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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 November 2005

Volume 104, Issue 10

Pages 2035–2287

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
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      Molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer : Implications for molecular diagnosis (pages 2035–2047)

      Christian N. Arnold, Ajay Goel, Hubert E. Blum and C. Richard Boland

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21462

      In this review article, the authors have summarized current knowledge of molecular pathogenesis in common hereditary syndromes and sporadic forms of colorectal cancer. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for the early diagnosis and prevention of colorectal cancer that have emerged from these insights are discussed.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Inactivation of PTEN is associated with a low p27Kip1 protein expression in breast carcinoma (pages 2048–2053)

      Shinichi Tsutsui, Hiroshi Inoue, Kazuhiro Yasuda, Kosuke Suzuki, Kouichirou Tahara, Hidefumi Higashi, Shoichi Era and Masaki Mori

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21471

      A reduced PTEN protein expression correlated significantly with a low p27 protein expression in breast carcinoma. The patients demonstrating a combined decrease in PTEN and p27 protein expression had a worse disease-free survival than those with other combinations of these two protein expression patterns.

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      The cost of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma (pages 2054–2062)

      Nina Oestreicher, Scott D. Ramsey, Jeannine S. McCune, Hannah M. Linden and David L. Veenstra

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21464

      The current study estimated the cost of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma to be $23,019. This cost decreased with increasing age at diagnosis and was higher for regional disease than for local disease. This chemotherapy cost estimate could be used to better understand disease burden in oncology and to inform economic models of breast carcinoma screening and treatment.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Long-term disease-free survival of patients with radically resected thymomas : Relevance of cell-cycle protein expression (pages 2063–2071)

      Tommaso Claudio Mineo, Vincenzo Ambrogi, Davide Mineo and Alfonso Baldi

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21433

      Despite radical surgical resection, thymomas often recur. In the current study, the authors retrospectively reviewed the main clinicopathologic factors of patients with thymoma who had undergone radical surgical resection. Specimens were studied using immunohistochemistry and the expression of cell-cycle proteins (p21, p27, and p53) was assessed. Their objective was to investigate the prognostic relevance of the expression of cell-cycle proteins in these neoplasms to formulate a possible therapeutic surveillance strategy for the prevention of disease recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that disease-free survival is related to Masaoka Stage, WHO classification and cell-cycle protein expression, the latter resulting the most significant factor.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Results of a randomized controlled trial to increase colorectal cancer screening in a managed care health plan (pages 2072–2083)

      Patricia A. Ganz, Melissa M. Farmer, Michael J. Belman, Christine A. Garcia, Leanne Streja, Allen J. Dietrich, Charlotte Winchell, Roshan Bastani and Katherine L. Kahn

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21434

      A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial was conducted to increase colorectal cancer screening rates in patients enrolled in a network model managed care health plan. The intervention was not effective in this setting. However, colorectal cancer screening rates were generally low, with higher rates significantly associated with being older than 60 years, being a patient in an integrated medical group, and having had a physical examination within the past 2 years.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 in primary and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (pages 2084–2091)

      R. Houston Thompson, Michael D. Gillett, John C. Cheville, Christine M. Lohse, Haidong Dong, W. Scott Webster, Lieping Chen, Horst Zincke, Michael L. Blute, Bradley C. Leibovich and Eugene D. Kwon

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21470

      Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 was aberrantly expressed in both primary and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Patients harboring high levels of B7-H1 were at significant risk of cancer-specific death.

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      The pluripotency homeobox gene NANOG is expressed in human germ cell tumors (pages 2092–2098)

      Adam H. Hart, Lynne Hartley, Karen Parker, Marilyn Ibrahim, Leendert H.J. Looijenga, Marija Pauchnik, Chung Wo Chow and Lorraine Robb

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21435

      NANOG, a molecular marker of pluripotency, is expressed in human germline stem cells and germ cell tumors with pluripotential components.

