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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 September 2005

Volume 104, Issue 6

Pages 1113–1333

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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      Genetic expression profiles and biologic pathway alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (pages 1113–1128)

      Peter Choi and Chu Chen

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21293

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      The current review indicated that there are several genes and pathways that exhibit substantially altered expression in cancerous versus noncancerous states across studies. Further investigation into the genomic, proteomic, and functional consequences of these gene expression alterations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

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      The role of radiotherapy in cancer treatment : Estimating optimal utilization from a review of evidence-based clinical guidelines (pages 1129–1137)

      Geoff Delaney, Susannah Jacob, Carolyn Featherstone and Michael Barton

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21324

      By reviewing treatment guidelines and merging the indications for radiotherapy with epidemiologic data, the authors developed an evidence-based benchmark for the proportions of all patients with cancer who should receive radiotherapy at least once. The resulting optimal radiotherapy utilization rates were then compared with actual radiotherapy utilization rates recorded in clinical practice.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      First analysis of patient demographics, technical reproducibility, cosmesis, and early toxicity : Results of the American Society of Breast Surgeons MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy Registry Trial (pages 1138–1148)

      Frank A. Vicini, Peter D. Beitsch, Coral A. Quiet, Angela Keleher, Delia Garcia, Howard C. Snider, Mark A. Gittleman, Victor J. Zannis, H. Kuerer, Eric B. Whitacre, Pat W. Whitworth, Richard E. Fine, Bruce G. Haffty and L. Stacey Arrambide

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21289

      Clinical data were collected from 87 institutions on clinical use of the MammoSite™ breast brachytherapy catheter for delivering accelerated partial breast irradiation. Acceptable technical reproducibility and acute toxicity was demonstrated between multiple institutions and use in appropriate groups of patients.

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      The effect of changes in tumor size on breast carcinoma survival in the U.S.: 1975–1999 (pages 1149–1157)

      Elena B. Elkin, Clifford Hudis, Colin B. Begg and Deborah Schrag

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21285

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      Over the past 30 years, the distribution of incident breast carcinoma cases in the U.S. has shifted toward smaller tumors, even within conventional stage categories. A substantial proportion of the improvement noted in breast carcinoma survival can be attributed to this within-stage migration of tumor size. Standardizing survival estimates on the basis of tumor size improves the understanding of secular trends in breast carcinoma outcomes.

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      Combined-modality treatment for isolated recurrences of breast carcinoma : Update on 30 years of experience at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and assessment of prognostic factors (pages 1158–1171)

      Emer O. Hanrahan, Kristine R. Broglio, Aman U. Buzdar, Richard L. Theriault, Vicente Valero, Massimo Cristofanilli, Guosheng Yin, Shu-Wan C. Kau, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Edgardo Rivera

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21305

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      Patients with an isolated recurrence of breast carcinoma that has been treated locally with surgical resection and/or irradiation with curative intent, such that there is no evidence of clinically measurable disease are classified as Stage IV—no evidence of disease (Stage IV-NED). Compared with historic controls, these patients demonstrated improved outcomes in Phase II studies if they received systemic chemotherapy after local treatment for their isolated recurrence. A proportion of these patients with Stage IV-NED breast carcinoma had prolonged disease-free and overall survival after chemotherapy, and the only significant independent prognostic factor was the number of involved axillary lymph nodes at initial diagnosis.

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      Spectrum and prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in Sardinian patients with breast carcinoma through hospital-based screening (pages 1172–1179)

      Grazia Palomba, Marina Pisano, Antonio Cossu, Mario Budroni, Maria F. Dedola, Antonio Farris, Antonio Contu, Paola Baldinu, Francesco Tanda and Giuseppe Palmieri

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21298

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      A clinical evaluation program among Sardinian patients with breast carcinoma was useful in defining indicators (breast carcinoma diagnosis before age 50 yrs, familial recurrence of ovarian carcinoma or male breast carcinoma, or 3 affected generations) of the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. The majority of breast carcinoma families remained negative for BRCA1 and BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations, confirming that additional breast carcinoma susceptibility genes must be identified.

    5. Endocrine Disease
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      Carcinoids of the pancreas : An analysis of 156 cases (pages 1180–1187)

      Jun Soga

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21291

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      A total of 156 reported cases of pancreatic carcinoids contained in the Niigata Registry, 144 typical and 12 atypical, were statistically evaluated and, where necessary, were compared with carcinoids of other representative sites. The pancreatic carcinoid series was characterized by a high metastatic rate (66.7%), a large average tumor-size (68.6 mm), a high incidence of the carcinoid syndrome (23.3%), a high rate of immunohistochemical detection for serotonin (92.9%), and a low five-year survival rate (28.9% ± 16.7%).

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Marriage and mortality in bladder carcinoma (pages 1188–1194)

      John L. Gore, Lorna Kwan, Christopher S. Saigal and Mark S. Litwin

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21295

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      Independent of factors known to influence survival in patients with bladder carcinoma, including race/ethnicity, disease stage, and lymph node status, married patients appear to have better survival after radical cystectomy than nonmarried patients. Psychosocial and immunologic mechanisms may explain the differential survival.

