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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 January 2006

Volume 106, Issue 1

Pages 1–235

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Assuring the ethical conduct of clinical cancer trials in the developing world (pages 1–3)

      Maurie Markman

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21556

      It is important that clinical cancer investigators in the “developed” world assist in assuring that cancer trials conducted in the “developing” world satisfy mandatory ethical standards.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast carcinoma : A metaanalysis (pages 4–16)

      Theodore Kim, Armando E. Giuliano and Gary H. Lyman

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21568

      Lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph node biopsy has the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with breast carcinoma staging. This systematic review of sentinel node biopsy followed by complete axillary lymph node dissection revealed a wide variation in reported test performance characteristics.

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      Successes and failures of the teachable moment : Smoking cessation in cancer patients (pages 17–27)

      Ellen R. Gritz, Michelle Cororve Fingeret, Damon J. Vidrine, Amy B. Lazev, Netri V. Mehta and Gregory P. Reece

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21598

      This article provides an overview of the importance of smoking cessation for cancer patients. Clinical case illustrations highlight the adverse effects of smoking on cancer treatment outcomes and offer the opportunity to consider essential issues that arise when treating patients who have particular difficulty quitting smoking.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Is lobular carcinoma in situ as a component of breast carcinoma a risk factor for local failure after breast-conserving therapy? : Results of a matched pair analysis (pages 28–34)

      Merav A. Ben-David, Celina G. Kleer, Chintana Paramagul, Kent A. Griffith and Lori J. Pierce

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21555

      The current study compared the outcome of patients with Stages 0–II breast carcinoma who had lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) as a component of their primary tumor with matched pair controls, all of whom were treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy (BCS+RT) at the University of Michigan. The rates of local control at 5 years were 100% in the LCIS-containing group and 99.1% in the control group (P = 0.86). The extent of LCIS and its presence at the margins did not reduce the excellent rates of local control. The data suggest that LCIS in the tumor specimen should not affect selection of patients for breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy.

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      Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving treatment for early breast cancer : Risk factors and impact on distant metastases (pages 35–41)

      Yoshifumi Komoike, Futoshi Akiyama, Yuichi Iino, Tadashi Ikeda, Sadako Akashi-Tanaka, Shozo Ohsumi, Mikihiro Kusama, Muneaki Sano, Eisei Shin, Kimito Suemasu, Hiroshi Sonoo, Tetsuya Taguchi, Tsunehiro Nishi, Reiki Nishimura, Shunsuke Haga, Keiichi Mise, Takayuki Kinoshita, Shigeru Murakami, Masataka Yoshimoto, Hideaki Tsukuma and Hideo Inaji

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21551

      The authors analyzed long-term follow-up of breast conserving therapy (BCT) in Japan to clarify the risk factors and impact of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in this ethnic group. They concluded that young age, positive surgical margin and omission of radiation therapy, and that IBTR was significantly associated with subsequent distant metastasis.

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      Impact of concurrent proliferative high-risk lesions on the risk of ipsilateral breast carcinoma recurrence and contralateral breast carcinoma development in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ treated with breast-conserving therapy (pages 42–50)

      Linda J. Adepoju, W. Fraser Symmans, Gildy V. Babiera, S. Eva Singletary, Banu Arun, Nour Sneige, Lajos Pusztai, Thomas A. Buchholz, Aysegul Sahin, Kelly K. Hunt, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Merrick I. Ross, Frederick C. Ames and Henry M. Kuerer

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21571

      The purpose of the study was to determine the risk of ipsilateral breast carcinoma recurrence and contralateral breast carcinoma development in patients with a concurrent diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ with atypical ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, or lobular carcinoma in situ.

    4. Genitourinary Disease
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      Long-term hormone therapy and radiation is cost-effective for patients with locally advanced prostate carcinoma (pages 51–57)

      Andre Konski, Deborah Watkins-Bruner, Harmar Brereton, Steven Feigenberg and Gerald Hanks

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21575

      The results of this study indicated with high probability that long-term androgen-deprivation (LTAD), in addition to prostate irradiation, was cost-effective in the treatment of men with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Although it was more costly initially, LTAD was cost-effective, because it improved quality-adjusted survival in the long-term.

