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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 June 2006

Volume 106, Issue 12

Pages 2531–2752

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
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      Treatment options in lymph node-positive prostate cancer (pages 2531–2539)

      Gregory P. Swanson, Ian M. Thompson and Joseph Basler

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21947

      The results of this review indicate that, although the numbers have declined, the number of men with lymph node-positive prostate cancer remains significant, and the current challenge is how best to treat these patients. Many questions regarding lymph node-positive prostate cancer will remain unanswered without a consensus and a commitment to conduct randomized clinical trials.

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      Central nervous system recurrence in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia : Frequency and prognosis in 467 patients without cranial irradiation for prophylaxis (pages 2540–2546)

      Juan-Manuel Sancho, Josep-Maria Ribera, Albert Oriol, Jesus-Maria Hernandez-Rivas, Concepcion Rivas, Concepcion Bethencourt, Ricardo Parody, Guillermo Deben, Jose-Luis Bello and Evarist Feliu

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21948

      In a series of 467 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who did not receive cranial irradiation for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis, the frequency of CNS recurrence was 5.8%. A high lactate dehydrogenase level was found to be the only prognostic factor for CNS recurrence, which confers a poor prognosis, identical to that conferred by bone marrow recurrence.

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      Gum mastic inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells (pages 2547–2555)

      Mei-Lan He, Hui-Qing Yuan, An-Li Jiang, Ai Yu Gong, Wei-Wen Chen, Peng-Ju Zhang, Charles Y. F. Young and Jian-Ye Zhang

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21935

      The androgen receptor plays a critical role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. The results of this article indicated that gum mastic exhibited strong in vitro potency to attenuate the androgen receptor activity. Further investigation will be required to determine whether gum mastic has in vivo potency to inhibit the development of prostate cancer.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Supraclavicular radiation for breast cancer does not increase the 10-year risk of stroke (pages 2556–2562)

      Wendy A. Woodward, Sharon H. Giordano, Zhigang Duan, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Thomas A. Buchholz

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21943

      Although patients with nonbreast malignancies treated with higher doses to the carotid arteries have been shown to have an increased risk of carotid injury, no evidence was found that radiation to the carotid artery delivered during supraclavicular irradiation for breast cancer increases the risk of hospitalization for stroke.

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      Selecting patients for breast-conserving therapy : The importance of lobular histology (pages 2563–2568)

      Monica Morrow, Kristine Keeney, Denise Scholtens, Janet Wei, Jennifer Steel and Seema A. Khan

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21921

      Patients with lobular carcinoma do not require conversion from lumpectomy to mastectomy more often than those with ductal carcinoma, nor do they require a greater number of operations to obtain negative margins.

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      T4 category revision enhances the accuracy and significance of stage III breast cancer (pages 2569–2575)

      Uwe Güth, Gad Singer, Igor Langer, Andreas Schötzau, Linda Herberich, Wolfgang Holzgreve and Edward Wight

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21920

      Breast carcinoma with noninflammatory skin involvement (T4b/Stage IIIB) is a heterogeneous clinicopathologic entity and, thus, does not fulfill the formal criteria of a tumor category or stage within the TNM classification. A revision of the T4 category, i.e., not classifying these tumors according to their component skin involvement but, rather, according to tumor size and lymph node involvement, leads to a more precise assessment of Stage III breast cancer while eliminating up to 18% of patients with limited disease extent (similar to Stage I and II) from the entire group currently classified with noninflammatory Stage III.

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      The impact of tumor progesterone receptor status on optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal patients with early-stage breast cancer : A decision analysis (pages 2576–2582)

      Rinaa S. Punglia, Karen M. Kuntz, Eric P. Winer, Jane C. Weeks and Harold J. Burstein

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21919

      Because the optimal sequencing of aromatase inhibitors (AI) and tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy is not known, and may differ for biological subsets of cancers, the authors developed Markov models to simulate disease-free survival (DFS) separately among postmenopausal women with ER+PR+ cancers and those with ER+PR− cancers. Their models suggest that patients with ER+PR+ tumors achieve optimal 10-year DFS estimates with starting with tamoxifen and then crossing over to an AI after two years, while those with ER+PR− tumors fare best with AI monotherapy.

