. A higher Sip1/E-cadherin ratio was correlated with advanced disease and poor overall survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma, whereas higher Snail expression predicted poor progression-free and overall survival in patients with breast carcinoma.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Cost utility in the United States of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone for the treatment of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pages 1644–1651)

      John C. Hornberger and Jennie H. Best

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20956

      The authors investigated the incremental cost-effectiveness of rituximab added to combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) compared with CHOP alone, in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It was projected that CHOP with rituximab would prolong overall survival by 1.04 years and would be cost-effective.

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      Efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation depends on cytogenetic risk for acute myeloid leukemia in first disease remission : A metaanalysis (pages 1652–1658)

      Masamitsu Yanada, Keitaro Matsuo, Nobuhiko Emi and Tomoki Naoe

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20945

      The beneficial effect of allogeneic transplantation for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in first disease remission is yielded for patients stratified into the poor and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups, but absent for those stratified into the favorable risk group.

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      Response and resistance in 300 patients with BCR-ABL–positive leukemias treated with imatinib in a single center : A 4.5-year follow-up (pages 1659–1669)

      Tanja Lahaye, Birte Riehm, Ute Berger, Peter Paschka, Martin C. Müller, Sebastian Kreil, Kirsten Merx, Uwe Schwindel, Claudia Schoch, Rüdiger Hehlmann and Andreas Hochhaus

      Article first published online: 3 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20922

      The authors investigated 300 patients with BCR-ABL–positive leukemias treated with imatinib in a single center. Rates of response and resistance were analyzed after an observation period of 4.5 years.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Lack of trastuzumab activity in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma with overexpression of erb-B2 : 39810: A Phase II trial of cancer and leukemia group B (pages 1670–1675)

      Gerald Clamon, James Herndon, Jeffrey Kern, Ramaswamy Govindan, Jennifer Garst, Dorothy Watson and Mark Green

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20950

      In patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinomas that were positive for HER-2 by immunohistochemistry, trastuzumab was ineffective therapy with a response rate < 5%.

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      Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 is an independent predictor of prognosis in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma who undergo resection with curative intent (pages 1676–1684)

      Valérie Gouyer, Massimo Conti, Patrick Devos, Farid Zerimech, Marie-Christine Copin, Evelyne Créme, Alain Wurtz, Henri Porte and Guillemette Huet

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20965

      The authors investigated mRNA expression in matrix metalloproteinases and in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) in 116 patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) who underwent resection. TIMP-1 was an independent prognostic predictor in patients with NSCLC who underwent resection with curative intent.

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      Nuclear survivin predicts recurrence and poor survival in patients with resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1685–1692)

      Eric T. Shinohara, Adriana Gonzalez, Pierre P. Massion, Heidi Chen, Ming Li, Andrea S. Freyer, Sandra J. Olson, Jeremiah J. Andersen, Yu Shyr, David P. Carbone, David H. Johnson, Dennis E. Hallahan and Bo Lu

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20951

      The nuclear localization of survival may play a vital role in predicting recurrence and overall survival in patients with lung carcinoma. In this study, the authors investigated whether using survivin as a prognostic marker may allow physicians to tailor radiation and chemotherapy better for specific patients.

    15. Melanoma
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      Clinicopathologic significance of dysadherin expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma : Immunohistochemical analysis of 115 patients (pages 1693–1700)

      Aya Nishizawa, Yukihiro Nakanishi, Kimio Yoshimura, Yuko Sasajima, Naoya Yamazaki, Akifumi Yamamoto, Katsumi Hanada, Yae Kanai and Setsuo Hirohashi

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20984

      Increased dysadherin expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma was significantly correlated with nodular subtype, Clark level, tumor thickness, ulceration, lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage, and poor patient survival. After adjusting for Clark level, tumor thickness, TNM stage, and other clinicopathologic features, increased dysadherin expression was a significant predictor of poor survival in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      The role of nitric oxide synthases and nitrotyrosine in retinoblastoma (pages 1701–1711)

      Mohan Adithi, Venkatesan Nalini and Subramanian Krishnakumar

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20961

      Expression levels of the endothelial and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and iNOS, respectively) and nitrotyrosine (NT) were studied in retinoblastoma and were correlated with tumor aggressiveness. Invasive retinoblastomas showed increased immunoreactivity for iNOS and NT. The data suggested that the expression of these molecules may be an essential functional aspect of retinoblastoma cells, perhaps in cell growth or survival. iNOS inhibition may represent an alternative treatment strategy for patients with advanced and resistant retinoblastoma.

