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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 November 2005

Volume 104, Issue 9

Pages 1781–2034

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Original Article
    5. Correspondence
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      Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: 5 years later (pages 1781–1788)

      Sanne M. van der Zwan and Ronald P. DeMatteo

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21419

      Gastrointestinal tumor (GIST) has become the prototype disease for the molecular therapy of cancer. Imatinib mesylate was first applied to GIST 5 years ago and since that time has dramatically altered the survival of patients with metastatic disease and may decrease the chance of recurrence after surgical resection of primary disease.

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      The epigenome as a molecular marker and target : Implications for cancer (pages 1789–1793)

      David Gius, C. Matthew Bradbury, Lunching Sun, Rania T. Awwad, Lei Huang, Dee Dee K. Smart, Kheem S. Bisht, Allen S. Ho and Phuongmai Nguyen

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21395

      Methylation plays a critical role in cellular transformation; therefore, genes regulating intracellular methylation status may be used as molecular markers to profile tumors. In this study, the authors discuss the potential of DNMT genes as novel molecular targets for anticancer agents.

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      Proteasome inhibition and its clinical prospects in the treatment of hematologic and solid malignancies (pages 1794–1807)

      Heinz Ludwig, David Khayat, Giuseppe Giaccone and Thierry Facon

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21414

      Bortezomib is a first in-class proteasome inhibitor shown to be effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Bortezomib alone or in combination regimens also showed activity with manageable toxicity in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and has demonstrated encouraging activity in clinical trials of patients with advanced hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

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      Mature T-cell leukemias (pages 1808–1818)

      Farhad Ravandi, Hagop Kantarjian, Dan Jones, Claire Dearden, Michael Keating and Susan O'Brien

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21405

      Mature T-cell leukemias are relatively rare entities that have generally been difficult to treat. Recent advances in understanding their biology are likely to facilitate progress in treating patients with these disorders.

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      Role of cyclic AMP response element binding protein in human leukemias (pages 1819–1824)

      Deepa B. Shankar, Jerry C. Cheng and Kathleen M. Sakamoto

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21401

      The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and survival. CREB acts as a protooncogene in hematopoiesis and contributes to the development of leukemia.

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      Aberrant methylation of H-cadherin (CDH13) promoter is associated with tumor progression in primary nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1825–1833)

      Jin Seuk Kim, Joungho Han, Young Mog Shim, Joobae Park and Duk-Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21409

      In this review, the authors found that H-cadherin methylation was associated with tumor progression in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but did not have prognostic significance in patients with early-stage NSCLC. In addition, the current findings indicated that H-cadherin methylation may be a valuable candidate molecular marker for the early detection of NSCLC.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Original Article
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Axillary disease recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection for breast carcinoma (pages 1834–1839)

      Karen K. Swenson, Amit Mahipal, Mary J. Nissen, Todd M. Tuttle, Keith Heaton, Robin M. Lally, Amy Spomer and Martin W. Lee

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21357

      Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is increasingly being used to evaluate axillary lymph nodes in clinically lymph node negative patients as an alternative to an axillary lymph node dissection. The current study found an axillary lymph node recurrence rate of 0.62% (4 of 647 patients) after SLND alone with a median follow-up of 33 months in early-stage breast carcinoma.

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      The frequency of ipsilateral second tumors after breast-conserving surgery for DCIS : A population-based analysis (pages 1840–1848)

      Joan L. Warren, Donald L. Weaver, Therese Bocklage, Charles R. Key, Charles E. Platz, Kathleen A. Cronin, Rachel Ballard-Barbash, Shawna C. Willey and Linda C. Harlan

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21406

      Among a population-based sample of women with ductal carcinoma in situ who were treated with breast-conserving surgery, those receiving radiation therapy (RT) were found to be significantly less likely to develop second events in the ipsilateral breast, particularly invasive tumors. However, the extent of benefit from RT for a population-based cohort is less than that reported in clinical trials.