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      A retrospective evaluation of second-line chemotherapy response in hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma : Second-line taxane-based therapy after first-line epothilone-B analog ixabepilone (BMS-247550) therapy (pages 58–62)

      Jonathan E. Rosenberg, Matthew D. Galsky, Nicholas C. Rohs, Vivian K. Weinberg, William K. Oh, W. Kevin Kelly and Eric J. Small

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21559

      In this retrospective analysis of second-line chemotherapy for hormone refractory prostate carcinoma, the results showed a high proportion of prostate-specific antigen responses, suggesting that second-line chemotherapy should be investigated prospectively for patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma.

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      Prostate-specific antigen velocity and survival for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma (pages 63–67)

      Flora Rozhansky, Ming-Hui Chen, Michael C. Cox, William Dahut, William D. Figg and Anthony V. D'Amico

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21576

      The authors evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity in 213 men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma (HRMPC) who were treated on 3 prospective, randomized Phase II studies. Increasing PSA velocity was associated significantly with shorter survival in men with HRMPC who received cytotoxic, cytostatic, or combination therapy.

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      Human chorionic gonadotropin β (HCGβ) down-regulates E-cadherin and promotes human prostate carcinoma cell migration and invasion (pages 68–78)

      Wei Wu and Ameae M. Walker

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21549

      Human chorionic gonadotropin β (HCGβ) directly affects human prostate carcinoma cells by lowering the expression of E-cadherin, changing the epithelioid morphology of the cells, increasing susceptibility to trypsin-EDTA dispersal, and increasing both migratory and invasive capacities.

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      Smoking influences aberrant CpG hypermethylation of multiple genes in human prostate carcinoma (pages 79–86)

      Hideki Enokida, Hiroaki Shiina, Shinji Urakami, Masaharu Terashima, Tatsuya Ogishima, Long-Cheng Li, Motoshi Kawahara, Masayuki Nakagawa, Christopher J. Kane, Peter R. Carroll, Mikio Igawa and Rajvir Dahiya

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21577

      The authors hypothesized that smoking influences both progression and prognosis of prostate carcinoma (PC) through CpG hypermethylation of related genes. This is the first study to demonstrate significant correlation of the methylation status of multigenes with smoking status in PC.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Pathologic features of endometrial carcinoma associated with HNPCC : A comparison with sporadic endometrial carcinoma (pages 87–94)

      Russell R. Broaddus, Henry T. Lynch, Lee-may Chen, Molly S. Daniels, Peggy Conrad, Mark F. Munsell, Kristin G. White, Rajyalakshmi Luthra and Karen H. Lu

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21560

      Endometrial carcinoma associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) encompasses a spectrum of endometrioid and nonendometrioid, clinically more aggressive tumors. Nearly 25% of endometrial carcinomas in HNPCC are associated with pathologic features that would require adjuvant treatment after hysterectomy.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      The efficacy of voice therapy in patients after treatment for early glottic carcinoma (pages 95–105)

      Christine D. L. van Gogh, Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw, Brigitte A. Boon-Kamma, Rico N. P. M. Rinkel, M. Diana de Bruin, Johannes A. Langendijk, Dirk J. Kuik and Hans F. Mahieu

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21578

      Voice therapy was effective in patients who had voice problems after treatment for early glottic carcinoma. Improvement was reported by the patients on a structured questionnaire (the Voice Handicap Index) and was confirmed by objective acoustical voice parameters.

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      Weekly docetaxel in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 106–111)

      Ricardo Hitt, Maria L. Amador, Miguel Quintela-Fandino, Antonio Jimeno, Olga del Val, Susana Hernando and Hernan Cortes-Funes

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21579

      The authors assessed the antitumor activity and toxicity profile of weekly docetaxel in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Docetaxel as a weekly regimen was active in patients with recurrent and/or metastatic SCCHN.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid as monotherapy or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 112–119)

      Andrea Kuendgen, Mathias Schmid, Richard Schlenk, Sabine Knipp, Barbara Hildebrandt, Christian Steidl, Ulrich Germing, Rainer Haas, Hartmut Dohner and Norbert Gattermann

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21552

      The authors used VPA in 58 patients with AML who were too old and/or medically unfit to receive intensive chemotherapy. Among 23 patients with a peripheral blast count > 5%, 6 (26%) showed a diminishing blast count, and 5 of these had a complete peripheral blast clearance.