    17. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Cancer, Medicaid enrollment, and survival disparities (pages 1712–1718)

      Cathy J. Bradley, Joseph Gardiner, Charles W. Given and Caralee Roberts

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20954

      Medicaid's enrollment policy with respect to cancer appears to be inconsistent with a national agenda to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes. This is because Medicaid limits access to care to otherwise uninsured individuals who are not disabled or attached to another qualifying program. Therefore, by the time these individuals are enrolled in Medicaid, their prognosis is poor.

    18. Pediatric Oncology
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      The IVADo regimen—A pilot study with ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin D, and doxorubicin in children with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma : A pilot study on behalf of the European Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (pages 1719–1724)

      Gianni Bisogno, Andrea Ferrari, Christophe Bergeron, Angela Scagnellato, Arcangelo Prete, Rita Alaggio, Michela Casanova, Paolo D'Angelo, Andrea Di Cataldo and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20928

      In this pilot study of pediatric patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma, the results demonstrated the feasibility of adding doxorubicin to the well established ifosfamide, vincristine, and actinomycin D regimen. This new combination will be investigated in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma in a randomized trial launched by the European pediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group.

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      Therapy-related changes in body size in Hispanic children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1725–1729)

      Jacques Baillargeon, Anne-Marie Langevin, Margaret Lewis, James J. Grady, Paul J. Thomas, Judith Mullins, Jaime Estrada, Aaron Pitney, Nancy Sacks and Brad H. Pollock

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20948

      In a predominantly Hispanic cohort of patients acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), body mass index (BMI) was elevated at diagnosis, then increased, and remained elevated for the entire duration of chemotherapy. Patients with normal weight exhibited increased BMI over time, whereas patients who were classified as overweight and obese at diagnosis exhibited BMI patterns that were relatively stable over time. The findings suggested that the risk for chemotherapy-related weight gain applies predominantly to children who begin ALL therapy within a normal weight range.

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      Body mass index in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer : A report of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (pages 1730–1739)

      Lillian R. Meacham, James G. Gurney, Ann C. Mertens, Kirsten K. Ness, Charles A. Sklar, Leslie L. Robison and Kevin C. Oeffinger

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20960

      Long-term survivors of pediatric brain tumors, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and bone malignancies are at risk to be significantly underweight as adults. A body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with alkylating agents with or without anthracycline therapy, younger age at diagnosis (males), total body irradiation (females), and abdominal radiation (males).

    21. Radiation Oncology
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      Prognostic factors in the nonsurgical treatment of esophageal carcinoma with radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy : The importance of pretreatment hemoglobin levels (pages 1740–1746)

      Dirk Rades, Steven E. Schild, Roja Bahrehmand, Oliver Zschenker, Winfried A. Alberti and Volker R. Rudat

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20952

      Thirteen potential prognostic factors were investigated in 124 patients with Stage II/III esophageal carcinoma with respect to overall survival, distant metastasis, and local disease recurrence. The strongest predictors were tumor length, radiotherapy (RT) dose, and pre-RT hemoglobin level. A pre-RT hemoglobin level of 12.1–14.0 g/dL was associated with a significantly better prognosis than hemoglobin levels ≥ 14.1 g/dL and ≤ 12.0 g/dL.

    22. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      A longitudinal study of palliative care : Patient-evaluated outcome and impact of attrition (pages 1747–1755)

      Annette S. Strömgren, Per Sjogren, Dorthe Goldschmidt, Morten Aagaard Petersen, Lise Pedersen, Linda Hoermann and Mogens Groenvold

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20958

      Over 3 weeks in a department of palliative care, improvement was seen for several patient-assessed symptoms. Attrition did not seem to bias results regarding change in symptomatology.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Author reply (pages 1757–1758)

      Lee S. Rosen

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.20997

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      Author reply (page 1760)

      Simone Cesaro and Ruggiero D'Elia

      Article first published online: 16 FEB 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21018

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