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      Prognostic factors for survival in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma undergoing nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (pages 2099–2103)

      Jacopo Peccatori, Lisbeth Barkholt, Tanner Demirer, Maria Pia Sormani, Paolo Bruzzi, Fabio Ciceri, Alberto Zambelli, Gian Antonio Da Prada, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Salvatore Siena, Gero Massenkeil, Rodrigo Martino, Stig Lenhoff, Paolo Corradini, Giovanni Rosti, Olle Ringden, Marco Bregni and Dietger Niederwieser

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21477

      Allogeneic stem cell transplantation currently is used for the treatment of patients with cytokine-resistant renal cell carcinoma. The authors report that three clinical parameters (performance status, C-reactive protein level, and lactate dehydrogenase level) were useful in the multivariate analysis for subdividing a patient population into two subsets that had markedly different survivals.

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      Angiogenesis with pericyte abnormalities in a transgenic model of prostate carcinoma (pages 2104–2115)

      Michael G. Ozawa, Virginia J. Yao, Yvan H. Chanthery, Patricia Troncoso, Akiyoshi Uemura, Amanda S. Varner, Ian M. Kasman, Renata Pasqualini, Wadih Arap and Donald M. McDonald

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21436

      Ductules of the normal mouse prostate contain an organized network of blood vessels. Development of prostate carcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model is accompanied by progressive changes in the vascular architecture, which begin in the early hyperplastic stage and evolve into extensive angiogenesis and transformation of pericyte phenotype in poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas.

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      Proposal for revision of the TNM classification system for renal cell carcinoma (pages 2116–2123)

      Vincenzo Ficarra, François Guillè, Luigi Schips, Alexander de la Taille, Tommaso Prayer Galetti, Jacques Tostain, Luca Cindolo, Giacomo Novara, Richard Zigeuner, Emiliano Bratti, Guorong Li, Vincenzo Altieri, Claude C. Abbou, Luisa Zanolla, Walter Artibani and Jean-Jacques Patard

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21465

      The authors analyzed a large multicentric cohort of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using a scatterplot of tumor size versus the martingale residuals from a Cox proportional hazards regression model. They identified a pathologic size of 5.5 cm as the optimal breakpoint to distinguish 2 categories of localized RCC. The study supported the upgrade of the TNM classification system according to the new breakpoint.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      ζ-Chain associated protein 70 and CD38 combined predict the time to first treatment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 2124–2132)

      Ilaria Del Giudice, Alison Morilla, Nnenna Osuji, Estella Matutes, Ricardo Morilla, Anna Burford, Sonia Maravelaki, Kwasi Owusu-Ankomah, John Swansbury, Roger A'Hern, Vasantha Brito-Babapulle and Daniel Catovsky

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21437

      The authors investigated the prognostic significance of ζ-chain associated protein (ZAP)-70, as determined by flow cytometry, in relation to other known prognostic factors to predict the time to first treatment in a cohort of 201 previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ZAP-70 (cut-off point, 20%) and CD38 (cut-off point, 7%) showed complementary prognostic value. A risk model is proposed that combines both markers to classify patients with CLL into 3 subgroups with significantly different time to first treatment or treatment-free interval (TFI): ZAP-70-positive/CD38-positive: TFI, 12 months; ZAP-70-positive/CD38-negative or ZAP-70-negative/CD38-positive: TFI, 26 months; and ZAP-70-negative/CD38-negative: TFI, 54 months.

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      Anaplastic large cell lymphoma treated with a leukemia-like therapy : Report of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) LNH-92 protocol (pages 2133–2140)

      Angelo Rosolen, Marta Pillon, Alberto Garaventa, Roberta Burnelli, Emanuele S. d'Amore, Maria Giuliano, Margherita Comis, Simone Cesaro, Katia Tettoni, Maria Luisa Moleti, Paolo Tamaro, Gianluca Visintin and Luigi Zanesco

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21438

      The leukemia-like Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) LNH-92 protocol was well tolerated and demonstrated good efficacy in the treatment of children with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The value of long continuous chemotherapies for ALCL remains to be elucidated in large prospective trials.

