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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 September 2005

Volume 104, Issue 5

Pages 891–1111

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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      Optimal treatment of intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma with radiotherapy : Clinical and translational issues (pages 891–905)

      Alan M. Nichol, Padraig Warde and Robert G. Bristow

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21257

      Because intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma is clinically heterogeneous, there is controversy regarding whether dose-escalated radiotherapy or conventional-dose radiotherapy combined with androgen deprivation (AD) constitutes optimal treatment. To the authors” knowledge, currently available clinical data do not support the uniform use of both AD and dose-escalation, and patients with prostate carcinoma should be entered onto well designed clinical trials with novel biomarker analyses to afford tailored therapy.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      MammoSite excision volume as a predictor for residual disease (pages 906–912)

      Seth A. Kaufman, Thomas A. DiPetrillo, Robin Ruthazer and David E. Wazer

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21269

      To evaluate the applicability of the MammoSite catheter (a brachytherapy device used for accelerated partial breast irradiation), the authors conducted an analysis of patients with early-stage breast carcinoma who underwent breast-conserving surgery followed by reexcision over a 12–year period. For excisions that were amenable to use of the MammoSite catheter, a margin ≥ 1.0 mm at the time of initial surgery appeared to afford at most a 35% risk of microscopically detectable residual tumor found at reexcision. Margin status and histology proved to be the strongest predictors of residual disease.

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      Variation in modes of chemotherapy administration for breast carcinoma and association with hospitalization for chemotherapy-related toxicity (pages 913–924)

      Xianglin L. Du, Wenyaw Chan, Sharon Giordano, Jane M. Geraci, George L. Delclos, Keith Burau and Shenying Fang

      Article first published online: 30 JUN 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21271

      There were substantial geographic variations noted in the modes of administering chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast carcinoma. The modes of chemotherapy administration did not appear to be associated with the risk of toxicities (neutropenia, fever, thrombocytopenia, and adverse effects of systemic therapy).

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      Early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) is deleted in estrogen receptor-negative human breast carcinoma (pages 925–930)

      Karyn Ronski, Melinda Sanders, Joseph A. Burleson, Victor Moyo, Peter Benn and Min Fang

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21262

      Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on 50 human breast carcinoma specimens suggested that early growth response gene 1 (EGR1), a proposed tumor-suppressor gene, was deleted in estrogen receptor-negative breast carcinoma. No deletion was observed in estrogen receptor-positive breast carcinomas.

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      Evaluation of breast cancer with a computer-aided detection system by mammographic appearance and histopathology (pages 931–935)

      Rachel F. Brem, Jocelyn A. Rapelyea, Gilat Zisman, Jeffrey W. Hoffmeister and Martin P. DeSimio

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21255

      Computer-aided detection (CAD) evaluation of mammograms for the detection of breast cancer had high sensitivity regardless of the histopathology of the tumor. There was no difference in CAD detection of invasive ductal or lobular carcinomas or ductal carcinoma in situ, and there was greater sensitivity for the detection of tumors that had microcalcifications compared with masses. CAD was a useful tool for detecting tumors, even in histopathologic types of breast carcinoma that usually are more challenging to identify mammographically.

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      Predictors and outcomes of surgeons' referral of older breast cancer patients to medical oncologists (pages 936–942)

      Soe Soe Thwin, Aliza K. Fink, Timothy L. Lash and Rebecca A. Silliman

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21256

      Surgeons' referral of older breast cancer patients to medical oncologists is associated with higher tumor stage, estrogen receptor protein negativity, and poor health status. Our findings suggest that more consistent referral of older breast cancer patients to medical oncologists may enhance the quality of discussions and decision-making regarding treatment options.

    6. Endocrine Disease
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      RET gene rearrangements (RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3) in papillary thyroid carcinomas from an iodine-rich country (Japan) (pages 943–951)

      Tadao Nakazawa, Tetsuo Kondo, Yoshihiko Kobayashi, Noboru Takamura, Shin-ichi Murata, Kaori Kameyama, Akira Muramatsu, Kohichi Ito, Makio Kobayashi and Ryohei Katoh

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21270

      The overall frequency of RET gene rearrangements (RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3) in papillary carcinoma tissues was 28.4%, and such rearrangements occurred with greater frequency in younger patients, including 41.9% of younger patients age < 20 years, 27.6% of patients age 20–40 years, and 24.5% of patients age > 40 years. The current results raise questions regarding the belief that the frequency of RET/PTC differs geographically and is especially low in iodine-rich countries.

