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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 December 2005

Volume 104, Issue 11

Pages 2289–2532

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Erratum
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      Reducing adverse drug events in the outpatient chemotherapy setting : Attention must be paid (pages 2289–2291)

      Jonathan R. Nebeker and Charles L. Bennett

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21445

      Cancer agents have the potential for severe, and occasionally fatal, adverse drug events. Many receive accelerated approval for use after small clinical trials, with adverse drug events being identified after additional experience in the postmarketing clinical setting. Moreover, chemotherapy risks may be especially high in tertiary care settings where patients are frequently subject to complex treatment protocols with high dosages, novel agents, or novel combinations of agents. Recommendations from the study on medication errors by Gandhi et al. contribute to international efforts to prevent adverse drug reactions and improve their early recognition and treatment.

      See also pages 2477–83.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Erratum
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      The molecular genetics of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pages 2292–2309)

      Michelle N. Zikusoka, Mark Kidd, Geeta Eick, Igor Latich and Irvin M. Modlin

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21451

      In this cohesive overview of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), the results demonstrated multiple differences in chromosomal aberration patterns and in modes of gene control, such as methylation between gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs). Distinctions exist between types of PETs and between genetic traits of primary and metastatic tissues. In addition, numerous points of genetic divergence exist between GI carcinoids and PETs, suggesting that these two tumor groups should be regarded as two distinct entities.

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      Prostate cancer progression after therapy of primary curative intent : A review of data from the prostate-specific antigen era (pages 2310–2322)

      Mark Soloway and Mack Roach III

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21441

      The authors present data on the progression (PSA and clinical) of prostate cancer after primary curative therapy in relation to commonly assessed pretreatment or pathologic disease characteristics. These data highlight the substantial risk of progression for certain patient groups and the need for improved and/or additional treatment options.

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      Targeted agents for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (pages 2323–2333)

      Walter M. Stadler

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21453

      Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is currently one of the most treatment-resistant malignancies. However, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC development has led to the identification of promising targets for novel therapeutic agents. To the authors' knowledge to date, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway has been the most promising target, and the epidermal growth factor receptor and molecular target of rapamycin pathways have also shown potential. As these agents are developed, oncologists will have to learn how to manage a series of toxicities that are different from those that have plagued the classic cytotoxic therapies.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Twelve-year mortality results of a randomized trial of 2 versus 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen for postmenopausal early-stage breast carcinoma patients (SITAM 01) (pages 2334–2339)

      Maurizio Belfiglio, Miriam Valentini, Fabio Pellegrini, Giorgia De Berardis, Monica Franciosi, Maria C.E. Rossi, Michele Sacco and Antonio Nicolucci

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21474

      This study evaluated the impact on overall survival of 2 versus 5 years adjuvant tamoxifen in early breast carcinoma patients after 12 years of follow-up.

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      Correlates of breast reconstruction : Results from a population-based study (pages 2340–2346)

      Monica Morrow, Mahasin Mujahid, Paula M. Lantz, Nancy K. Janz, Angela Fagerlin, Kendra Schwartz, Lihua Liu, Dennis Deapen, Barbara Salem, Indu Lakhani and Steven J. Katz

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21444

      The switch from radical mastectomy to modified radical mastectomy coupled with advances in plastic surgical techniques has made immediate breast reconstruction an option for most patients who undergo mastectomy. Despite this, relatively few women treated with mastectomy undergo immediate or early (within 3 months of their diagnosis of breast carcinoma) breast reconstruction. The purpose of the current study was to identify patient attitudes and preferences associated with the receipt of breast reconstruction, and whether these differed by race.

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      Differences in the quality of breast cancer care among vulnerable populations (pages 2347–2358)

      David A. Haggstrom, Chris Quale and Rebecca Smith-Bindman

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21443

      By using linked cancer registry and Medicare claims data, the receipt of breast cancer treatment and surveillance was measured. The quality of breast cancer care was lower among vulnerable populations, including racial and ethnic minority groups, the elderly, and women who lived in rural areas. Many of these differences have not improved in more recent years.