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      Prevalence of hereditary breast/ovarian carcinoma risk in patients with a personal history of breast or ovarian carcinoma in a mammography population (pages 1849–1853)

      Francisco J. Dominguez, Julie L. Jones, Katherina Zabicki, Barbara L. Smith, Michele A. Gadd, Michele Specht, Daniel B. Kopans, Richard H. Moore, James S. Michaelson and Kevin S. Hughes

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21393

      In a series of patients with a personal history of breast or ovarian carcinoma presenting for mammography, 20.6% had a family history suggestive of a BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation.

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      Surgeon perspectives about local therapy for breast carcinoma (pages 1854–1861)

      Steven J. Katz, Paula M. Lantz, Nancy K. Janz, Angela Fagerlin, Kendra Schwartz, Lihua Liu, Dennis Deapen, Barbara Salem, Indu Lakhani and Monica Morrow

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21396

      Results from a survey of surgeons who perform breast surgery in Los Angeles and Detroit suggested that variation in surgeon opinion about local therapy reflected clinical uncertainty about the benefits of alternative treatments. Surgeon clinical opinion about local therapy also varied greatly by patient and surgeon characteristics.

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      Breast carcinoma with noninflammatory skin involvement (T4b) : Time to abandon an historic relic from the TNM classification (pages 1862–1870)

      Uwe Guth, Edward Wight, Andreas Schotzau, Igor Langer, Holger Dieterich, Christoph Rochlitz, Linda Herberich, Wolfgang Holzgreve and Gad Singer

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21394

      Compared with other tumor categories, T4b breast carcinoma encompasses tumors in patients who have considerably heterogeneous clinical courses and prognoses; for approximately half of these patients, the feature noninflammatory skin involvement has no significant prognostic impact. In principle, both aspects violate the concept of the stage model on which the TNM system is based and question the validity of the T4 category in its current form.

    6. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Cost-effectiveness projections of oxaliplatin and infusional fluorouracil versus irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil in first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal carcinoma (pages 1871–1884)

      Bruce E. Hillner, Deborah Schrag, Daniel J. Sargent, Charles S. Fuchs and Richard M. Goldberg

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21411

      On the basis of results from the randomized Intergroup N9741 comparison of oxaliplatin and infusional fluorouracil (FOLFOX) with irinotecan and bolus fluorouracil, FOLFOX has been embraced rapidly in the United States as a standard of care. A computer model based on the benefits, toxicities, and survival reported in that trial projected the incremental cost effectiveness of FOLFOX at $80,410 per additional life year gained, an amount that falls in the upper range of commonly accepted oncology interventions.

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      Overexpression of caspase recruitment domain (CARD) membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and CARD9 in primary gastric B-cell lymphoma (pages 1885–1893)

      Shigeo Nakamura, Shotaro Nakamura, Takayuki Matsumoto, Shinichiro Yada, Minako Hirahashi, Hiroshi Suekane, Takashi Yao, Kenichi Goda and Mitsuo Iida

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21421

      The expression of caspase recruitment domain (CARD) membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and CARD9 mRNA was investigated in 65 patients with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. The overexpression of CARMA1 and CARD9 presumably is associated with the development or progression of gastric B-cell lymphoma, especially for those tumors in which Helicobacter pylori is unrelated to the pathogenesis.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      A phase II trial of palliative radiotherapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1894–1900)

      Justin Lee, David Hodgson, Edward Chow, Andrea Bezjak, Pamela Catton, Debbie Tsuji, Mary O'Brien, Cyril Danjoux, Charles Hayter, Padraig Warde and Mary K. Gospodarowicz

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21410

      A palliative radiotherapy dose of 30 grays in 10 fractions can result in a significant response rate and the relief of local symptoms in patients with bone metastases from renal cell carcinoma. In the current study, improvements in global pain and quality of life were limited by the effects of progressive systemic disease.

