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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 February 2006

Volume 106, Issue 4

Pages 729–973

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Problems with the current diagnostic approach to complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia (pages 729–731)

      Robert A. Soslow

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21663

      Endometrial carcinoma is the most common form of genital malignancy diagnosed in women. Simple hyperplasia without atypia lies closest to normal proliferative endometrium. On the other end of the spectrum of preinvasive neoplasms is complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), which from biologic, morphologic, and clinical perspectives resembles well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma (WDA). Because CAH and WDA share so many important characteristics, tests for any one or a combination of these cannot definitively separate the two entities. Morphologically, CAH resembles WDA and, in many cases, substantial diagnostic sophistication is required to distinguish between them using current criteria. Two noteworthy articles based on the findings of the Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol 167 have been published in this edition of Cancer and provide a glimpse of one group's approach to the diagnosis of CAH and its relevance.

      See also pages 804–11 and 812–9.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Pathologic findings from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium : Population-based outcomes in women undergoing biopsy after screening mammography (pages 732–742)

      Donald L. Weaver, Robert D. Rosenberg, William E. Barlow, Laura Ichikawa, Patricia A. Carney, Karla Kerlikowske, Diana S. M. Buist, Berta M. Geller, Charles R. Key, Susan J. Maygarden and Rachel Ballard-Barbash

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21652

      Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium prevalence data for invasive carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, and benign findings establish a range of expected biopsy outcomes for women after screening mammography in the general U.S. population. In this report, pathologically negative lymph nodes were found to be more prevalent in the screened population than in the overall Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population for all tumor size categories.

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      Twenty-five years of follow-up in patients with operable breast carcinoma : Correlation between clinicopathologic factors and the risk of death in each 5-year period (pages 743–750)

      Rodrigo Arriagada, Monique G. Le, Ariane Dunant, Maurice Tubiana and Genevieve Contesso

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21659

      Strong conventional prognostic factors of death in the first years after a diagnosis of breast carcinoma provide limited information about mortality after 10–15 years of follow-up. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of such prognostic factors over a long follow-up.

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      Fatigue in long-term breast carcinoma survivors : A longitudinal investigation (pages 751–758)

      Julienne E. Bower, Patricia A. Ganz, Katherine A. Desmond, Coen Bernaards, Julia H. Rowland, Beth E. Meyerowitz and Thomas R. Belin

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21671

      Approximately 21% of breast carcinoma survivors experience persistent fatigue up to 10 years after cancer diagnosis. Predictors of long-term fatigue include depression, cardiovascular problems, and type of cancer treatment received.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Telomerase-specific T-cells kill pancreatic tumor cells in vitro and in vivo (pages 759–764)

      Jan Schmidt, Eduard Ryschich, Elisabeth Sievers, Ingo G. H. Schmidt-Wolf, Markus W. Büchler and Angela Märten

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2005 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21655

      Using telomerase-peptide as a candidate for immunotherapy, specific T-cells were generated and expanded. Antigen-specific T-cells demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity in a syngeneic, subcutaneous mouse model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      A population-based survey of prostate-specific antigen testing among California men at higher risk for prostate carcinoma (pages 765–774)

      Benjamin A. Spencer, Susan H. Babey, David A. Etzioni, Ninez A. Ponce, E. Richard Brown, Hongjian Yu, Neetu Chawla and Mark S. Litwin

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21673

      Using data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey, the authors investigated 1) whether men at higher risk for prostate carcinoma underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing at the same rate as other men and 2) variations in patterns of test use by age, race, and other factors. Higher risk men who had a family history of prostate carcinoma were more likely to undergo PSA testing than men with no family history, but higher risk African-American men were no more likely to be tested than white men.

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      Comparative assessment of the 1992 and 2002 pathologic T3 substages for the prediction of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (pages 775–782)

      Thomas Steuber, Andreas Erbersdobler, Markus Graefen, Alexander Haese, Hartwig Huland and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21632

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the original 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) pathologic T3 (pT3) substaging for prostate carcinoma relative to the 1997/2002 AJCC T3 substaging system for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy. The findings indicated that substaging of pT3 tumors according to the less complex 1997/2002 pT3 classification system improved the predictive accuracy of the BCR rate to virtually the same extent as the more detailed 1992 TNM classification.

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      Adjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma : A pooled analysis from phase III studies (pages 783–788)

      Enzo Maria Ruggeri, Diana Giannarelli, Emilio Bria, Paolo Carlini, Alessandra Felici, Fabrizio Nelli, Michele Gallucci, Francesco Cognetti and Camillo Francesco Pollera

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21676

      To date, the ‘gold standard’ treatment for muscle invasive bladder carcinoma has been recognized to be radical cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has the advantage of being administered to patients with known prognostic factors of recurrence. A pooled analysis was used to verify whether AC is able to increase the disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with muscle invasive bladder carcinoma who had undergone radical cystectomy. The results of the analysis of AC demonstrate that chemotherapy given to a subset of patients with known prognostic factors of recurrence can benefit both disease-free and overall survival by reducing the number of patients receiving an inferior treatment.