    5. Endocrine Disease
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      Hypogonadism in male patients with cancer (pages 2583–2591)

      Jose M. Garcia, Huiling Li, Douglas Mann, Daniel Epner, Teresa G. Hayes, Marco Marcelli and Glenn R. Cunningham

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21889

      Patients with cancer often have low levels of bioavailable or free testosterone; however, the decrease in total testosterone levels may be masked by an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin. The results of this study indicated that bioavailable testosterone levels were correlated directly with appetite, insulin-like growth factor 1, and ghrelin and inversely with interleukin 6 levels in the study population.

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      Diagnostic and extent of disease multigene assay for malignant thyroid neoplasms (pages 2592–2597)

      Electron Kebebew, Miao Peng, Emily Reiff and Alex McMillan

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21922

      In 126 thyroid tissues it was found that a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction multigene assay of 6 novel candidate gene markers when used in combination was an excellent diagnostic and extent of disease indicator in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Does age matter in the selection of treatment for men with early-stage prostate cancer? (pages 2598–2602)

      Andre Konski, Debra Eisenberg, Eric Horwitz, Alexandra Hanlon, Alan Pollack and Gerald Hanks

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21923

      When stratified by prognostic variables, younger patients do not appear to have worse overall survival, freedom from biochemical recurrence, or distant metastasis-free survival when treated with external beam radiation therapy compared with older patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. External beam radiation is a viable treatment option for young men with early-stage prostate cancer.

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      Radical prostatectomy for clinical T4 prostate cancer (pages 2603–2609)

      Peter A. S. Johnstone, Kevin C. Ward, Michael Goodman, Vasily Assikis and John A. Petros

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21926

      The objective of this study was to compare the survival of patients with clinical Stage T4 (cT4) prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) with the survival of patients who received other types of treatment or no treatment at all. The results indicated that patients who underwent RP for cT4 prostate cancer had increased survival compared with patients who received RT or HT alone and had a survival comparable to that of patients who received combined RT and HT.

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      Expression of estrogen receptors-α and -β in bladder cancer cell lines and human bladder tumor tissue (pages 2610–2616)

      Steven S. Shen, Carolyn L. Smith, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Jiang Yu, Isaac Y. Kim, Weiguo Jian, Guru Sonpavde, Gustavo E. Ayala, Mamoun Younes and Seth P. Lerner

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21945

      Estrogen receptor (ER) β is the dominant ER expressed in bladder cancer cell lines and in the majority of human bladder tumors. Moreover, the degree of ERβ expression increases with increasing stage and grade of differentiation. Studies of the effects of pharmacologic agents that positively and negatively regulate ERβ function should provide insight into the biologic importance of this receptor in human bladder cancer.

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      Dose escalation of oral vinorelbine in combination with estramustine in hormone-refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate (pages 2617–2623)

      Niklas J. Mackler, Rodney L. Dunn, Beth Hellerstedt, Kathleen A. Cooney, Judith Fardig, Karin Olson, Kenneth J. Pienta and David C. Smith

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21927

      Oral vinorelbine at doses of 70 mg/m2 may be safely combined with estramustine. The combination appears to have modest activity in men with advanced prostate cancer.

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      Southwest oncology group phase II study of arsenic trioxide in patients with refractory germ cell malignancies (pages 2624–2629)

      Tomasz M. Beer, Catherine M. Tangen, Craig R. Nichols, Kim A. Margolin, Robert Dreicer, William T. Stephenson, David I. Quinn, Derek Raghavan and E. David Crawford

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21925

      In the current study, arsenic trioxide in the dose regimen and schedule employed was found to have no activity in men with refractory germ cell malignancies.

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      Trends in distribution and prognostic significance of Gleason grades on radical retropubic prostatectomy specimens between 1989 and 2001 (pages 2630–2635)

      Shomik Sengupta, Jeffrey M. Slezak, Michael L. Blute, Bradley C. Leibovich, Thomas J. Sebo, Robert P. Myers, John C. Cheville, Eric J. Bergstralh and Horst Zincke

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21924

      The authors found an increase in Gleason grade 3 and a decrease in Gleason grade 2 on prostate biopsies and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) specimens between 1989 and 2001, with concomitant evolution in the prognostic implications of Gleason grades. These chronological changes, which may reflect changes in tumor biology, pathologic interpretation or both, need to be accounted for in comparing outcomes from different eras.