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      Adjuvant systemic therapy for male breast carcinoma (pages 2359–2364)

      Sharon H. Giordano, George H. Perkins, Kristine Broglio, Sherry G. Garcia, Lavinia P. Middleton, Aman U. Buzdar and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21526

      The M. D. Anderson experience with adjuvant systemic therapy in male breast carcinoma is described.

    5. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Characterization of pathologic complete response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in carcinoma of the esophagus and outcome after pathologic complete response (pages 2365–2372)

      Pooja Rohatgi, Stephen G. Swisher, Arlene M. Correa, Tsung-T. Wu, Zhongxing Liao, Ritsuko Komaki, Garrett L. Walsh, Ara A. Vaporciyan, David C. Rice, Jack A. Roth and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21439

      The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that a lower clinical TNM stage is associated with a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pathCR) in patients with esophageal carcinoma receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and to determine whether outcome after pathCR is related to clinical stage or treatment. The authors' data suggests that there is an association betwen lower clinical stage and pathCR (P = 0.03).

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Detection of prostate carcinoma with contrast-enhanced sonography using intermittent harmonic imaging (pages 2373–2383)

      Ethan J. Halpern, John R. Ramey, Stephen E. Strup, Ferdinand Frauscher, Peter McCue and Leonard G. Gomella

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21440

      The purpose of this study was to assess prostate carcinoma detection and discrimination of benign from malignant prostate tissue with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

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      Effect of a pT0 cystectomy specimen without neoadjuvant therapy on survival (pages 2384–2391)

      Bjoern G. Volkmer, Rainer Kuefer, Georg Bartsch Jr., Michael Straub, Robert de Petriconi, Juergen E. Gschwend and Richard E. Hautmann

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21475

      In patients with radical cystectomy for urothelial bladder cancer without neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy, a tumor-free cystectomy specimen predicts an optimal tumor-specific survival if the tumor was limited to the inner half of the detrusor muscle. In patients with a maximal classification of pT2a pN0, a diagnosis of pT0 indicates a substantial survival benefit over a finding of residual tumor in the cystectomy specimen.

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      Phase II study of carboxyamidotriazole in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma refractory to immunotherapy : E4896, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (pages 2392–2399)

      Janice P. Dutcher, Larry Leon, Judith Manola, David M. Friedland, Bruce Roth and George Wilding

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21473

      In the current study, carboxyamidotriazole, an antiangiogenesis agent, was not found to be active in metastatic, immunotherapy-refractory renal cell carcinoma.

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      Tobacco smoking, GSTP1 polymorphism, and bladder carcinoma (pages 2400–2408)

      Wei Cao, Lin Cai, Jian-Yu Rao, Allan Pantuck, Ming-Lan Lu, Guido Dalbagni, Victor Reuter, Howard Scher, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Robert A. Figlin, Arie Belldegrun and Zuo-Feng Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21446

      Although cigarette smoking is considered a major risk factor for bladder carcinoma, little is known about the interaction between metabolic genes such as glutathione-S-transferase P1 and tobacco smoking in this process. GSTP1 may play a role in detoxification of tobacco-related carcinogens.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Differential expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 and ferritin light polypeptide in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia : Combined cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray study (pages 2409–2416)

      Hui-Chen Feng, Sai-Wah Tsao, Hextan Y.S. Ngan, Wei-Cheng Xue, Pui-Man Chiu and Annie N.Y. Cheung

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21483

      The differentially expressed genes, between hydatidiform moles that subsequently develop into persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and that spontaneously regress, were identified by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray. Significant down-regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and ferritin light polypeptide (FTL) was verified by quantitative RNA and immunohistochemistry studies. The potential application of IGFBP1 and FTL as markers for development of GTN may be explored.

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      Five genes from chromosomal band 8p22 are significantly down-regulated in ovarian carcinoma : N33 and EFA6R have a potential impact on overall survival (pages 2417–2429)

      Dietmar Pils, Peter Horak, Andreas Gleiss, Cornelia Sax, Gerhild Fabjani, Volker J. Moebus, Christoph Zielinski, Alexander Reinthaller, Robert Zeillinger and Michael Krainer

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21538

      Loss of heterozygosity on chromosomal band 8p22 is a common event in several epithelial tumors including ovarian carcinoma. Two to five new potential tumor suppressor or antagonizing gene candidates with impact on survival were identified from the chromosomal band 8p22 and are promising candidates for further functional analysis in ovarian carcinoma.

