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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 June 2006

Volume 106, Issue 11

Pages 2309–2530

  1. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Communication
    4. Correspondence
    5. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Evaluation of the HER2/neu-derived peptide GP2 for use in a peptide-based breast cancer vaccine trial (pages 2309–2317)

      Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Catherine E. Storrer, Rebecca J. Foley, Katie Harris, Yusuf Jama, Craig D. Shriver, Sathibalan Ponniah and George E. Peoples

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21849

      GP2 is a clinically relevant HER2/neu-derived peptide with immunogenicity comparable to that of E75. GP2-specific effectors recognize 2VGP2-expressing targets; therefore, a GP2 vaccine should be effective in patients carrying this polymorphism. GP2 may be most beneficial when used in a multiepitope vaccine.

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      Differences between first and subsequent rounds of the MRISC breast cancer screening program for women with a familial or genetic predisposition (pages 2318–2326)

      Mieke Kriege, Cecile T. M. Brekelmans, Carla Boetes, Sara H. Muller, Harmine M. Zonderland, Inge Marie Obdeijn, Radu A. Manoliu, Theo Kok, Emiel J. T. Rutgers, Harry J. de Koning, Jan G. M. Klijn and Dutch MRI Screening (MRISC) Study Group

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21863

      In the Dutch magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast cancer screening study for women with a hereditary risk, a higher sensitivity and a better discriminating capacity of MRI compared with mammography was maintained in subsequent rounds. Also, favorable characteristics of tumors detected during these subsequent rounds were maintained compared with those of age-matched controls. This is reassuring, because results of these subsequent screening rounds were most predictive for long-term effects.

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      Randomized trial of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for high-risk primary breast carcinoma : Follow-up at 12 years (pages 2327–2336)

      Emer O. Hanrahan, Kristine Broglio, Deborah Frye, Aman U. Buzdar, Richard L. Theriault, Vicente Valero, Daniel J. Booser, Sonja E. Singletary, Eric A. Strom, James L. Gajewski, Richard E. Champlin and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21906

      The authors update the results of a randomized trial of standard-dose chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) at doses of 1000 mg/m2, 50 mg/m2, and 500 mg/m2 per cycle, respectively, versus FAC followed by 2 cycles of high-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and cisplatin [CEP] at doses of 5250 mg/m2, 1200 mg/m2, and 165 mg/m2 per cycle, respectively) with autologous stem cell support for high-risk primary breast carcinoma. With a median follow-up of nearly 12 years for patients who remained alive, the trial continued to demonstrate no recurrence-free or overall survival advantage with 2 consecutive cycles of high-dose CEP after standard-dose FAC chemotherapy.

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      Benefit of taxanes as adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer : Pooled analysis of 15,500 patients (pages 2337–2344)

      Emilio Bria, Cecilia Nistico, Federica Cuppone, Paolo Carlini, Mariangela Ciccarese, Michele Milella, Guido Natoli, Edmondo Terzoli, Francesco Cognetti and Diana Giannarelli

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21886

      To clarify how much taxanes improve outcome over standard treatment, a pooled analysis of all published or presented Phase III trials was performed. Significant differences in favor of taxanes were seen in both disease-free survival and overall survival. With greater than 15,500 accrued patients demonstrating positive data in favor of taxanes, and considering the combined results, consistent with all studies and demonstrating advantages in both disease-free survival and overall survival in all subpopulations, the combination of standard chemotherapy plus paclitaxel or docetaxel (either sequential or concurrent) is beneficial for patients undergoing surgery for early breast cancer, and should be considered a standard option in this setting.

    5. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Dietary selenium intake, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 genetic polymorphisms, and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (pages 2345–2354)

      Lin Cai, Nai-Chieh Yuko You, Hua Lu, Li-Na Mu, Qing-Yi Lu, Shun-Zhang Yu, Anh D. Le, James Marshall, David Heber and Zuo-Feng Zhang

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21881

      The authors investigated the possibility that genetic susceptibility might modify the associations of dietary selerium intake with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The results indicated that individuals with low dietary selerium intake, ALDH2 Lys/Lys and XRCC1 399Gln/Gln or Gln/Arg genotypes were associated with an increased risk of ESCC, especially in the presence of exposure to tobacco and alcohol carcinogens.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Quality of life in long-term survivors of bladder cancer (pages 2355–2362)

      Veerasathpurush Allareddy, Julianna Kennedy, Michele M. West and Badrinath R. Konety

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21896

      The quality of life of long-term survivors of bladder cancer in a population-based registry was assessed. Numerous variables current age, type of diversion and time since diagnosis of cancer were examined in patients who were surviving with an intact bladder (BI) or underwent radical cystectomy (RC). The authors found that general quality of life (QOL) did not vary among survivors regardless of treatment, but sexual functioning could be adversely affected in those who underwent cystectomy, and long-term QOL declined even in those with intact bladders.