    7. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      BRAF mutations in colorectal carcinoma suggest two entities of microsatellite-unstable tumors (pages 952–961)

      Nikolaus Lubomierski, Guido Plotz, Marc Wormek, Knut Engels, Susanne Kriener, Jorg Trojan, Bernd Jungling, Stefan Zeuzem and Jochen Raedle

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21266

      The BRAF V599E mutation in colorectal carcinoma was associated not only with microsatellite instability (MSI) but also with epigenetic hMLH1 silencing and older patient age at the time of tumor diagnosis. These results suggest that colorectal carcinomas with MSI can be divided in two genetically distinct entities, one of which typically exhibits this BRAF mutation.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      MDM2 as a predictor of prostate carcinoma outcome : An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 8610 (pages 962–967)

      Li-Yan Khor, Michelle DeSilvio, Tahseen Al-Saleem, M. Elizabeth Hammond, David J. Grignon, William Sause, Michael Pilepich, Paul Okunieff, Howard Sandler and Alan Pollack

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21261

      The expression of MDM2 was assessed after immunohistochemical staining in 108 men with prostate carcinoma who were treated with external beam radiotherapy, with or without androgen deprivation. MDM2 overexpression quantified by image analysis was found to be associated with distant metastasis.

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      Multiinstitutional European validation of the 2002 TNM staging system in conventional and papillary localized renal cell carcinoma (pages 968–974)

      Vincenzo Ficarra, Luigi Schips, François Guillè, Guorong Li, Alexandre De La Taille, Tommaso Prayer Galetti, Luca Cindolo, Giacomo Novara, Richard E. Zigeuner, Emiliano Bratti, Jacques Tostain, Vincenzo Altieri, Claude C. Abbou, Walter Artibani and Jean-Jacques Patard

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21254

      The application of the 2002 TNM staging system in a multicenter series of 2217 patients from 7 European academic institutions enabled the authors to demonstrate optimal stratification of patients with localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with regard to disease-specific survival probabilities. Stratifying by tumor histotype, the data coming from the whole group analysis were reconfirmed for clear cell RCC only. The subclassification of localized RCCs into three subgroups made the outcome stratification of patients within single-center series troublesome, probably because of the numerousness of the cohorts.

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      Correlation between annual volume of cystectomy, professional staffing, and outcomes : A statewide, population-based study (pages 975–984)

      Linda S. Elting, Curtis Pettaway, B. Nebiyou Bekele, H. Barton Grossman, Catherine Cooksley, Elenir B. C. Avritscher, Kamaldeen Saldin and Colin P. N. Dinney

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21273

      Inpatient mortality and intraoperative complications are significantly less common among patients who undergo cystectomy for bladder carcinoma in high-volume hospitals or those hospitals with high registered nurse-to-bed ratios. Referral to high-volume or well-staffed hospitals may improve both quality of care and outcomes.

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      Quality of prostate carcinoma care in a statewide public assistance program (pages 985–992)

      Tracey L. Krupski, Jonathan Bergman, Lorna Kwan and Mark S. Litwin

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21272

      Using previously developed and validated indicators, quality of care measurement was evaluated in a statewide public assistance program for men with prostate carcinoma. Although some differences between public and private providers were identified for targeting areas for improvement, quality of care measurement was feasible for 81% of the indicators.

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      The ratio of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to prostate volume (PSA density) as a parameter to improve the detection of prostate carcinoma in PSA values in the range of < 4 ng/mL (pages 993–1003)

      Carsten Stephan, Greta Stroebel, Marc Heinau, Andre Lenz, Andreas Roemer, Michael Lein, Dietmar Schnorr, Stefan A. Loening and Klaus Jung

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21267

      Within a total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) range of 2–4 ng/mL, the PSA density (PSAD) was significantly better for the detection of prostate carcinoma compared with tPSA and the percent free PSA (%fPSA) when the 90% and 95% sensitivity levels and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed. Different cut-off levels for the PSAD of 0.05 at tPSA 2–4 ng/mL, of 0.1 at tPSA 4–10 ng/mL, and of 0.19 at tPSA 10–20 ng/mL were necessary to reach 95% sensitivity.

