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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 February 2006

Volume 106, Issue 3

Pages 483–727

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Article
    4. Correspondence
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      CpG island hypermethylation in progression of esophageal and gastric cancer (pages 483–493)

      Fumiaki Sato and Stephen J. Meltzer

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21657

      In this review, the authors summarize a variety of information concerning gene hypermethylation in esophageal and gastric cancer.

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      Metaanalysis of the correlation between radiographic tumor response and patient-reported outcomes (pages 494–504)

      David Victorson, Mehul Soni and David Cella

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21637

      A metaanalysis was conducted of 21 available studies from 1995–2003 that provided data sufficient for examining the association between tumor response and patient-reported outcomes, including symptom response and health-related quality of life. An important association exists in the correlation between tumor response and formal measures of change in patient-reported outcomes.

  2. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Article
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Ocular toxicity during adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for early breast cancer : Results from International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials (pages 505–513)

      Lorenzo Gianni, Ilaria Panzini, Sigui Li, Richard D. Gelber, John Collins, Stig B. Holmberg, Diana Crivellari, Monica Castiglione-Gertsch, Aron Goldhirsch, Alan S. Coates and Alberto Ravaioli

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21651

      The authors retrieved information from almost 5000 patients randomized in International Breast Cancer Study Group trials to receive tamoxifen or toremifene to assess the incidence of ocular toxicity with or without chemotherapy. The study found that ocular toxicity during adjuvant therapy is a common side effect mainly represented by irritative symptoms due to chemotherapy, but it is rather rare during hormonal therapy and does not appear to justify a regular program of ocular examination.

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      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues added to adjuvant chemotherapy protect ovarian function and improve clinical outcomes in young women with early breast carcinoma (pages 514–523)

      Francesco Recchia, Gaetano Saggio, Giovanna Amiconi, Anna Di Blasio, Alisia Cesta, Giampiero Candeloro and Silvio Rea

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21646

      One hundred premenopausal women with breast carcinoma were treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue as ovarian protection during adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with positive estrogen receptor status also received an aromatase inhibitor concomitantly with the analogue until 2 years after surgery. Fertility rates among these patients remained high, and their 10-year survival rate was 91%.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Clinically significant prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma : A population-based, nested case–control study (pages 524–531)

      Catharina Ihre Lundgren, Per Hall, Paul W. Dickman and Jan Zedenius

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21653

      Different scoring systems currently are being used to stratify patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma into risk groups. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify those factors that are predictive of long-term unfavorable prognosis and to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the TNM staging system.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Elevated serum heparanase-1 levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma are associated with poor survival (pages 532–540)

      Roderick M. Quiros, Geetha Rao, Janet Plate, Jules E. Harris, Gregory J. Brunn, Jeffrey L. Platt, Paolo Gattuso, Richard A. Prinz and Xiulong Xu

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21648

      A novel enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay was developed to measure serum heparanase (HPR) activity. Serum HPR levels are elevated in pancreatic carcinoma patients and are correlated with heparanase expression in tumor tissue, and increased serum HPR1 levels are associated with a shorter survival.

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      Correlations of telomere length, telomerase activity, and telomeric-repeat binding factor 1 expression in colorectal carcinoma : Prognostic indications (pages 541–551)

      Cristina Garcia-Aranda, Carmen de Juan, Antonio Diaz-Lopez, Andres Sanchez-Pernaute, Antonio-Jose Torres, Eduardo Diaz-Rubio, Jose-Luis Balibrea, Manuel Benito and Pilar Iniesta

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21625

      Data from this study indicated that, among patients with colorectal carcinoma who had tumors that displayed telomerase reactivation, only those who had tumors with telomere elongation had a poor prognosis. Moreover, telomerase-positive colorectal tumors that over-expressed telomeric-repeat binding factor 1 had telomere shortening, and patients with those tumors had a better clinical course.