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      Phase I/II study of a combined gemcitabine, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy regimen for metastatic urothelial carcinoma (pages 2363–2368)

      Tetsuro Tsukamoto, Junji Yonese, Yuhei Ohkubo and Iwao Fukui

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21897

      Although a combined chemotherapy with gemcitabine, etoposide, and cisplatin was considerably toxic, it appeared to be effective for the treatment of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Furthermore, a durable response may be expected in relatively young patients.

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      Cancer-specific survival and predictors of prostate-specific antigen recurrence and survival in patients with seminal vesicle invasion after radical prostatectomy (pages 2369–2375)

      Fernando P. Secin, Fernando J. Bianco Jr., Andrew J. Vickers, Victor Reuter, Thomas Wheeler, Paul A. Fearn, James A. Eastham and Peter T. Scardino

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21895

      The authors investigated long-term biochemical recurrence (BCR) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) rates among men with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) to identify risk factors for freedom from BCR and CSS in patients who received treatment in the prostate-specific antigen era and who had SVI identified at the time of radical prostatectomy.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Association between adiponectin, insulin resistance, and endometrial cancer (pages 2376–2381)

      Pamela T. Soliman, Diana Wu, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Kathleen M. Schmeler, Brian M. Slomovitz, Molly S. Bray, David M. Gershenson and Karen H. Lu

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21866

      Adiponectin level was found to be independently and inversely associated with endometrial cancer. This discovery suggested that insulin resistance is independently associated with endometrial cancer.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Characteristics of patients and predictors of in-hospital mortality after hospitalization for head and neck cancers (pages 2382–2388)

      Veerasathpurush Allareddy and Badrinath R. Konety

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21899

      Patients who had comorbid conditions and complications and patients without adequate insurance coverage were at a greater risk for in-hospital mortality after hospitalization for head and neck cancers.

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      High-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck : Results from 266 treated patients with metastatic lymph node disease (pages 2389–2396)

      Michael J. Veness, Carsten E. Palme and Gary J. Morgan

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21898

      The worldwide incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is rising, with most lesions arising on the head and neck. Many clinicians believe that the risk is low (<5%) of patients developing metastatic lymph node metastases. However, patients with unfavorable clinicopathologic features such as thick cSCC (>4–5 mm) or recurrent cSCC, especially if the lesion is located near the parotid, can be considered at high risk for developing metastatic lymph node disease, even if the lesion is relatively small (<20 mm). These patients may benefit from a more intensive treatment approach.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      A phase II trial of pegylated interferon α-2b therapy for polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia : Feasibility, clinical and biologic effects, and impact on quality of life (pages 2397–2405)

      Jan Samuelsson, Hans Hasselbalch, Oystein Bruserud, Snezana Temerinac, Yvonne Brandberg, Mats Merup, Olle Linder, Magnus Bjorkholm, Heike L. Pahl, Gunnar Birgegard and Nordic Study Group for Myeloproliferative Disorders

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21900

      The results of this study document that pegylated interferon α-2b was effective in reducing platelet counts in patients who had myeloproliferative disorders with a toxicity similar to that of conventional, unmodified interferon. A reversal of polycythemia rubra vera-1 positivity was noted in a subset of patients, suggesting that pegylated interferon α-2b can suppress the malignant clone in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

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      Estrogen-based hormone therapy and thrombosis risk in women with essential thrombocythemia (pages 2406–2411)

      Naseema Gangat, Alexandra P. Wolanskyj, Susan M. Schwager, Ruben A. Mesa and Ayalew Tefferi

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21891

      There is currently insufficient evidence to either support or refute an association between estrogen-based hormone treatment (EBHT) and thrombosis risk in essential thrombocythemia. In a retrospective review of 305 women, the authors found that EBHT in the form of oral contraceptives (OCP) was associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis.