    13. Head and Neck Disease
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      Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and mutagen sensitivity as risk factors for the development of second primary tumors in patients previously diagnosed with early-stage head and neck cancer (pages 2636–2644)

      Charles G. Minard, Margaret R. Spitz, Xifeng Wu, Waun Ki Hong and Carol J. Etzel

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21928

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects (singly and jointly) of polymorphisms in 2 genes in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family and the mutagen-sensitivity phenotype (based on an in vitro lymphocyte assay) on the risk of second primary tumors in a chemoprevention trial for patients with previously diagnosed early-stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The GST-M1 null genotype was associated with an increased risk for any second primary tumor (hazard ratio [HR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11-3.56) and tobacco-related second primary tumors (HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.01-4.62) after adjusting for treatment arm, age at diagnosis, smoking status, alcohol use, index tumor site, and stage.

    14. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Activity of alemtuzumab in patients with CD52-positive acute leukemia (pages 2645–2651)

      Raoul Tibes, Michael J. Keating, Alessandra Ferrajoli, William Wierda, Farhad Ravandi, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Susan O'Brien, Jorge Cortes, Srdan Verstovsek, Mary L. Browning and Stefan Faderl

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21901

      Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is directed against the cell surface antigen CD52. It has demonstrated activity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other CD52-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. Because CD52 is also expressed on acute leukemic blasts, the authors investigated the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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      Primary bone lymphoma: Treatment results and prognostic factors with long-term follow-up of 82 patients (pages 2652–2656)

      Kathryn Beal, Laura Allen and Joachim Yahalom

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21930

      Patients with primary bone lymphomas treated with combined modality versus single-modality therapy had a superior outcome, with a significantly better survival.

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      Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as part of postremission therapy improves survival for adult patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia : A metaanalysis (pages 2657–2663)

      Masamitsu Yanada, Keitaro Matsuo, Takeshi Suzuki and Tomoki Naoe

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21932

      The results of this metaanalysis demonstrated that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation improves overall survival for adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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      Recombinant interferon γ1b immune enhancement in 20 patients with hematologic malignancies and systemic opportunistic infections treated with donor granulocyte transfusions (pages 2664–2671)

      Amar Safdar, Gilhen H. Rodriguez, Benjamin Lichtiger, Burton F. Dickey, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Emil J. Freireich, Elizabeth J. Shpall, Issam I. Raad, Hagop M. Kantarjian and Richard E. Champlin

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21929

      Interferon γ1b immune enhancement in patients who received high-dose, donor-derived granulocyte transfusions was safe and appeared to improve or stabilize refractory, systemic fungal infections in high-risk patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, including those who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    18. Neuro-Oncology
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      Cerebral metastases pathology after radiosurgery : A multicenter study (pages 2672–2681)

      Gyorgy T. Szeifert, Dave S. Atteberry, Douglas Kondziolka, Marc Levivier and L. Dade Lunsford

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21946

      The results of this histopathologic study suggest that high-dose irradiation evokes acute-type, subacute-type, and chronic-type tissue responses accompanied by an inflammatory cell reaction in a variety of cerebral metastases with different histologic subtypes. Among 24 cerebral metastases that recurred after radiosurgery and required craniotomy, histopathologic responses were observed within the irradiated tumor volume, and immunohistochemistry revealed a preponderance of CD68-positive macrophages and CD3-positive T lymphocytes in the inflammatory cell infiltrate that developed in late recurrences. This same inflammatory response was absent in neoplasms that recurred soon after radiosurgery.

    19. Sarcoma
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      Dedifferentiated central chondrosarcoma (pages 2682–2691)

      Eric L. Staals, Patrizia Bacchini and Franco Bertoni

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21936

      Dedifferentiated central chondrosarcoma is a rare lesion and is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, metastatic disease at diagnosis, malignant fibrous histiocytoma dedifferentiation, and a high percentage of dedifferentiated component in the lesion were related to a poorer outcome in patients with dedifferentiated central chondrosarcomas, and there was no statistical evidence of any beneficial effect from adjuvant chemotherapy.

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      Bone invasion in extremity soft-tissue sarcoma : Impact on disease outcomes (pages 2692–2700)

      Peter C. Ferguson, Anthony M. Griffin, Brian O'Sullivan, Charles N. Catton, Aileen M. Davis, Ally Murji, Robert S. Bell and Jay S. Wunder

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21949

      In a small percentage of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma, bone resection may be required to obtain an adequate surgical margin, thereby limiting the risk of local tumor recurrence. Histologic bone invasion portends a poorer prognosis in terms of overall survival.