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      Histologic subtypes as determinants of outcome in esophageal carcinoma patients with pathologic complete response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pages 552–558)

      Pooja R. Rohatgi, Stephen G. Swisher, Arlene M. Correa, Tsung T. Wu, Zhongxing Liao, Ritsuko Komaki, Garrett L. Walsh, Ara A. Vaporciyan, David C. Rice, Robert S. Bresalier, Jack A. Roth and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21601

      The current study tested the hypothesis that the clinical outcome of patients with localized esophageal carcinoma after preoperative chemoradiotherapy would depend on histology.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Inadequacies of the current American Joint Committee on cancer staging system for prostate cancer (pages 559–565)

      Sarah H. Taylor, Kelly W. Merriman, Philippe E. Spiess and Louis Pisters

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21605

      In this study, the authors determined that, in its current format, patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV prostate cancer did not represent a homogenous group. The results indicated that the AJCC staging system should be revised to reflect the important differences between patients with positive regional lymph node involvement and patients with distant metastasis.

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      Maximal COX-2 immunostaining and clinical response to celecoxib and interferon alpha therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 566–575)

      Brian I. Rini, Vivian Weinberg, Sarah Dunlap, Alexandra Elchinoff, Nancy Yu, Robert Bok, Jeffery Simko and Eric J. Small

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21661

      Interferon-alpha (IFNα) and celecoxib, an oral cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, were given to metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in a Phase II trial. The addition of celecoxib to IFNα did not increase the objective response rate or time to progression of the unselected cohort. Objective responses and longer time to disease progression (TTP) were observed, however, in the subset of patients with maximal (3+) COX-2 tumor immunostaining. Further investigation of this combination in 3+ COX-2 overexpressing RCC tumors is warranted.

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      Does a delay between diagnosis and radical prostatectomy increase the risk of disease recurrence? (pages 576–580)

      Andrew J. Vickers, Fernando J. Bianco Jr., Stephen Boorjian, Peter T. Scardino and James A. Eastham

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21643

      The current study examined whether a delay between biopsy and surgery for patients with prostate carcinoma is associated with the risk of disease recurrence. Although delay does not appear to have a significant effect, counseling patients on the importance of avoiding undue delay in undergoing surgery must be based on clinical judgment, particularly with regard to modifying the advice based on patient risk.

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      Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in men with prostate carcinoma who receive androgen-deprivation therapy (pages 581–588)

      Shehzad Basaria, Denis C. Muller, Michael A. Carducci, Josephine Egan and Adrian S. Dobs

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21642

      The authors evaluated the long-term effects of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) on fasting glucose levels and insulin resistance in men with prostate carcinoma (PCa) to determine whether these metabolic alterations were because of hypogonadism. The results suggested that men with PCa who received long-term ADT are at risk of developing insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, and may be predisposed to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These complications are directly attributable to hypogonadism.

    11. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Surgery by consultant gynecologic oncologists improves survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma (pages 589–598)

      Mirjam J. A. Engelen, Henrike E. Kos, Pax H. B. Willemse, Jan G. Aalders, Elisabeth G. E. de Vries, Michael Schaapveld, Renee Otter and Ate G. J. van der Zee

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21616

      The authors evaluated the effects of primary surgery performed by a gynecologic oncologist on treatment outcomes in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Compared with general gynecologic surgeons, gynecologic oncologists performed surgery more often according to surgical guidelines and more often achieved complete tumor removal.

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      Molecular mechanism of phenoxodiol-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells (pages 599–608)

      Ayesha B. Alvero, David O'Malley, David Brown, Graham Kelly, Manish Garg, Wei Chen, Thomas Rutherford and Gil Mor

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21633

      Phenoxodiol, a novel isoflavone derivative, sensitizes ovarian carcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic agents both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, it is able to induce apoptosis by activating the caspase-2-Bid signaling pathway and by promoting the proteasomal degradation of XIAP.

    13. Head and Neck Disease
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      Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type : The significance of radiotherapeutic parameters (pages 609–615)

      Koichi Isobe, Takashi Uno, Jun-ichi Tamaru, Hiroyuki Kawakami, Naoyuki Ueno, Hisashi Wakita, Jun-ichi Okada, Jun Itami and Hisao Ito

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21656

      The authors observed that radiotherapy (RT) to all paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the palate, in addition to macroscopic lesions, and ≥ to 50 grays of RT resulted in favorable local control in patients with 35 immunohistochemically confirmed nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphomas.