    8. You have free access to this content
      Differences in clinical characteristics and disease-free survival for Latino, African American, and non-Latino white men with localized prostate cancer : Data from CaPSURE™ (pages 789–795)

      David M. Latini, Eric P. Elkin, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Natalia Sadetsky, Janeen DuChane, Peter R. Carroll and CaPSURE™ Investigators

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21675

      This study compared baseline disease characteristics and clinical outcomes for Latino, non-Latino White, and African-American men with localized prostate cancer. Latinos are more similar to African Americans on sociodemographic characteristics but more similar to non-Latino Whites on clinical presentation and disease-free survival rates. These results add new information to our understanding of the relation among ethnicity, sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of men with prostate cancer.

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      Prostate cancer screening in high-risk men : African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study Network (pages 796–803)

      Sally P. Weinrich and African American Hereditary Prostate Cancer Study Network

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21674

      Only about one-third (35%) of African American men with a positive family history had ever had a digital rectal examination (DRE), and only about 45% of them had ever received a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. These rates were much lower than those obtained for African American men in the National Health Interview Survey—45% for DRE and 65% for PSA.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Reproducibility of the diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia : A gynecologic oncology group study (pages 804–811)

      Richard J. Zaino, James Kauderer, Cornelia Liu Trimble, Steven G. Silverberg, John P. Curtin, Peter C. Lim and Donald G. Gallup

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21649

      In a study of 306 women, the referring institution's pathologic diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia was supported by the majority of an expert panel in only 38% of cases. Better criteria and better sampling are needed to improve reproducibility of this diagnosis, particularly if it is used for clinical decisions.

      See also pages 729–31 and 812–9.

    11. You have free access to this content
      Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia : A Gynecologic Oncology Group study (pages 812–819)

      Cornelia L. Trimble, James Kauderer, Richard Zaino, Steven Silverberg, Peter C. Lim, James J. Burke II, David Alberts and John Curtin

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21650

      In a cohort study of 289 women who had a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH), it was found that 123 women (43%) had concurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma in hysterectomy samples that were obtained within 12 weeks of their initial diagnosis. When considering management strategies for a biopsy diagnosis of AEH, clinicians and patients should take into account the considerable rate of concurrent carcinoma.

      See also pages 729–31 and 804–11.

    12. Head and Neck Disease
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      Sensorineural hearing loss in combined modality treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 820–829)

      William C. Chen, Andrew Jackson, Amy S. Budnick, David G. Pfister, Dennis H. Kraus, Margie A. Hunt, Hilda Stambuk, Sabine Levegrun and Suzanne L. Wolden

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21683

      A significant increase in risk of sensorineural hearing loss was found among patients receiving > 48 Gy to the cochlea, suggesting a threshold in radiation dose–response in the setting of combined modality therapy. This dose should serve as a cochlear mean dose constraint maximum for intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment of nasopharynx carcinoma.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Phase III study of PSC-833 (valspodar) in combination with vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (valspodar/VAD) versus VAD alone in patients with recurring or refractory multiple myeloma (E1A95) : A trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (pages 830–838)

      William R. Friedenberg, Montserrat Rue, Emily A. Blood, William S. Dalton, Chaim Shustik, Richard A. Larson, Pieter Sonneveld and Philip R. Greipp

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21666

      VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone) with and without valspodar (PSC-833) was evaluated in patients with recurring or refractory multiple myeloma. There was no improvement in clinical outcome and there was excess toxicity in the valspodar-treated group compared with VAD alone.

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      Evaluation of complete disease remission in acute myeloid leukemia : A prospective study based on cytomorphology, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization, and immunophenotyping during follow-up in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 839–847)

      Ulrike Bacher, Wolfgang Kern, Claudia Schoch, Susanne Schnittger, Wolfgang Hiddemann and Torsten Haferlach

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21665

      Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results were found to be correlated significantly with the clinical course at the time of complete cytomorphologic remission in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, and those results were found to be more reliable for defining complete remission than morphologic results. Furthermore, interphase FISH results were found to be correlated with immunophenotyping results at all times during follow-up.