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      Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or indolent non-hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2412–2420)

      Constantine S. Tam, Max Wolf, H. Miles Prince, E. Henry Januszewicz, David Westerman, Katherine I. Lin, Dennis Carney and John F. Seymour

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21882

      In an observational series of 77 consecutive patients with indolent lymphoid diseases receiving chemoimmunotherapy with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) and rituximab, significant activity with no increase in toxicity over those expected for FC alone was seen.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Xeroderma pigmentosum group D haplotype predicts for response, survival, and toxicity after platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 2421–2427)

      Richard Booton, Tim Ward, Jim Heighway, Pat Taylor, Fiona Power, Linda Ashcroft, Julie Morris and Nicholas Thatcher

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21885

      The authors investigated the correlations between Xeroderma pigmentosum Group D protein (XPD) polymorphisms and treatment response, toxicity, and overall survival in patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. The results suggested that XPD haplotypes may be useful pharmacogenomic markers for determining response and clinically important toxicity to platinum-based chemotherapy and for predicting overall survival.

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      Smoking affects treatment outcome in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 2428–2436)

      Anne S. Tsao, Diane Liu, J. Jack Lee, Margaret Spitz and Waun Ki Hong

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21884

      Never-smoking history in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer was found to confer an improved clinical outcome when the patients were treated with chemotherapy. Active smoking during chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy did not appear to affect clinical outcome.

    17. Melanoma
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      Biologic and immunomodulatory events after CTLA-4 blockade with ticilimumab in patients with advanced malignant melanoma (pages 2437–2444)

      James M. Reuben, Bang-Ning Lee, Changping Li, Jesus Gomez-Navarro, Viviana A. Bozon, Charla A. Parker, Ingrid M. Hernandez, Carolina Gutierrez, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein and Luis H. Camacho

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21854

      Antitumor responses in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with ticilimumab was found to be correlated with a reduction in TR cells and constitutive secretion of interleukin (IL)-10, an increase in IL-2 production, and a positive correlation between transcripts of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR). Conversely, a lack of antitumor response (ATR) was found to be correlated with steady levels of TR cells and constitutive IL-10 secretion, and a positive correlation between the transcripts of CTLA-4 and program death-1 (PD-1). The biologic markers reported in this study may serve as prognostic indicators of responses for future clinical trials with antibodies to CTLA-4.

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      Phase II study of temozolomide plus pegylated interferon-α-2b for metastatic melanoma (pages 2445–2451)

      Wen-Jen Hwu, Katherine S. Panageas, Jennifer H. Menell, Lynne A. Lamb, Suzan Aird, Susan E. Krown, Linda J. Williams, Paul B. Chapman, Philip O. Livingston, Jedd D. Wolchok and Alan N. Houghton

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21909

      Thirty-five patients with Stage IV melanoma were treated with temozolomide plus pegylated interferon-α-2b, which yielded a 31% objective tumor response (3 complete and 8 partial responses) and a median survival of 12 months. This regimen is active and well tolerated for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    19. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Generalizability of cancer clinical trial results : Prognostic differences between participants and nonparticipants (pages 2452–2458)

      Linda S. Elting, Catherine Cooksley, B. Nebiyou Bekele, Michael Frumovitz, Elenir B. C. Avritscher, Charlotte Sun and Diane C. Bodurka

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21907

      The authors identified prognostically important differences between participants and nonparticipants in clinical trials and between participants and the cancer population at large. The findings called into question the generalizability of clinical trial results.

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      Phase II study of mitoxantrone and ketoconazole for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 2459–2465)

      John Eklund, Mark Kozloff, Joy Vlamakis, Alexander Starr, Margaret Mariott, Lilia Gallot, Borko Jovanovic, Lawrence Schilder, Erwin Robin, Michael Pins and Raymond C. Bergan

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21880

      The toxicity and activity of mitoxantrone plus ketoconazole in a patient cohort with hormone-refractory prostate cancer was evaluated.

    21. Contemporary Issues
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      Health insurance coverage and cost barriers to needed medical care among U.S. adult cancer survivors age <65 years (pages 2466–2475)

      Susan A. Sabatino, Ralph J. Coates, Robert J. Uhler, Linda G. Alley and Lori A. Pollack

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21879

      Health insurance coverage among cancer survivors age <65 years is comparable to that of adults of similar age, sex, race, and ethnicity, but survivors may more likely be publicly insured. Unmet medical care needs because of cost were common among survivors, particularly uninsured survivors.

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      Volume and process of care in high-risk cancer surgery (pages 2476–2481)

      John D. Birkmeyer, Yating Sun, Aaron Goldfaden, Nancy J.O. Birkmeyer and Therese A. Stukel

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21888

      While the relation between operative mortality and procedure volume is well established for high-risk cancer operations, differences in clinical practice between high-volume and low-volume centers are not well understood. The authors identified all patients who underwent major resections for lung, esophageal, gastric, liver or pancreatic cancer using the 2000-2002 Medicare claims database. They found that patients at high-volume hospitals were more likely to undergo preoperative stress tests and see medical or radiation oncologists, operations were significantly longer and patients were more likely to receive perioperative invasive monitoring (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.82-3.60). Differences in measurable processes of care did not explain volume-related differences in operative mortality to any significant degree.