    13. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Prognostic impact of BRCA1 pathogenic and BRCA1/BRCA2 unclassified variant mutations in patients with ovarian carcinoma (pages 1004–1012)

      Ewa Joanna Majdak, Jaroslaw Debniak, Tomasz Milczek, Cees J. Cornelisse, Peter Devilee, Janusz Emerich, Jacek Jassem and Geertruida Hendrika De Bock

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21276

      Patients with BRCA1 pathogenic mutation seem to have reduced risk of recurrence and death. These results should be interpreted with caution as they may be influenced by more intensive treatment, better response to cisplatin, and younger age of mutation carriers. Clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 unclassified variant mutations warrants further studies.

    14. Head and Neck Disease
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      DNA methyltransferase 1 expression and promoter methylation of E-cadherin in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (pages 1013–1021)

      Yi-Shing Shieh, Shine-Gwo Shiah, Hao-Hsuan Jeng, Herng-Sheng Lee, Cheng-Wen Wu and Long-Chang Chang

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21278

      The authors found that methylation at the 5′ promoter of E-cadherin was a common event that was associated with E-cadherin expression levels in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). Furthermore, the results demonstrated that increased DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein expression may play a critical role in carcinogenesis and progression in patients with MEC. These results, which are the first to be reported in this tumor, indicated that DNMT1 may be a biologic predictor of a poor prognosis for patients with MEC.

    15. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Blastic natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia (CD56-positive blastic tumor) : Prognostication and categorization according to anatomic sites of involvement (pages 1022–1031)

      Ritsuro Suzuki, Shigeo Nakamura, Junji Suzumiya, Koichi Ichimura, Masako Ichikawa, Kiyoyuki Ogata, Yoshimasa Kura, Keiko Aikawa, Hirofumi Teshima, Masahiro Sako, Hiroshi Kojima, Mitsufumi Nishio, Tadashi Yoshino, Hiroki Sugimori, Keisei Kawa and Kazuo Oshimi

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21268

      Leukemic and lymphomatous forms of blastic natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma (BNKL)/CD56-positive blastic tumor showed similar clinicopathologic features. In contrast, cutaneous BNKL showed less frequent mediastinal involvement, and favored CD4 and HLA-DR, but not CD16 and CD34 expression. The prognosis of patients with cutaneous BNKL was significantly better than that of patients with the noncutaneous type (P = 0.02), suggesting that cutaneous and noncutaneous BNKL are distinct immature CD56-positive neoplasms with different cell origins.

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      Leukemic transformation of polycythemia vera : A single center study of 23 patients (pages 1032–1036)

      Francesco Passamonti, Elisa Rumi, Luca Arcaini, Carlo Castagnola, Monia Lunghi, Paolo Bernasconi, Matteo Giovanni Della Porta, Nora Columbo, Cristiana Pascutto, Mario Cazzola and Mario Lazzarino

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21297

      The objective of this study was to define the presenting features and outcome of 23 patients who developed acute leukemia within a cohort of 414 consecutive patients with polycythemia vera (3208 person years of follow-up). Acute leukemia showed distinct biologic features (85% of patients showed high-risk cytogenetic profile), and patients have a consistently poor outcome (median survival of 2.9 mos; range, 0.6–20.1 mos) irrespective of the treatment employed.

    17. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Overexpressed Id-1 is associated with a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with cirrhosis without transcriptional repression of p16 (pages 1037–1044)

      Yasunobu Matsuda, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Masaaki Takamura, Yutaka Honda, Yuiko Ishimoto, Takafumi Ichida and Yutaka Aoyagi

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21259

      Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding protein 1 (Id-1) was preferentially increased in patients with cirrhosis with a high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Id-1 may be a significant predictive marker for HCC occurrence in patients with cirrhosis.

    18. Melanoma
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      CCI-779 in metastatic melanoma : A Phase II trial of the California Cancer Consortium (pages 1045–1048)

      Kim Margolin, Jeffrey Longmate, Tracey Baratta, Tim Synold, Scott Christensen, Jeffrey Weber, Thomas Gajewski, Ian Quirt and James H. Doroshow

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21265

      Thirty-three patients with minimally pretreated metastatic melanoma received a 250-mg weekly intravenous dose of the rapamycin analog, CCI-779. Toxicities were predominantly mild mucocutaneous irritation and dyslipidemias. Although only one brief partial disease remission was achieved and the progression-free survival was similar to that of other ineffective agents, further study may be warranted in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic agents or biological response modifiers.