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      Safety of prolonged therapy with bortezomib in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (pages 2141–2148)

      James R. Berenson, Sundar Jagannath, Bart Barlogie, David T. Siegel, Raymond Alexanian, Paul G. Richardson, David Irwin, Melissa Alsina, S. Vincent Rajkumar, Gordon Srkalovic, Seema Singhal, Steven Limentani, Ruben Niesvizky, Dixie L. Esseltine, Elizabeth Trehu, David P. Schenkein and Kenneth Anderson

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21427

      Bortezomib therapy beyond 8 cycles (6 mos) was safe and tolerable in patients with relapsed, refractory myeloma who had benefited from therapy in the SUMMIT and CREST Phase II clinical trials. These 63 patients were able to receive an additional median 7 cycles (approximately 5 mos) of therapy at a mean dose intensity identical to that of the parent protocol.

    13. Lung Disease
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      Randomized phase II study of weekly docetaxel plus trastuzumab versus weekly paclitaxel plus trastuzumab in patients with previously untreated advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 2149–2155)

      Lee M. Krug, Vincent A. Miller, Jyoti Patel, John Crapanzano, Christopher G. Azzoli, Jorge Gomez, Mark G. Kris, Robert T. Heelan, Barbara Pizzo, Leslie Tyson, Christine Sheehan, Jeffrey S. Ross and Ennapadam Venkatraman

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21428

      Nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) protein in approximately 20% of cases. In the current study, the authors combined trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against HER-2, with weekly taxanes in an attempt to improve outcomes over standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

    14. Neuro-Oncology
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      Primary pediatric brain tumors : Statistics of Taipei VGH, Taiwan (1975–2004) (pages 2156–2167)

      Tai-Tong Wong, Donald M. Ho, Kai-Ping Chang, Sang-Hue Yen, Wan-You Guo, Feng-Chi Chang, Muh-Lii Liang, Hung-Chi Pan and Wen-Yuh Chung

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21430

      The authors report a hospital series of 986 cases of primary pediatric brain tumors of younger than 18 years of age in Taiwan. Age and gender distribution, location, and classification of brain tumors were analyzed.

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      Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) : Treatment option for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (pages 2168–2173)

      Stephanie E. Combs, Verena Widmer, Christoph Thilmann, Holger Hof, Juergen Debus and Daniela Schulz-Ertner

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21429

      Results of a study of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

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      Use of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis classification system and predictors of survival in 19 women with brain metastases from ovarian carcinoma (pages 2174–2180)

      Philip G. Chen, Shih-Yuan Lee, Gene H. Barnett, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Jerrold P. Saxton, Peter A. Fleming and John H. Suh

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21472

      This series of 19 ovarian carcinoma patients who developed brain metastases is the first to support the prognostic usefulness of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis classification system in determining prognosis.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum : A clinicopathologic study of 35 patients treated locoregionally at a single institution (pages 2181–2188)

      Daisuke Nonaka, Shigeki Kusamura, Dario Baratti, Paolo Casali, Antonello Domenico Cabras, Rami Younan, Juan Rosai and Marcello Deraco

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21239

      In the current study, the authors found that nuclear grade, mitotic count, and completeness of cytoreduction might be useful prognostic factors in patients with diffuse malignant mesothelioma who were treated with cytoreductive surgery.

    18. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Race modifies the association between breast carcinoma pathologic prognostic indicators and the positive status for HER-2/neu (pages 2189–2196)

      Azadeh T. Stark, Sarah Claud, Alissa Kapke, Mei Lu, Michael Linden and Jennifer Griggs

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21463

      Findings from the present study suggest that race modifies the association between the accepted pathologic prognostic indicators for breast carcinoma with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu)-positive status. For Caucasian women, the probability of positive HER-2/neu status increased almost linearly with advanced TNM stage and nuclear grade dedifferentiation. However, no such association was detected for African-American women. So far, clinical correlative studies of HER-2/neu have not evaluated the effect of race as an independent variable on HER-2/neu status. Inferences about the variations in the biology of breast carcinoma between African-Americans and Caucasians have been reported. Concerns about the limited generalizability and the need for the validation of findings across racial/ethnic lines have been expressed previously.

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      Cancer in an incarcerated population (pages 2197–2204)

      Paul Mathew, Linda Elting, Catherine Cooksley, Steven Owen and James Lin

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21468

      The emergence of cancers with unique epidemiology and high associated mortality among the incarcerated population in the U.S. has significant implications for prison healthcare systems.