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      Clonal divergence and genetic heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinomas with sarcomatoid transformation (pages 1195–1203)

      Timothy D. Jones, John N. Eble, Mingsheng Wang, Gregory T. MacLennan, Shashi Jain and Liang Cheng

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21288

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      Our molecular data suggest that both clear cell and sarcomatoid components of renal cell carcinomas are derived from the same progenitor cell. Different patterns of allelic loss in multiple chromosomal regions were observed in clear cell and sarcomatoid components from the same patient. This genetic heterogeneity indicates genetic divergence during the clonal evolution of renal cell carcinoma.

    8. Gynecologic Oncology
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      A phase I study and pharmacologic evaluation of irinotecan and carboplatin for patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma who previously received platinum-containing chemotherapy (pages 1204–1212)

      Kan Yonemori, Noriyuki Katsumata, Noboru Yamamoto, Takahiro Kasamatsu, Takuro Yamada, Ryuichiro Tsunematsu and Yasuhiro Fujiwara

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21287

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      Irinotecan at a dose of 60 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 with carboplatin 5 mg · mL/minute on Day 1 every 4 weeks was recommended for patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma who previously received platinum-containing chemotherapy.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in patients with lymphoma (pages 1213–1220)

      Roy F. Chemaly, Harrys A. Torres, Ray Y. Hachem, Graciela M. Nogueras, Elizabeth A. Aguilera, Anas Younes, Mario A. Luna, Gilhen Rodriguez, Jeffrey J. Tarrand and Issam I. Raad

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21294

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      Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has emerged as an important cause of life-threatening pneumonia among patients with lymphoma. Its incidence is increasing. In the current study, a high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and development of antiviral toxicity were associated with fatal CMV pneumonia.

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      Long-term outcome after radiotherapy alone for lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma : A retrospective multicenter study of the Australasian Radiation Oncology Lymphoma Group (pages 1221–1229)

      Andrew Wirth, Kally Yuen, Michael Barton, Daniel Roos, Kumar Gogna, Gary Pratt, Craig MacLeod, Sean Bydder, Graeme Morgan and David Christie

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21303

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      In this study, the authors demonstrated that radiotherapy (RT) may be curative for patients with Ann Arbor Stage I–II lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and that limited-field RT potentially demonstrate equivalent treatment efficacy with a reduction in toxicity compared with wide-field RT.

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      AMN107, a novel aminopyrimidine inhibitor of p190 Bcr-Abl activation and of in vitro proliferation of Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (pages 1230–1236)

      Srdan Verstovsek, Mirna Golemovic, Hagop Kantarjian, Tashi Manshouri, Zeev Estrov, Paul Manley, Tong Sun, Ralph B. Arlinghaus, Leila Alland, Margaret Dugan, Jorge Cortes, Francis Giles and Miloslav Beran

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21299

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      AMN107 is highly effective in inhibiting the activation of p190 Bcr-Abl and the in vitro proliferation of p190 Bcr-Abl–expressing acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. With a similar mechanism of action, the antiproliferative potency of AMN107 was 30–40-fold higher than that of imatinib.

    12. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Fixed dose-rate gemcitabine infusion as first-line treatment for advanced-stage carcinoma of the pancreas and biliary tree (pages 1237–1245)

      Alain Gelibter, Paola Malaguti, Serena Di Cosimo, Emilio Bria, Enzo Maria Ruggeri, Paolo Carlini, Fabio Carboni, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Mario Pellicciotta, Diana Giannarelli, Edmondo Terzoli, Francesco Cognetti and Michele Milella

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21286

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      Gemcitabine infused at a fixed dose rate (10 mg/m2 per minute) appears to be active and well tolerated in patients with advanced-stage pancreatic and biliary tree carcinoma. The survival and clinical benefit results noted with this regimen were encouraging and prompted further evaluation of this schedule.

    13. Melanoma
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      The predictive value of CD8, CD4, CD68, and human leukocyte antigen-D-related cells in the prognosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma with vertical growth phase (pages 1246–1254)

      Franca Piras, Romano Colombari, Luigi Minerba, Daniela Murtas, Carlo Floris, Cristina Maxia, Arianna Corbu, M. Teresa Perra and Paola Sirigu

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21283

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      In the current study, the authors investigated the antitumoral activity of melanoma-infiltrating immune system cells and found a statistically significant, favorable correlation between survival and the density of primary tumor-infiltrating CD8 T lymphocytes or human leukocyte antigen-D-related cells. These results may be important for identifying additional prognostic factors with which to evaluate disease progression and develop immune therapies for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma.