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      Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone provide significant reduction in toxicity compared with doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma : A Phase III multicenter randomized trial (pages 848–858)

      Robert M. Rifkin, Stephanie A. Gregory, Ann Mohrbacher and Mohamad A. Hussein

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21662

      The regimen of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, vincristine, and reduced-dose dexamethasone (DVd) was compared with vincristine, doxorubicin, and reduced-dose dexamethasone (VAd) for patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and demonstrated similar efficacy with less toxicity and supportive care compared with VAd. The DVd regimen should improve clinical utility and potentially may optimize the opportunity for transplantation.

    16. You have free access to this content
      Mitoxantrone, carboplatin, cytosine arabinoside, and methylprednisolone followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation : A salvage regimen for patients with refractory or recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 859–866)

      Federica Sorá, Nicola Piccirillo, Patrizia Chiusolo, Luca Laurenti, Roberto Marra, Francesco Bartolozzi, Giuseppe Leone and Simona Sica

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21634

      A salvage chemotherapy regimen consisting of mitoxantrone, carboplatin, cytosine arabinoside, and methylprednisolone (MiCMA) was adopted for the treatment of 94 patients with primary refractory or recurrent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The study results demonstrated that MiCMA is an effective therapeutic alternative salvage regimen in this setting. Response rates, overall survival, and freedom from disease progression all were found to be associated significantly with response to MiCMA.

    17. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      The effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog, on disease recurrence and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment : A pilot study (pages 867–872)

      Toshihiko Mizuta, Iwata Ozaki, Yuichiro Eguchi, Tsutomu Yasutake, Seiji Kawazoe, Kazuma Fujimoto and Kyosuke Yamamoto

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21667

      For this study, the authors tested the effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog, on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and survival after curative treatment. The results demonstrated that menatetrenone may have a suppressive effect on HCC recurrence and a beneficial effect on survival.

    18. Lung Disease
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      Randomized Phase II study of two opposite administration sequences of irinotecan and cisplatin in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 873–880)

      Ji-Youn Han, Hyeong-Seok Lim, Dae Ho Lee, So Young Ju, Sung Young Lee, Hyae Young Kim, Yong-Hoon Park, Chun Gun Park and Jin Soo Lee

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21668

      The efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of combined chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin were evaluated according to administration sequence in chemotherapy-naive patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. For future clinical use, the authors recommend administering cisplatin first and then irinotecan, because that sequence was associated with a higher response rate.

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      Role of exposure to radon and silicosis on the cell type of lung carcinoma in German uranium miners (pages 881–889)

      Dirk Taeger, Arno Fritsch, Thorsten Wiethege, Georg Johnen, Andreas Eisenmenger, Horst Wesch, Yon Ko, Sebastian Stier, Klaus Michael Muller, Thomas Bruning and Beate Pesch

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21677

      In 3414 German uranium miners exposed to high levels of ionizing radiation and respirable quartz dust, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) seem to be more likely associated with high radon exposure than adenocarcinoma (AC). In miners with silicosis, AC and SqCC had a relative higher frequency at the expense of SCLC.

    20. Melanoma
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      Enhanced viral and tumor immunity with intranodal injection of canary pox viruses expressing the melanoma antigen, gp100 (pages 890–899)

      David E. Spaner, Igor Astsaturov, Thorsten Vogel, Teresa Petrella, Ileana Elias, Susan Burdett-Radoux, Shailendra Verma, Neill Iscoe, Paul Hamilton and Neil L. Berinstein

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21669

      The route of administration and extent of helper T-cell activation are factors that are likely to be important for the development of effective cancer vaccines. In order to optimize CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, the immunologic effects of direct lymph node (LN) injections of canary pox virus (ALVAC) vectors (expressing the melanoma antigen, gp100) and immunogenic gp100 peptides, along with concomitant injections of the helper adjuvant, tetanus toxoid, were studied in high-risk HLA-A*0201+ patients.

    21. You have free access to this content
      Assessment of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for primary cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma (pages 900–906)

      Timothy M. Pawlik, Merrick I. Ross, Victor G. Prieto, Matthew T. Ballo, Marcella M. Johnson, Paul F. Mansfield, Jeffrey E. Lee, Janice N. Cormier and Jeffrey E. Gershenwald

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21635

      The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of desmoplastic melanoma (DM) remains undefined. The authors report that patients with a pure DM histologic subtype have a lower incidence of positive SLNs compared with patients who have mixed DM or non-DM melanomas. Whereas patients with mixed DM should be treated like all other melanoma patients, patients with pure DM are unlikely to have metastatic disease in regional lymph nodes and SLNB may not be warranted.