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      Phase II study of sphingosomal vincristine in patients with recurrent or refractory adult acute lymphocytic leukemia (pages 120–127)

      Deborah A. Thomas, Andreas H. Sarris, Jorge Cortes, Stefan Faderl, Susan O'Brien, Francis J. Giles, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Maria A. Rodriguez, Fernando Cabanillas and Hagop Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21595

      Outcome with salvage therapy for recurrent or refractory acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is poor, with complete response rates of 20–30% and a median survival ranging from 2 to 6 months. Thus, new agents are needed to reduce the recurrence rate after frontline chemotherapy. Vincristine is one of the important components of ALL therapy. In animal models, encapsulation of vincristine into sphingomyelin liposomes or “sphingosomes” for injection (SV) has improved efficacy compared with conventional vincristine. A Phase II clinical trial of single-agent SV was thus conducted in patients with recurrent or refractory ALL.

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      Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy : Incidence, presentation, treatment, and survival (pages 128–135)

      Catherine Diamond, Thomas H. Taylor, Tabatha Aboumrad and Hoda Anton-Culver

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21562

      The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has produced a decrease in the incidence of systemic and central nervous system non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Among patients with systemic AIDS-related NHL, there has been decreased high-grade histology, increased use of chemotherapy, and improved survival.

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      Four versus six courses of a dose-escalated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen plus etoposide (megaCHOEP) and autologous stem cell transplantation : Early dose intensity is crucial in treating younger patients with poor prognosis aggressive lymphoma (pages 136–145)

      Nobert Schmitz, Marita Kloess, Marcel Reiser, Wolfgang E. Berdel, Bernd Metzner, Bernd Dorken, Michael Kneba, Lorenz Trumper, Markus Loeffler, Michael Pfreundschuh, Bertram Glass and for the German High-Grade Non Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL)

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21588

      Patients with aggressive lymphoma and high-risk features at the time of diagnosis are reported to have a poor prognosis with standard therapy. Attempts to improve the results achieved with the combination of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) using second-generation or third-generation chemotherapy have failed. In the current study, the authors increased the doses and dose intensity of drugs used for the conventional first-line therapy of aggressive lymphoma and designed a Phase II randomized trial that compared four and six courses of dose-escalated CHOP plus etoposide (megaCHOEP) supported by the transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Co-overexpression of fibroblast growth factor 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor is correlated with the development of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 146–155)

      Amy L.S. Tai, Jonathan S.T. Sham, Dan Xie, Yan Fang, Yi-Long Wu, Liang Hu, Wen Deng, George S.W. Tsao, Gui-Bin Qiao, Annie L.M. Cheung and Xin-Yuan Guan

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21581

      Lung cancer is a prevalent cancer with a poor prognosis. To develop a useful in vitro cell model, a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lung cell line (SCC-35) was established.

    17. Melanoma
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      The palliative value of tumor necrosis factor α-based isolated limb perfusion in patients with metastatic sarcoma and melanoma (pages 156–162)

      Dirk J. Grunhagen, Johannes H. W. de Wilt, Wilfried J. Graveland, Albertus N. van Geel and Alexander M. M. Eggermont

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21547

      Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor α and melphalan provided excellent palliation in patients with Stage IV sarcoma and melanoma who had locally disabling tumor burden. Local tumor control and limb salvage were achieved in 98% of this patient population.

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      Estimates of stage-specific survival are altered by changes in the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for melanoma (pages 163–171)

      Leah Ben-Porat, Katherine S. Panageas, Christine Hanlon, Ami Patel, Allan Halpern, Alan N. Houghton and Daniel Coit

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21594

      Estimates of stage-specific survival were altered substantially in the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma compared with the 1997 AJCC staging system, particularly for patients with Stage II melanoma. Stage subgroups that were added in the 2002 system resulted in a large diversity of risk within Stage III. The increased complexity of the 2002 system did not improve its predictive ability over the simpler 1997 system, highlighting the importance of developing individualized risk-prediction models.