    14. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Subsequent therapy can be administered after tositumomab and iodine I-131 tositumomab for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 616–622)

      Alan D. Dosik, Morton Coleman, Lale Kostakoglu, Richard R. Furman, Jennifer M. Fiore, Daniel Muss, Ruben Niesvizky, Tsiporah Shore, Michael W. Schuster, Patricia Stewart, Shankar Vallabhajosula, Stanley J. Goldsmith and John P. Leonard

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21606

      Iodine I-131 tositumomab was an effective therapy for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. After this radioimmunotherapeutic regimen, patients with progressive disease generally had sufficient hematologic reserve to receive subsequent antilymphoma treatment.

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      Prognosis in transplant-eligible patients with agnogenic myeloid metaplasia : A simple CBC-based scoring system (pages 623–630)

      David Dingli, Susan M. Schwager, Ruben A. Mesa, Chin Yang Li and Ayalew Tefferi

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21644

      The current study describes the natural history of agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) in transplant-eligible patients, and proposes a new prognostic scoring system that compares favorably with other established models. The new scoring system, based on blood count at time of diagnosis, can adequately stratify transplant-eligible patients with AMM by risk, as well as accurately identify high- and intermediate-risk disease.

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      The clinical phenotype of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous JAK2V617F in polycythemia vera (pages 631–635)

      Ayalew Tefferi, Terra L. Lasho, Susan M. Schwager, Jacob S. Strand, Michelle Elliott, Ruben Mesa, Chin-Yang Li, Martha Wadleigh, Stephanie J. Lee and D. Gary Gilliland

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21645

      Several studies have recently reported on the occurrence of a JAK2V617F mutation in myeloid cells from the majority of patients with polycythemia vera (PV). In a single institutional study, mutation screening for JAK2V617F was performed in DNA derived from archived blood granulocytes from 63 consecutive patients with PV in whom current diagnostic criteria were strictly applied and the diagnosis confirmed by bone marrow histology.

    17. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Dysplastic nodules frequently develop into hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and cirrhosis (pages 636–647)

      Masahiro Kobayashi, Kenji Ikeda, Tetsuya Hosaka, Hitomi Sezaki, Takashi Someya, Norio Akuta, Fumitaka Suzuki, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Satoshi Saitoh, Yasuji Arase and Hiromitsu Kumada

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21607

      High-grade dysplastic nodules should be considered precancerous lesions when they appear during clinical observation of chronic viral hepatitis or cirrhosis. Decreased portal blood flow in the nodule on CT-AP is an important predictor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    18. Lung Disease
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      Expression of the Bax inhibitor-1 gene in pulmonary adenocarcinoma (pages 648–653)

      Ryota Tanaka, Tadashi Ishiyama, Teruhito Uchihara, Yukinori Inadome, Tatsuo Iijima, Yukio Morishita, Junko Kano, Tomoyuki Goya and Masayuki Noguchi

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21639

      The expression of Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) was examined in lung adenocarcinoma specimens. BI-1 gene expression was restricted to tumor cells with lepidic growth and was a prognostic factor for peripheral-type adenocarcinoma.

    19. Melanoma
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      Cutaneous melanoma in postmenopausal women after nonmelanoma skin carcinoma : The women's health initiative observational study (pages 654–663)

      Carol A. Rosenberg, Janardan Khandekar, Philip Greenland, Rebecca J. Rodabough and Anne McTiernan

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21627

      A prospective study assessed the incidence of cutaneous melanoma in postmenopausal non-Hispanic white women after nonmelanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC) in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a study conducted in 40 communities throughout the U.S. involving 67,030 postmenopausal women, ages 50–79. In age-adjusted analyses, women with a history of NMSC, but no other malignancies (n = 5552), were found to be 2.41 times more likely to develop cutaneous melanoma over a follow-up period of 6.5 years, compared with women who had no history of NMSC (95% confidence interval, 1.82–3.20). The study provides evidence and defines the magnitude of the increased risk for cutaneous melanoma in postmenopausal U.S. non-Hispanic white women with a history of NMSC.

    20. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Individual-, neighborhood-, and state-level socioeconomic predictors of cervical carcinoma screening among U.S. black women : A multilevel analysis (pages 664–669)

      Geetanjali D. Datta, Graham A. Colditz, Ichiro Kawachi, S.V. Subramanian, Julie R. Palmer and Lynn Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21660

      A multilevel analysis was conducted of the association between socioeconomic factors and cervical carcinoma screening among participants of the Black Women's Health Study. The results suggest that among black women, residence in high-poverty (20%) neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of nonrecent cervical carcinoma screening, independent of individual level risk factors.