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      Clonal origin of lymph node metastases in bladder carcinoma (pages 1901–1910)

      Timothy D. Jones, Matthew D. Carr, John N. Eble, Mingsheng Wang, Antonio Lopez-Beltran and Liang Cheng

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21466

      Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and X-chromosome inactivation assays showed that multiple lymph node metastases and matched primary urothelial carcinomas of the bladder have the same clonal origin, suggesting that the capability for metastasis often arises in only a single clonal population in the primary tumor. The variable LOH patterns observed in some patients likely reflect genetic divergence during the clonal evolution of urothelial carcinoma.

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      Recursive partitioning for risk stratification in men undergoing repeat prostate biopsies (pages 1911–1917)

      Mark Garzotto, Yon Park, Solange Mongoue-Tchokote, Jesse Bledsoe, Laura Peters, Bruce H. Blank, Donald Austin, Tomasz M. Beer and Motomi Mori

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21420

      Prostate carcinoma is diagnosed on a subsequent biopsy in nearly one-third of patients who undergo repeat biopsies after an initial negative biopsy result and is independently associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSADT), PSA density (PSAD), referral indication, the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), patient age, and family history of prostate carcinoma. Four distinct risk groups characterized by their PSADT and PSAD and the presence of HGPIN had estimated 2-year and 5-year carcinoma detection rates of 3 ± 1% and 21 ± 4%, 28 ± 5% and 40 ± 7%, 22 ± 6% and 58 ± 8%, and 66 ± 9% and 100%, respectively.

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      Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 9q and p53 alterations in human bladder cancer (pages 1918–1923)

      Shuya Hirao, Tomoko Hirao, Carmen J. Marsit, Yoko Hirao, Alan Schned, Tara Devi-Ashok, Heather H. Nelson, Angeline Andrew, Margaret R. Karagas and Karl T. Kelsey

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21423

      Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was examined at chromosome 9q in a population-based study of bladder cancer to identify the relation of these alterations with patient demographics, exposure histories, and alteration of the tumor suppressor p53, which has been associated with tumor stage in previous reports. It was found that LOH in the 9q region as well as p53 immunohistochemical staining are significantly and independently associated with invasive bladder cancer. These findings indicate that tumor suppressor loci located at 9q may be important in the development of the invasive phenotype.

    12. Gynecologic Oncology
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      WT1 and WT1-AS genes are inactivated by promoter methylation in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (pages 1924–1930)

      Masanori Kaneuchi, Masahiro Sasaki, Yuichiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Shiina, Hideto Yamada, Ritsu Yamamoto, Noriaki Sakuragi, Hideki Enokida, Mukesh Verma and Rajvir Dahiya

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21397

      This study shows for the first time that expression or nonexpression of the Wilms tumor suppressor 1 gene (WT1) and WTI antisense (WT1-AS) genes is an important biochemical feature that distinguishes serous from clear cell ovarian adenocarcinoma, respectively. CpG hypermethylation of the WT1 and WT1-AS gene promoters is shown to be an important mechanism that leads to their inactivation in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    13. Hematologic Oncology
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      Reduced intensity conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia as a first-line treatment (pages 1931–1938)

      Didier P. Blaise, Jean Michel Boiron, Catherine Faucher, Mohamad Mohty, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Valerie-Jeanne Bardoux, Virginie Perreau, Diane Coso, Arnaud Pigneux and Norbert Vey

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21418

      Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after a reduced-intensity regimen results in a low transplant-related mortality and a high graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with first complete remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    14. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      A long-term follow-up and management study of hepatocellular carcinoma patients surviving for 10 years or longer after curative hepatectomy (pages 1939–1947)

      Kazuaki Shimada, Tsuyoshi Sano, Yoshihiro Sakamoto and Tomoo Kosuge

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21461

      The detection of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through the screening of high-risk populations and the precise preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of macroscopic nodules have led to a decrease in the number of patients with occult tumors remaining after surgery. However, the long-term survival of these patients still is unsatisfactory and a permanent cure remains difficult to achieve because of the high frequency of postoperative disease recurrence. The objectives of the current study were to elucidate the clinicopathologic characteristics and disease recurrence patterns of patients with HCC who survived for 10 years or longer after undergoing the initial hepatectomy.