    19. Neuro-Oncology
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      Salvage chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide for recurrent temozolomide-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma (pages 172–179)

      Marc C. Chamberlain, Denice D. Tsao-Wei and Susan Groshen

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21582

      A prospective Phase II study of cyclophosphamide was conducted in adult patients with recurrent temozolomide-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma with a primary objective of evaluating 6-month progression-free survival.

    20. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Adapting clinical trials networks to promote cancer prevention and control research (pages 180–187)

      Bryan J. Weiner, Martha M. McKinney and William R. Carpenter

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21548

      As new agents and interventions for preventing, detecting, and managing cancer become available, the infrastructure for evaluating their effectiveness in Phase III clinical trials will require significant expansion. Cooperative groups' experiences with cancer prevention and control research suggest that existing clinical research networks can expand into new areas of scientific investigation.

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      Use of the National Cancer Data Base to develop clinical trials accrual targets that are appropriate for minority ethnicity patients : A report from the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Special Populations Committee (pages 188–195)

      Lisa A. Newman, Cheryl T. Lee, Lina Patel Parekh, Andrew K. Stewart, Charles R. Thomas Jr., Robert A. Beltran, Anthony Lucci, Bettye Green, David Ota and Heidi Nelson

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21592

      This report describes patterns of ethnic and racial distribution within disease stage for the most common solid-organ malignancies (breast, prostate, colorectal, and lung). These distributions should be used in planning accrual targets for cancer clinical trials.

    22. Diagnostic Imaging
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      FDG-PET in carcinoma of the uterine cervix with endometrial extension (pages 196–200)

      Andrew J. Hope, Paban Saha and Perry W. Grigsby

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21573

      The authors wished to determine whether pretreatment pathologic evidence of endometrial invasion correlated with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings and outcomes in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    23. Epidemiology
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      Treatment of local breast carcinoma in Florida : The role of the distance to radiation therapy facilities (pages 201–207)

      Lydia Voti, Lisa C. Richardson, Isildinha M. Reis, Lora E. Fleming, Jill MacKinnon and Jan Willem W. Coebergh

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21557

      A population-based study indicated that distance to radiation therapy facilities may negatively impact the use of breast-conserving surgery combined with radiation therapy for local breast carcinomas diagnosed in female Florida residents, even after adjusting for the effect of health insurance type, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status.

    24. Pathology
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      Estrogen receptor-β expression in extraabdominal fibromatoses : An analysis of 40 cases (pages 208–213)

      Andrea T. Deyrup, Maria Tretiakova and Anthony G. Montag

      Article first published online: 6 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21553

      To verify the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in fibromatosis as well as to clarify the inconsistency between radioligand and early immunohistochemical studies, the authors examined a series of 40 extraabdominal fibromatoses using antibodies raised against ER-β and found that estrogen receptor-beta is expressed in the majority of extraabdominal fibromatoses.

    25. Psychological Oncology
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      Impact of coping skills intervention with family caregivers of hospice patients with cancer : A randomized clinical trial (pages 214–222)

      Susan C. McMillan, Brent J. Small, Michael Weitzner, Ronald Schonwetter, Mary Tittle, Linda Moody and William E. Haley

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21567

      COPE, a psychoeducational intervention, was provided to family caregivers of hospice patients with cancer over a 7 to 9 day period, and outcomes were compared with hospice care alone and hospice care plus emotional support. The intervention, which focused on helping caregivers cope with patient pain, dyspnea, and constipation, was effective in improving caregiver quality of life and reducing caregiver burden related to patients' symptoms and caregiving tasks.

    26. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Are there clinical benefits with early erythropoietic intervention for chemotherapy-induced anemia? : A systematic review (pages 223–233)

      Gary H. Lyman and John Glaspy

      Article first published online: 5 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21570

      A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to examine the clinical benefits of early erythropoietic intervention (Hb ≥ 10 g/dL) in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. The risk of transfusions and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL was reduced as a result of initiating treatment in patients with mild anemia.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Author reply (page 235)

      Lisa B. Bland, Tomasz M. Beer and Mark Garzatto

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21529

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