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      Racial/ethnic patterns in lifetime and age-conditional risk estimates for selected cancers (pages 670–682)

      Barry A. Miller, Steven M. Scoppa and Eric J. Feuer

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21647

      In addition to widely reported disparities in lifetime cancer risks between black and white populations, there are notable differences among specific Asian populations and between Alaska Native and other American Indian populations. Observed differences in lifetime cancer risks may be because of differences in incidence rates, but they also may reflect differential mortality rates from all causes other than the cancer of interest. Because the lifetime risk estimates are derived from cross-sectional incidence and mortality rates, results must be interpreted cautiously when it is known that events, such as the widespread and rapid implementation of a new screening test, have influenced disease rates.

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      Incidence of esophageal and gastric carcinomas among American Asians/Pacific Islanders, whites, and blacks : Subsite and histology differences (pages 683–692)

      Xiaocheng Wu, Vivien W. Chen, Bernado Ruiz, Patricia Andrews, L. Joseph Su and Pelayo Correa

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21542

      Subsite-specific and histology-specific incidence patterns of esophageal and gastric carcinomas among the Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) population in the United States differed compared with white and black populations. The rates of gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma were substantially higher, whereas the rates of esophageal adenocarcinoma were lower among APIs than among whites and blacks for both males and females. The rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma among APIs were higher than among whites and lower than among blacks for males only.

    23. Pathology
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      Cytokeratin 20 expression identifies a subtype of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with decreased overall survival (pages 693–702)

      Evan Matros, Gerald Bailey, Thomas Clancy, Michael Zinner, Stanley Ashley, Edward Whang and Mark Redston

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21609

      Cytokeratins are markers of epithelial cell differentiation useful in determining histogenesis for malignancies with an unknown primary. When present, CK 20 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogenesis and is associated with a poor prognosis.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      Phase II study of a protracted irinotecan schedule in children with refractory or recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (pages 703–707)

      Gianni Bisogno, Riccardo Riccardi, Antonio Ruggiero, Giampaolo Arcamone, Arcangelo Prete, Gianmarco Surico, Massimo Provenzi, Patrizia Bertolini, Paolo Paolucci and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21629

      A phase II study of irinotecan administered intravenously every day for 5 days in 2 consecutive weeks, conducted in pediatric patients with relapsed soft tissue sarcoma, demonstrated an interesting response rate in a population of heavily pretreated patients, especially in the subset of patients with peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

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      Epithelioid sarcoma in children and adolescents : A report from the Italian Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee (pages 708–717)

      Michela Casanova, Andrea Ferrari, Paola Collini, Gianni Bisogno, Rita Alaggio, Giovanni Cecchetto, Alessandro Gronchi, Cristina Meazza, Alberto Garaventa, Andrea Di Cataldo and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21630

      Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon malignant soft tissue tumor, and little information is available regarding its clinical features and management in children and adolescents, particularly with regard to the proximal-type variant. The current study concerns 30 patients age < 18 years who were enrolled in the Italian Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee protocols. The analysis confirms some typical features of ES (the peculiar distal location, indolent growth, and a tendency to recur locally), but not the tendency for nodal involvement described in adults. Worse outcome was associated with the proximal-type variant of ES.

    26. Radiation Oncology
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      Clinical manifestations of noncoronary atherosclerotic vascular disease after moderate dose irradiation (pages 718–725)

      Deep A. Patel, Joel Kochanski, Andrew W. Suen, Luis F. Fajardo, Steven L. Hancock and Susan J. Knox

      Article first published online: 13 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21636

      Accelerated atherosclerosis and carotid stenosis are well-established risks occurring after high radiation doses that are used to treat cancers of the head and neck. Noncoronary vascular disease has been observed and may relate to more moderate dose irradiation.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Article
    4. Correspondence
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      Sociodemographic determinants of cancer treatment health literacy (pages 726–727)

      Michael W. Retsky, William Hrushesky and Michael Baum

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21684

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      Author reply (page 727)

      Ted Gansler, Kevin Stein and S. Jane Henley

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21688

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