    19. Neuro-Oncology
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      Localization of the endothelin system in human diffuse astrocytomas (pages 1049–1057)

      Vinogran Naidoo, Strinivasen Naidoo, Rajeshree Mahabeer and Deshandra M. Raidoo

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21277

      Human astrocytomas (WHO Grade II) express components of the endothelin system. The role of these components in mitogenesis, antiapoptosis, and vasoregulation implicate this system in tumorigenesis.

    20. Sarcoma
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      The feasibility of neoadjuvant high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in patients with nonmetastatic high grade localized osteosarcoma : Results of a phase II study (pages 1058–1065)

      Fikret Arpaci, Selmin Ataergin, Ahmet Ozet, Kaan Erler, Mustafa Basbozkurt, Ayhan Ozcan, Seref Komurcu, Bekir Ozturk, Bulent Celasun, Selim Kilic and Okan Kuzhan

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21279

      This results of this Phase II study suggest that neoadjuvant high-dose chemotherapy results in a greater than 90% necrosis rate with acceptable toxicity. A short duration of therapy and the feasibility of limb-sparing surgery in all patients are additional advantages of this approach.

    21. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      A metaanalysis of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography in the staging and restaging of patients with lymphoma (pages 1066–1074)

      Carmen R. Isasi, Ping Lu and M. Donald Blaufox

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21253

      The authors conducted a metaanalysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the staging of lymphoma. The findings from this study showed that FDG-PET has a high sensitivity and specificity for staging patients with lymphoma; the sensitivity appeared to be higher in patients with Hodgkin disease compared with non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

    22. Epidemiology
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      Colon cancer screening practices in New York City, 2003 : Results of a large random-digit dialed telephone survey (pages 1075–1082)

      Lorna E. Thorpe, Farzad Mostashari, Anjum Hajat, Denis Nash, Adam Karpati, Thomas Weber, Sidney Winawer, Alfred I. Neugut, Amir Awad, Mabel Zevallos, Prospere Remy and Thomas Frieden

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21274

      Using data from a large, local, random-digit dialed telephone survey, the authors found that 55% of New York City (NYC) adults aged ≥ 50 years reported a colorectal cancer screening test within a recommended interval, and 42% reported a colonoscopy within the past 10 years. Low screening uptake in NYC leaves nearly 1 million New Yorkers, particularly poor and uninsured adults, at risk for undetected colorectal cancer, and colonoscopy screening programs in NYC should target racial and ethnic minorities and women.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in children and adolescents : Definitive results of a multicenter study (NPC-91-GPOH) (pages 1083–1089)

      Rolf Mertens, Bernd Granzen, Lisa Lassay, Peter Bucsky, Manfred Hundgen, Gunter Stetter, Gerhard Heimann, Claudia Weiss, Clemens F. Hess and Gunther Gademann

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21258

      The authors present results of the NPC-91-GPOH multicenter study of 59 children and adolescents with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The combined treatment with preradiation chemotherapy followed by irradiation and interferon therapy is associated with a high long-term disease-free survival rate of 91%.

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      Pediatric aggressive fibromatosis : A retrospective analysis of 13 patients and review of the literature (pages 1090–1099)

      Saskia Buitendijk, Cees P. van de Ven, Ton G. Dumans, Jan C. den Hollander, Peter J. Nowak, Wim J. Tissing, Rob Pieters and Marry M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21275

      Findings from a single-center study of children with aggressive fibromatosis (AF) were compared with all reported pediatric AF case series in the literature. The results showed that primary surgery with negative margins was the most successful primary treatment modality for children with AF, whereas positive margins after surgery indicated a high risk for recurrence.

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      Metastatic osteosarcoma at diagnosis : Prognostic factors and long-term outcome—The French pediatric experience (pages 1100–1109)

      Valerie Mialou, Thierry Philip, Chantal Kalifa, David Perol, Jean-Claude Gentet, Perrine Marec-Berard, Helene Pacquement, Pascal Chastagner, Anne-Sophie Defaschelles and Olivier Hartmann

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21263

      Patients with metastatic osteosarcoma in childhood and adolescence had poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors identified prognostic factors for these patients to adapt therapy accordingly.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Author reply (page 1111)

      Gianmauro Numico, Marco Merlano and Nicola Silvestris

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21329

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