    14. Sarcoma
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      Alterations of G1-S checkpoint in chordoma : The prognostic impact of p53 overexpression (pages 1255–1263)

      Takahiko Naka, Carsten Boltze, Doerthe Kuester, Torss-Oliver Schulz, Regine Schneider-Stock, Angela Kellner, Amir Samii, Christian Herold, Helmut Ostertag and Albert Roessner

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21296

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      Accumulation of cell cycle alterations led to increased MIB-1 labeling index and nuclear pleomorphism, a previously described prognostic indicator in chordoma. The authors believe that p53 overexpression, in particular, is associated with an unfavorable prognosis in patients with chordoma.

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      Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumors : A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge (pages 1264–1270)

      Imran Hassan, Roman Shyyan, John H. Donohue, John H. Edmonson, Leonard L. Gunderson, Christopher R. Moir, Carola A.S. Arndt, Antonio G. Nascimento and Florencia G. Que

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21282

      Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms. Despite the current multimodality approach of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, the prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor.

    16. Discipline

      Pathology
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      Prognostic significance of the lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio in percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1271–1280)

      Yasuharu Nakahara, Yoshiro Mochiduki, Yoshihiro Miyamoto, Yukiko Nakahara and Yoshitaka Katsura

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21290

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      The lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio in percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytologic specimens offered significant independent prognostic information for patients with advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. This ratio may have similar significance as the histologic assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in surgically resected carcinomas.

    17. Pediatric Oncology
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      Phase 1 study of concurrent RMP-7 and carboplatin with radiotherapy for children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas (pages 1281–1287)

      Roger J. Packer, Mark Krailo, Minesh Mehta, Katherine Warren, Jeffrey Allen, Regina Jakacki, Judith G. Villablanca, Akiko Chiba and Gregory Reaman

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21301

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      The results of the current study confirmed the feasibility of giving RMP-7 and carboplatin daily during radiotherapy.

    18. Psychological Oncology
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      Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer : A prospective cohort study on the association between depressive feelings, fatigue, and risk for cancer (pages 1288–1295)

      Corinna Bergelt, Jane Christensen, Eva Prescott, Morten Grønbæk, Uwe Koch and Christoffer Johansen

      Article first published online: 8 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21302

      The authors investigated the association between vital exhaustion and cancer risk in a prospective cohort design. The results provided no evidence that vital exhaustion is a risk factor for the development of cancer.

    19. Radiation Oncology
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      Intensity-modulated radiation therapy use in the U.S., 2004 (pages 1296–1303)

      Loren K. Mell, Amit K. Mehrotra and Arno J. Mundt

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21284

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      The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, a technological development that enables conformal delivery of photon-beam radiation therapy, has increased dramatically in the U.S. since 2002. Prospective data evaluating its risks and benefits and guidelines for its use in the general community are limited yet increasingly are needed.

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      Dosimetric parameters that predict late rectal complications after curative radiotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma (pages 1304–1311)

      Tae Hyun Kim, Jinho Choi, Sung-Yong Park, Seok-Ho Lee, Kyu-Chan Lee, Dae Sik Yang, Kyung Hwan Shin, Kwan Ho Cho, Hyun-Sun Lim and Joo-Young Kim

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21292

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      The 5-year actuarial rate of late rectal complication (LRC) ≥ Grade 2 was 5.4% in patients who received a total biologically effective dose (BED) at rectal point (BEDRP) < 125 Gy3 and 36.1% in patients who received a BEDRP ≥ 125 Gy3 (P < 0.001). The BEDRP was a useful dosimetric parameter for predicting the risk of LRC ≥ Grade 2 and should be limited to < 125 Gy3 whenever possible to minimize the risk of LRC ≥ Grade 2 in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma who are treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation.

    21. Translational Research
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      Targeted therapy with a cytotoxic somatostatin analog, AN-238, inhibits growth of human experimental endometrial carcinomas expressing multidrug resistance protein MDR-1 (pages 1312–1321)

      Jorg B. Engel, Andrew V. Schally, Gabor Halmos, Ben Baker, Attila Nagy and Gunhild Keller

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21327

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      The cytotoxic somatostatin analog, AN-238, consists of a superactive derivative of doxorubicin linked to a somatostatin analog carrier. It was targeted to somatostatin receptors in experimental endometrial carcinomas and powerfully inhibited tumor growth.

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      Liposome-encapsulated curcumin : In vitro and in vivo effects on proliferation, apoptosis, signaling, and angiogenesis (pages 1322–1331)

      Lan Li, Fadi S. Braiteh and Razelle Kurzrock

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21300

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      Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phytochemical with potent nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-inhibitory activity. It is pharmacologically safe, but its bioavailability is poor after oral administration. The authors encapsulated curcumin in a liposomal delivery system that would allow intravenous administration. Liposomal curcumin down-regulated the NF-κB machinery, suppressed growth, and induced apoptosis of human pancreatic cells in vitro. Antitumor and antiangiogenesis effects were observed in vivo.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 1333)

      Wolfgang Janni, Brigitte Rack and Klaus Friese

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21321

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