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      Outcome of partial hepatectomy for large (> 10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 1948–1955)

      Kui-Hin Liau, Leyo Ruo, Jinru Shia, Aasim Padela, Mithat Gonen, William R. Jarnagin, Yuman Fong, Michael I. D'Angelica, Leslie H. Blumgart and Ronald P. DeMatteo

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21415

      Partial hepatectomy for large (> 10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is believed by many to be ineffective. The authors compared outcomes after surgical resection of 82 patients with tumors >10 cm with 111 patients with smaller tumors. The 5-year overall survival for patients with large HCC was 33% with a median of 32 months and was similar in patients with smaller tumors. There also was no difference in operative mortality (2% in large HCC vs. 6%) or recurrence rate. Therefore, partial hepatectomy is safe for patients with large HCC and, in selected patients, achieves similar overall survival and recurrence-free survival.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Dose-dense vinorelbine and docetaxel with Filgrastim support in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1956–1961)

      Ray D. Page, Frederick P. Smith, George F. Geils, Charles L. Beall, Moshe Fridman and Barbara J. Allen

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21400

      The efficacy and toxicity data in this study supported the use of dose-dense vinorelbine and docetaxel chemotherapy administered with Filgrastim support, beginning in the first cycle, among patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma who received treatment in a community practice setting.

    17. Melanoma
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      Increased incidence of melanoma in renal transplantation recipients (pages 1962–1967)

      Christopher S. Hollenbeak, Michael M. Todd, Elizabeth M. Billingsley, Gregory Harper, Anne-Marie Dyer and Eugene J. Lengerich

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21404

      For this study, the authors evaluated the risk of melanoma among immunosuppressed renal transplantation recipients. The findings indicated that patients who underwent renal transplantation were nearly 3.6 times more likely to develop melanoma than the general population.

    18. Neuro-Oncology
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      A Phase I study of concurrent RMP-7 and carboplatin with radiation therapy for children with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas (pages 1968–1974)

      Roger J. Packer, Mark Krailo, Minesh Mehta, Katherine Warren, Jeffrey Allen, Regina Jakacki, Judith G. Villablanca, Akiko Chiba and Gregory Reaman

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21403

      The objective of this Phase I study was to determine the toxicity and feasibility of delivering RMP-7 and carboplatin for 5 successive days during radiotherapy to increase radiosensitization in children with newly diagnosed, diffuse, intrinsic brainstem gliomas. Although conclusions concerning efficacy could not be drawn reliably, the authors did demonstrate the potential use of blood-brain barrier-disruptive agents with chemotherapy during radiotherapy for the treatment of a highly resistant tumor and the ability to deliver bone marrow-toxic chemotherapy daily during radiotherapy.

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      Marital status, treatment, and survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme : A population-based study (pages 1975–1984)

      Susan M. Chang and Fred G. Barker II

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21399

      In the current study, patients with glioblastoma multiforme who were not married at the time of diagnosis presented with larger tumors and were treated less aggressively with both surgery and radiation therapy. Even after adjustment for tumor size and treatment, unmarried patients were found to have a shorter survival.

    20. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      A phase I trial of protracted oral fixed-dose temozolomide (pages 1985–1991)

      Suzanne F. Jones, F. Anthony Greco, Victor G. Gian, Fernando T. Miranda, Eric L. Raefsky, John D. Hainsworth, Noel T. Willcutt, Aurelia F. Beschorner, Glyndon Kennerly and Howard A. Burris III

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21408

      Protracted administration of temozolomide at a fixed dose of 300 mg/day for 5 of every 7 days continuously was well tolerated and allowed greater dose intensity compared with various other schedules. This regimen could potentially increase antitumor activity as protracted temozolomide schedules inhibited DNA repair by depletion of the repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase.