    22. You have free access to this content
      Are all melanomas the same? : Spitzoid melanoma is a distinct subtype of melanoma (pages 907–913)

      David A. Lee, Jason A. Cohen, William S. Twaddell, Gustavo Palacios, Melissa Gill, Eyal Levit, Alan J. Halperin, Joan Mones, Klaus J. Busam, David N. Silvers and Julide Tok Celebi

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21686

      For this study, the authors evaluated the contribution of B-RAF and N-RAS mutations to the pathogenesis of Spitzoid melanomas. The findings suggested that Spitzoid melanoma is a distinct form of melanoma with unknown genes and/or signaling pathways involved in its development.

    23. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Comparison of the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the presurgical detection of lymph node metastases in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma : A prospective study (pages 914–922)

      Hyuck Jae Choi, Ju Won Roh, Sang-Soo Seo, Sun Lee, Joo-Young Kim, Seok-Ki Kim, Keon Wook Kang, Jong Seok Lee, Jun Yong Jeong and Sang-Yoon Park

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21641

      The authors investigated the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting lymph node metastases in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The findings indicated that, although MRI was useful for detecting enlarged pelvic and paraaortic metastatic lymph nodes, PET/CT was more sensitive than MRI for detecting lymph node metastases.

    24. Epidemiology
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      Are venous thromboembolic events associated with subsequent breast and colorectal carcinoma diagnoses in the elderly? : A case–control study of Medicare beneficiaries (pages 923–930)

      Blase N. Polite and Elizabeth B. Lamont

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21672

      Hospitalization for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with an increased risk of a diagnosis of breast or colorectal carcinoma in the next 2 years. Physicians should be vigilant in assessing the cancer screening status of patients who have a new DVT and/or PE to be certain that they are up to date with recommended breast and colorectal screening guidelines.

    25. Pediatric Oncology
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      Acute and delayed nausea and emesis control in pediatric oncology patients (pages 931–940)

      Mark T. Holdsworth, Dennis W. Raisch and Jami Frost

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21631

      Nausea and emesis remain significant problems among children who are receiving emetogenic chemotherapy. Rates of complete protection from nausea and emesis were associated significantly with patient age, and higher rates were observed in very young children.

    26. You have free access to this content
      Smaller white-matter volumes are associated with larger deficits in attention and learning among long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 941–949)

      Wilburn E. Reddick, Zuyao Y. Shan, John O. Glass, Susan Helton, Xiaoping Xiong, Shengjie Wu, Melanie J. Bonner, Scott C. Howard, Robbin Christensen, Raja B. Khan, Ching-Hon Pui and Raymond K. Mulhern

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21679

      Neurocognitive tests of attention, intelligence, and academic achievement as well as quantitative magnetic resonance examinations of brain tissue volumes confirmed the hypothesis that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have significant deficits in attention and that smaller white-matter volumes are associated directly with impaired neurocognitive performance. Cranial irradiation exacerbated these findings.

    27. You have free access to this content
      K-ras mutations and N-ras mutations in childhood acute leukemias with or without mixed-lineage leukemia gene rearrangements (pages 950–956)

      Der-Cherng Liang, Lee-Yung Shih, Jen-Fen Fu, Huei-Ying Li, Hsiu-I Wang, Iou-Jih Hung, Chao-Ping Yang, Tang-Her Jaing, Shu-Huey Chen and Hsi-Che Liu

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21687

      In a large-scale study using direct sequencing for each polymerase chain reaction product, the authors documented the frequency of K-Ras and N-Ras mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia. K-Ras mutations were detected in 40% of patients who had ALL that was positive for mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL) rearrangements, a proportion that was significantly higher compared with that among patients who had MLL-negative B-precursor ALL.

    28. Psychological Oncology
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      Racial/ethnic group differences in treatment decision-making and treatment received among older breast carcinoma patients (pages 957–965)

      Rose C. Maly, Yoshiko Umezawa, Carl T. Ratliff and Barbara Leake

      Article first published online: 9 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21680

      Marked racial/ethnic group differences in breast carcinoma treatment decision-making were demonstrated in this study among older patients, especially for Latinas. Regardless of the level of acculturation, the family played a powerful role as final decision-makers in this group, which, in turn, strongly influenced surgical treatment received. Physicians should acknowledge and educate patients' family members as potential key participants in medical decision-making, rather than merely as translators and providers of social support.

    29. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin in cancer cachexia in breast and colon cancer patients (pages 966–973)

      Ido Wolf, Seigal Sadetzki, Hannah Kanety, Yulia Kundel, Clara Pariente, Nava Epstein, Bernice Oberman, Raphael Catane, Bella Kaufman and Ilan Shimon

      Article first published online: 12 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21690

      In this study, plasma levels of the hormone ghrelin and the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin, which participate in body weight regulation, were measured in cancer cachexia patients. Data suggested impaired responses of adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin in patients who suffer cancer cachexia syndrome.

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