    20. Pathology
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      Clinical impact and frequency of anatomic pathology errors in cancer diagnoses (pages 2205–2213)

      Stephen S. Raab, Dana Marie Grzybicki, Janine E. Janosky, Richard J. Zarbo, Frederick A. Meier, Chris Jensen and Stanley J. Geyer

      Article first published online: 10 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21431

      Errors in cancer diagnosis occur relatively frequently and have a considerable impact on patient care. However, pathologists do not agree on the cause and severity of error.

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      Treatment of osteosarcoma at first recurrence after contemporary therapy : The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience (pages 2214–2221)

      Alexander J. Chou, Pamela R. Merola, Leonard H. Wexler, Richard G. Gorlick, Yatin M. Vyas, John H. Healey, Michael P. LaQuaglia, Andrew G. Huvos and Paul A. Meyers

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21417

      Patients with recurrent osteosarcoma have a poor prognosis. Review of the experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) demonstrated the benefit of aggressive chemotherapy with surgical resection in a select group of patients at first relapse.

    22. Psychological Oncology
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      A metaanalysis of studies of the effects of cancer chemotherapy on various domains of cognitive function (pages 2222–2233)

      Catherine E. Jansen, Christine Miaskowski, Marylin Dodd, Glenna Dowling and Joel Kramer

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21469

      This metaanalysis of effects of chemotherapy on cognitive function found significant averaged effects, which indicated that neuropsychologic test scores were on average lower for patients who had received chemotherapy. However, most deficits ranged from small to moderate and were nonsignificant.

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      Sexual functioning in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 2234–2243)

      Jennifer Steel, Stephanie A. Hess, Laura Tunke, Kapil Chopra and Brian I. Carr

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21450

      Sexual dysfunction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic liver disease is more often a result of comorbid medical conditions and the side effects of medication. The treatment of sexual dysfunction should not be ignored because it affects patient quality of life.

    24. Radiation Oncology
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      Single-fraction radiosurgery for the treatment of spinal breast metastases (pages 2244–2254)

      Peter C. Gerszten, Steven A. Burton, William C. Welch, Adam M. Brufsky, Barry C. Lembersky, Cihat Ozhasoglu and William J. Vogel

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21467

      In a series of 50 patients, spinal radiosurgery was found to be feasible, safe, and clinically effective for the treatment of spinal metastases from breast carcinoma. The results indicate the potential of radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with spinal breast metastases, especially those with solitary sites of spine involvement, to improve long-term palliation.

    25. Translational Research
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      Human embryonic stem cell genes OCT4, NANOG, STELLAR, and GDF3 are expressed in both seminoma and breast carcinoma (pages 2255–2265)

      Uche I. Ezeh, Paul J. Turek, Renee A. Reijo and Amander T. Clark

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21432

      Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) express a unique set of genes in common with primordial germ cells (PGCs). The present results reveal that these genes are elevated in tumors derived from germ cells as well as in nongerm cell-derived tumors such as breast carcinoma.

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      Targeted chemotherapy with cytotoxic bombesin analogue AN-215 can overcome chemoresistance in experimental renal cell carcinomas (pages 2266–2274)

      Gunhild Keller, Andrew V. Schally, Attila Nagy, Gabor Halmos, Benjamin Baker and Jorg B. Engel

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21402

      Targeted chemotherapy with the cytotoxic bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide analogue AN-215 inhibited the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), providing a new treatment modality for patients with advanced RCC.

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      Plasma cytokine and P-selectin levels in advanced malignancy : Prognostic value and impact of low–molecular weight heparin administration (pages 2275–2281)

      Marcello Di Nisio, Tatjana M. Niers, Pieter H. Reitsma and Harry R. Buller

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21485

      The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, and P-selectin predicted a poor outcome in patients with advanced stage malignancy. The survival benefits observed with low –molecular weight heparin in patients with cancer apparently cannot be explained by an effect on these circulating markers.

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      Matrix metalloproteinases in carcinoma of unknown primary (pages 2282–2287)

      Vasilis Karavasilis, Vasiliki Malamou-Mitsi, Evangelos Briasoulis, Elena Tsanou, Evangelia Kitsou, Haralambos Kalofonos, George Fountzilas, Theodore Fotsis and Nicholas Pavlidis

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21454

      This work studied proteolysis-related molecules, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), in carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).

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