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      Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and irinotecan in patients with previously treated carcinoma of an unknown primary site : A Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network Phase II trial (pages 1992–1997)

      John D. Hainsworth, David R. Spigel, Eric L. Raefsky, Michel E. Kuzur, Kathleen Yost, Michael Kommor, Sharlene Litchy and F. Anthony Greco

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21416

      The combination of gemcitabine and irinotecan has modest activity and is well tolerated in patients with recurrent/refractory carcinoma of an unknown primary site. Treatment-related toxicity, particularly myelosuppression, appears less severe than toxicity produced by the taxane and platinum regimens frequently used in the first-line therapy of these patients.

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      Developing a cancer-specific geriatric assessment : A feasibility study (pages 1998–2005)

      Arti Hurria, Supriya Gupta, Marjorie Zauderer, Enid L. Zuckerman, Harvey J. Cohen, Hyman Muss, Miriam Rodin, Katherine S. Panageas, Jimmie C. Holland, Leonard Saltz, Mark G. Kris, Ariela Noy, Jorge Gomez, Ann Jakubowski, Clifford Hudis and Alice B. Kornblith

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21422

      As the population ages, there is an emerging need to develop a means for oncologists to characterize the “functional age” of older patients with cancer in order to tailor treatment decisions and stratify outcomes based on factors other than chronologic age and to develop interventions to optimize cancer treatment. The authors developed a brief, yet comprehensive, primarily self-administered cancer-specific geriatric assessment.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age : Results from the Italian studies (pages 2006–2012)

      Giovanni Cecchetto, Rita Alaggio, Patrizia Dall'Igna, Gianni Bisogno, Andrea Ferrari, Cosimo Gigante, Michela Casanova, Guido Sotti, Ilaria Zanetti and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21412

      A series of initially unresectable nonrhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in childhood is reported, distinguishing between chemosensitive and nonchemosensitive tumors. The results show that multidisciplinary treatment without mutilating procedures allowed the cure of most patients. The achievement of local control, the size and site of the tumor, and histologic grading for nonchemosensitive tumors were important factors in the outcome.

    24. Psychological Oncology
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      Symptoms in patients with lung carcinoma : Distinguishing distress from intensity (pages 2013–2021)

      Carol Tishelman, Lesley F. Degner, Ann Rudman, Kristina Bertilsson, Ruth Bond, Eva Broberger, Eva Doukkali and Helena Levealahti

      Article first published online: 21 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21398

      The results of this study showed that distress is a dimension of symptom experience that is not equivalent to the dimension of symptom intensity in patients with inoperable lung carcinoma during the first year after diagnosis. Breathing, pain, and fatigue consistently were associated with the most distress, which was described as related to the past and the present and to expectations for the future.

  3. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Original Article
    5. Correspondence
    1. Discipline

      Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Epidemiology of cancer-related fatigue in the Swedish twin registry (pages 2022–2031)

      Michael J. Forlenza, Per Hall, Paul Lichtenstein, Birgitta Evengard and Patrick F. Sullivan

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21373

      Point prevalence and prevalence odds ratios of cancer-related fatigue were estimated using data from a large, population-based cohort that was screened for fatigue and linked with national registry-based data about cancer. Individuals who were listed in a national cancer registry were more likely to be fatigued compared with the general population.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Original Article
    5. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 2033)

      R.I. Portin, H.Y.M. Helenius and Eeva K. Salminen

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21460

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      Imatinib mesylate lacks activity in small cell lung carcinoma expressing c-kit protein: A phase II clinical trial (pages 2033–2034)

      Ozden Altundag, Kadri Altundag, Cem Boruban, Yavuz S. Silay and Selahattin Turen

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21407

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      Author reply (page 2034)

      Lee M. Krug

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21413

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