    12. Head and Neck Disease
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      Akt activation correlates with adverse outcome in tongue cancer (pages 2430–2436)

      Erminia Massarelli, Diane D. Liu, J. Jack Lee, Adel K. El-Naggar, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Stefania Staibano, Sabino De Placido, Jeffrey N. Myers and Vassiliki A. Papadimitrakopoulou

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21476

      The role of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in previously untreated preneoplastic lesions of oral cavity and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue on patient outcome and cancer development. In patients with SCC of the tongue, disease-free survival was significantly shorter in cases with p-Akt expression (log rank test, P < 0.0001) independently of the stage and nodal status.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Gemcitabine as frontline treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma : Phase II study of 32 patients (pages 2437–2441)

      Enrica Marchi, Lapo Alinari, Monica Tani, Vittorio Stefoni, Nicola Pimpinelli, Emilio Berti, Livio Pagano, Maria Grazia Bernengo, Francesco Zaja, Serena Rupoli, Stefano Pileri, Michele Baccarani and Pier Luigi Zinzani

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21449

      Gemcitabine has demonstrated activity in heavily pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). The objective of the current study was to determine the role of gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced, untreated CTCL.

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      Long remissions in hairy cell leukemia with purine analogs : A report of 219 patients with a median follow-up of 12.5 years (pages 2442–2448)

      Monica Else, Rosa Ruchlemer, Nnenna Osuji, Ilaria Del Giudice, Estella Matutes, Anthony Woodman, Andrew Wotherspoon, John Swansbury, Claire Dearden and Daniel Catovsky

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21447

      While pentostatin and cladribine have equal efficacy in hairy cell leukemia, achieving a complete response to therapy is critical for longer term prognosis.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Phase II study of pemetrexed in combination with carboplatin in the first-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 2449–2456)

      Ralph G. Zinner, Frank V. Fossella, Gregory W. Gladish, Bonnie S. Glisson, George R. Blumenschein Jr., Vassiliki A. Papadimitrakopoulou, Katherine M.W. Pisters, Edward S. Kim, Yun W. Oh, Beverly O. Peeples, Zhishen Ye, Rafael E. Curiel, Coleman K. Obasaju, Waun K. Hong and Roy S. Herbst

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21480

      The primary objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy and tolerability of a pemetrexed-carboplatin combination as first-line therapy in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Precision radiotherapy for hemangiopericytomas of the central nervous system (pages 2457–2465)

      Stephanie E. Combs, Christoph Thilmann, Jurgen Debus and Daniela Schulz-Ertner

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21448

      Radiotherapy (RT) plays a major role in the management of hemangiopericytomas (HAPs). The present analysis evaluates the role of precision RT in the management of HAP of the central nervous system and represents one of the largest series of HAP treated with RT that can be found in the literature.

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      Trends in survival from primary central nervous system lymphoma, 1975–1999 : A population-based analysis (pages 2466–2472)

      Katherine S. Panageas, Elena B. Elkin, Lisa M. DeAngelis, Leah Ben-Porat and Lauren E. Abrey

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21481

      Overall survival in a large, population-based cohort of patients who had primary central nervous system lymphoma was generally poor. Despite treatment advances in the past three decades, no significant time trends were observed in overall or disease-specific survival.

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      Salvage temozolomide for prior temozolomide responders (pages 2473–2476)

      Enrico Franceschi, Antonio M. P. Omuro, Andrew B. Lassman, Alexis Demopoulos, Craig Nolan and Lauren E. Abrey

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21564

      Fourteen patients with gliomas who responded to an initial course of temozolomide (TMZ) were retreated with a second course at the time of disease recurrence. Objective radiographic response or stable disease was achieved in 6 patients (43%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 21–67%), and the 6-month progression-free survival rate was 36% (95% CI, 16–61%). TMZ was found to be well tolerated and effective in this setting, suggesting that the repeat use of TMZ in patients who previously responded warrants further investigation.