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      Influence of local recurrence on survival in patients with extremity osteosarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy : The experience of a single institution with 44 patients (pages 2701–2706)

      Gaetano Bacci, Alessandra Longhi, Marilena Cesari, Michela Versari and Franco Bertoni

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21937

      A retrospective analysis of management and outcome of 44 patients who developed local recurrence (LR) after treatment of extremity osteosarcoma confirmed that patients with LR had a very significant high risk of developing metastatic disease and dying of the tumor.

    22. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Breast cancer incidence in U.S. radiologic technologists (pages 2707–2715)

      Michele Morin Doody, D. Michal Freedman, Bruce H. Alexander, Michael Hauptmann, Jeremy S. Miller, R. Sowmya Rao, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Elaine Ron, Alice J. Sigurdson and Martha S. Linet

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21876

      Breast cancer risk was elevated significantly in female radiologic technologists who experienced daily low-dose radiation exposures over several years that potentially resulted in appreciable cumulative exposure. In analyses that were stratified on birth cohort and adjusted for established breast cancer risk factors, breast cancer risk was increased significantly in women who began working as radiologic technologists before 1940 (vs. 1970 or later), rose significantly with increasing number of years worked before 1940, and was elevated significantly in those who had the highest observed (vs. minimal) proxy index for cumulative radiation exposure.

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      A nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the PDZ-Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Ser1416Gly) modulates the risk of lung cancer in Mexican Americans (pages 2707–2715)

      Jian Gu, Xifeng Wu, Qiong Dong, Martin J. Romeo, Xin Lin, J. Silvio Gutkind and David M. Berman

      Article first published online: 11 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21944

      The Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (RhoGEFs) are key regulators of mitogenic and transforming pathways; One family member, PDZ-RhoGEF, also integrates signaling between monomeric Rho G proteins and heterotrimeric G proteins via a so-called regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain. The results from this lung cancer case-control study showed that a non-synonymous SNP (rs868188, Ser1416Gly) in PDZ-RhoGEF was associated with a significantly reduced risk for lung cancer in Mexican Americans and that there was a joint effect between Ser141Gly and three other RGS geneSNPs, supporting this family of proteins as key regulators of tumorigenesis.

    24. Pathology
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      Retroperitoneal liposarcomas: Follow-up analysis of dedifferentiation after clinicopathologic reexamination of 86 liposarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas (pages 2725–2733)

      Elizabeth Fabre-Guillevin, Jean-Michel Coindre, Nicolas de Saint Aubain Somerhausen, Francoise Bonichon, Eberhard Stoeckle and Nguyen Binh Bui

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21933

      The incidence of dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLs) is largely underestimated and most retroperitoneal liposarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are in fact DDLs. The crucial importance of avoiding misdiagnosis of DDLs was stressed because these tumors present poorer outcome than well-differentiated liposarcomas.

    25. Radiation Oncology
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      The influence of age and comorbidity on receiving radiotherapy as part of primary treatment for cancer in South Netherlands, 1995 to 2002 (pages 2734–2742)

      Ans J. C. M. Vulto, Valery E. P. P. Lemmens, Marieke W. J. Louwman, Maryska L. G. Janssen-Heijnen, Philip H. P. Poortmans, Marnix L. M. Lybeert and Jan Willem W. Coebergh

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21934

      In a population-based setting, the authors studied the influence of age and comorbidity on the administration of radiotherapy (RT) among 33,369 patients who were diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 2002. In general, elderly patients and patients with comorbid conditions were treated less aggressively compared with patients who received standard treatment. Patients with lung cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma more often received RT alone instead of surgery or RT combined with chemotherapy, and patients with rectal cancer or breast cancer often had adjuvant RT withheld before or after surgery.

    26. Translational Research
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      Effects of the dual 5 α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride on apoptosis in primary cultures of prostate cancer epithelial cells and cell lines (pages 2743–2752)

      Ann Maria McCrohan, Colm Morrissey, Conor O'Keane, Niall Mulligan, Chanel Watson, James Smith, John M. Fitzpatrick and R. William G. Watson

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21938

      The results of the current study demonstrated that dutasteride had differential effects on the induction of apoptosis in a range of prostate cell lines and primary prostate cancer epithelial cells.

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