    23. Diagnostic Imaging
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      Patterns and predictors of mammography utilization among breast cancer survivors (pages 2482–2488)

      Chyke A. Doubeni, Terry S. Field, Marianne Ulcickas Yood, Sharon J. Rolnick, Charles P. Quessenberry, Hassan Fouayzi, Jerry H. Gurwitz and Feifei Wei

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21893

      The use of mammography among breast cancer survivors declines over time. Efforts are needed to increase awareness among healthcare providers and breast cancer survivors of the value of follow-up mammography. The current findings highlight the importance of maintaining ongoing contact with primary care physicians and gynecologists.

    24. Medical Oncology
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      Once daily, oral, outpatient quinolone monotherapy for low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia : A pilot study of 40 patients based on validated risk-prediction rules (pages 2489–2494)

      Kenneth V. I. Rolston, Ellen F. Manzullo, Linda S. Elting, Susan E. Frisbee-Hume, Leslie McMahon, Richard L. Theriault, Shreyaskumar Patel and Robert S. Benjamin

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21908

      The authors assessed the feasibility of empiric, oral, outpatient quinolone monotherapy in 40 adult patients with fever and neutropenia who were at low risk for serious medical complications. The results indicated that outpatient quinolone monotherapy in low-risk febrile neutropenic patients is safe, effective, and well received, although these conclusions will require validation in a randomized trial.

    25. Pediatric Oncology
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      Impact of age on outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia : A report from 2 institutions (pages 2495–2502)

      Bassem I. Razzouk, Elihu Estey, Stanley Pounds, Shelly Lensing, Sherry Pierce, Mark Brandt, Jeffrey E. Rubnitz, Raul C. Ribeiro, Michael Rytting, Ching-Hon Pui, Hagop Kantarjian and Sima Jeha

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21892

      The prognostic significance of age among pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was investigated. After reviewing the outcome of 424 patients who were ≤21 years of age at the time of diagnosis between 1983 and 2002, it was determined that age and treatment era interacted significantly in relation to event-free survival, with newer intensive therapies most beneficial for patients <10 years of age.

    26. Translational Research
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      Notch-1 down-regulation by curcumin is associated with the inhibition of cell growth and the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells (pages 2503–2513)

      Zhiwei Wang, Yuxiang Zhang, Sanjeev Banerjee, Yiwei Li and Fazlul H. Sarkar

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21904

      It was reported previously that curcumin down-regulates many genes that are known as promoters of survival and up-regulates genes that are known as promoters of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Using various molecular approaches in the current study, the authors demonstrated that curcumin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells, suggesting that the down-regulation of Notch signaling by curcumin may be a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with pancreatic cancer.

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      Sequential gene expression changes in cancer cell lines after treatment with the demethylation agent 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (pages 2514–2525)

      Makoto Arai, Osamu Yokosuka, Yuichi Hirasawa, Kenichi Fukai, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Fumio Imazeki, Tatsuo Kanda, Mari Yatomi, Yuichi Takiguchi, Naohiko Seki, Hiromitsu Saisho and Takenori Ochiai

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21905

      The authors used microarray analysis to determine which genes had changed expression levels after treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AzaC). The results demonstrated that 5-AzaC can regulate the expression of groups of genes with characteristic functions.

  2. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Communication
    4. Correspondence
    5. Erratum
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      The “y” symbol: An important classification tool for neoadjuvant cancer treatment (pages 2526–2527)

      James D. Brierley, Frederick L. Greene, Leslie H. Sobin and Christian Wittekind

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21887

      The use of preoperative adjuvant therapy is becoming increasingly frequent for a number of tumors. Therefore, the pathologic classification after preoperative therapy may not reflect the true anatomic extent of disease before treatment. To indicate that the clinical or pathologic classification has been determined after preoperative therapy, the TNM classification of the International Union Against Cancer and American Joint Committee on Cancer includes a prefix “y,” with yc used for clinical and yp for pathologic classifications.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Communication
    4. Correspondence
    5. Erratum
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 2529)

      Nikolaus Lubomierski, Guido Plotz and Jochen Raedle

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21903

  4. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Original Articles
    3. Communication
    4. Correspondence
    5. Erratum
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