    19. Discipline

      Bioethics and Legal Oncology
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      Medication safety in the ambulatory chemotherapy setting (pages 2477–2483)

      Tejal K. Gandhi, Sylvia B. Bartel, Lawrence N. Shulman, Deborah Verrier, Elisabeth Burdick, Angela Cleary, Jeffrey M. Rothschild, Lucian L. Leape and David W. Bates

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21442

      The authors found a medication error rate of 3% in outpatient chemotherapy infusion clinics, including 2% of orders with the potential to cause harm. Although these rates are relatively low, there is clearly the potential for serious patient harm. The current study identifies strategies for prevention.

      See also pages 2289–91.

    20. Diagnostic Imaging
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      Preoperative lymph node staging of early-stage cervical carcinoma by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–positron emission tomography (pages 2484–2491)

      Jason D. Wright, Farrokh Dehdashti, Thomas J. Herzog, David G. Mutch, Phyllis C. Huettner, Janet S. Rader, Randall K. Gibb, Matthew A. Powell, Feng Gao, Barry A. Siegel and Perry W. Grigsby

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21527

      Preoperative [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–positron emission tomography imaging for women with early-stage cervical carcinoma demonstrated a low sensitivity and a high specificity for the detection of lymph node metastases.

    21. Medical Oncology
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      Notable effects of angiotensin II receptor blocker, valsartan, on acute cardiotoxic changes after standard chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (pages 2492–2498)

      Hirohisa Nakamae, Kei Tsumura, Yoshiki Terada, Takahiko Nakane, Mika Nakamae, Kensuke Ohta, Takahisa Yamane and Masayuki Hino

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21478

      In this study, the effect of valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, was evaluated on acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin-based chemotherapy (standard cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone [CHOP]) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Valsartan significantly prevented acute CHOP-induced changes in the various cardiac parameters, indicating the critical role of angiotensin II in doxorubicin-induced cardiac injuries.

    22. Psychological Oncology
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      Cognitive functioning after adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for early-stage breast carcinoma (pages 2499–2507)

      Kristine A. Donovan, Brent J. Small, Michael A. Andrykowski, Frederick A. Schmitt, Pamela Munster and Paul B. Jacobsen

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21482

      Evidence suggests that women diagnosed with early-tage breast carcinoma may experience cognitive problems as a consequence of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The present study was conducted to examine whether there are differences in cognitive performance and cognitive complaints between women treated with and without chemotherapy for Stage 0 to II breast carcinoma.

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      The impact of receiving genetic test results on general and cancer-specific psychologic distress among members of an African-American kindred with a BRCA1 mutation (pages 2508–2516)

      Anita Yeomans Kinney, Lindsey E. Bloor, Diptasri Mandal, Sara Ellis Simonsen, Bonnie Jeanne Baty, Richard Holubkov, Kate Seggar, Susan Neuhausen and Ken Smith

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21479

      In the current study, genetic risk notification did not appear to result in adverse general and cancer-related psychologic distress. BRCA1 carriers did not exhibit clinically significant increased levels of distress, and noncarriers reported appreciable declines in both short-term and long-term distress.

    24. Radiation Oncology
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      VEGF as a predictive marker of rectal tumor response to preoperative radiotherapy (pages 2517–2521)

      Inti Zlobec, Russell Steele and Carolyn C. Compton

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21484

      The immunohistochemistry expression of VEGF in preirradiation rectal tumor biopsies was investigated to determine its value as a predictive marker of response to preoperative radiotherapy. Our results demonstrate that VEGF immunoreactivity is significantly associated with complete tumor regression.

    25. Translational Research
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      Zoledronic acid suppresses lung metastases and prolongs overall survival of osteosarcoma-bearing mice (pages 2522–2529)

      Benjamin Ory, Marie-Françoise Heymann, Akira Kamijo, François Gouin, Dominique Heymann and Françoise Redini

      Article first published online: 3 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21530

      A direct antitumor effect of zoledronic acid on osteosarcoma-induced lung metastasis leading to prolonged animal survival is described for the first time. In vitro, zoledronic acid inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and a weak caspase-3 activation.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Erratum
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 2531)

      Kenneth J. Chang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21498

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content

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