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Cover image for Cancer

1 March 2006

Volume 106, Issue 5

Pages 975–1196

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
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      Landmark trials in endocrine adjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma (pages 975–981)

      William Gradishar

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21707

      The review summarizes the outcomes of several landmark trials involving aromatase inhibitors that helped formulate current therapeutic approaches recommended by the American Society of Clinical Oncology for breast carcinoma treatment.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Magnetic resonance-guided, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy : Results from a European multicenter study of 538 lesions (pages 982–990)

      Claudia Perlet, Sylvia H. Heywang-Kobrunner, Anke Heinig, Harald Sittek, Jan Casselman, Ingvar Anderson and Patrick Taourel

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21720

      In 5 European centers, magnetic resonance (MR)-guided, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (MR-VAB) was performed or attempted on 538 suspicious lesions that were visible or could be targeted only by MR imaging, and 96% of those procedures were successful. All unsuccessful or uncertain procedures could be identified immediately according to postinterventional imaging and correlation with histology. The current results indicated that MR-VAB offers excellent accuracy, even in the diagnosis of very small MR-detected lesions.

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      Long-term cosmetic results and toxicity after accelerated partial-breast irradiation : A method of radiation delivery by interstitial brachytherapy for the treatment of early-stage breast carcinoma (pages 991–999)

      Peter Y. Chen, Frank A. Vicini, Pamela Benitez, Larry L. Kestin, Michelle Wallace, Christina Mitchell, Jane Pettinga and Alvaro A. Martinez

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21681

      The authors assessed the cosmesis and toxicities in patients with early-stage breast carcinoma who received treatment with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial brachytherapy. The APBI outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy indicated a safe toxicity profile, an excellent control rate, and good-to-excellent cosmetic results in the vast majority of patients.

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      Disease-free and overall survival after pathologic complete disease remission of cytologically proven inflammatory breast carcinoma axillary lymph node metastases after primary systemic chemotherapy (pages 1000–1006)

      Bryan T. Hennessy, Ana Maria Gonzalez-Angulo, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, Massimo Cristofanilli, Shu Wan Kau, Kristine Broglio, Bruno Fornage, S. Eva Singletary, Aysegul Sahin, Aman U. Buzdar and Vicente Valero

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21726

      Patients with inflammatory breast carcinoma with cytologically proven axillary lymph node metastases who are treated with primary chemotherapy and who achieve an axillary pathologic complete response have an excellent prognosis whereas those with residual lymph node metastases are reported to have a very poor outcome.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 promoter polymorphism predicts the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity and fatigue induced by irinotecan-based chemotherapy (pages 1007–1016)

      Cristian Massacesi, Salvatore Terrazzino, Fabiana Marcucci, Marco B. Rocchi, Paolo Lippe, Renato Bisonni, Marco Lombardo, Alberta Pilone, Rodolfo Mattioli and Alberta Leon

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21722

      Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1) polymorphism appears to be predictive of the risk of diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue caused by combination chemotherapy with irinotecan and raltitrexed. Screening for UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism may identify those patients at higher risk of severe toxicity after irinotecan-based chemotherapy.

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      The number of lymph nodes with metastasis predicts survival in patients with esophageal or esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma who receive preoperative chemoradiation (pages 1017–1025)

      Yan Gu, Stephen G. Swisher, Jaffer A. Ajani, Arlene M. Correa, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Zhongxing Liao, Ritsuko R. Komaki, Asif Rashid, Stanley R. Hamilton and Tsung-Teh Wu

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21693

      The number of lymph nodes (LNs) with metastasis was found to be an independent prognostic factor in patients who developed residual adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or the esophagogastric junction after they received preoperative chemoradiation. The authors recommend modification of the staging classification (posttherapy pathologic [yp] tumor-lymph node-metastasis status) to include the number of positive LNs in the ypN1 category.

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      Urokinase system expression in gastric carcinoma : Prognostic impact in an independent patient series and first evidence of predictive value in preoperative biopsy and intestinal metaplasia specimens (pages 1026–1035)

      Bianca C. M. Beyer, Markus Maria Heiss, Erich H. Simon, Klaus-Uwe Gruetzner, Rudolf Babic, Karl-Walter Jauch, Friedrich-Wilhelm Schildberg and Heike Allgayer

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21682

      To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) system expression may serve as a predictor of risk in intestinal metaplasia and preoperative biopsy specimens and may have an impact on decision making with regard to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with gastric carcinoma. The results of this independent series demonstrated a correlation between u-PA system expression and Helicobacter pylori infection, an independent impact of the u-PA system on tumor recurrence and survival, and a correlation between u-PAR expression and minimal residual disease.

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      K-ras mutations in incident sporadic colorectal adenomas (pages 1036–1040)

      Elizabeth L. R. Barry, John A. Baron, Maria V. Grau, Kristin Wallace and Robert W. Haile

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21721

      K-ras mutations were found in only 3.0% of 303 sporadic colorectal adenomas that were removed within a few years after patients underwent a “clean” colonoscopy during a calcium chemoprevention trial. The prevalence of mutation was associated strongly with both advanced histopathologic characteristics of the adenomas and rectal location.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      First- and second-line chemotherapy with docetaxel or mitoxantrone in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer : Does sequence matter? (pages 1041–1046)

      Jorg Michels, Trina Montemurro, Nevin Murray, Christian Kollmannsberger and Kim Nguyen Chi

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21695

      Docetaxel should be given up-front in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Second-line docetaxel or mitoxantrone was found to be of limited efficacy and tolerability.

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      Critical analysis of prostate-specific antigen doubling time calculation methodology (pages 1047–1053)

      Robert S. Svatek, Michael Shulman, Pankaj K. Choudhary and Elie Benaim

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21696

      The objective of the current study was to identify the method that best described prostate-specific antigen (PSA) growth over time and that best predicted disease-specific survival in men with androgen-independent prostate carcinoma. The results showed that random coefficient methods provided a more reliable fit of PSA profiles than other models and were superior for predicting disease-specific survival.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Distribution of human papillomavirus types in ThinPrep Papanicolaou tests classified according to the Bethesda 2001 terminology and correlations with patient age and biopsy outcomes (pages 1054–1064)

      Mark F. Evans, Christine S.-C. Adamson, Jacalyn L. Papillo, Timothy L. St. John, Gladwyn Leiman and Kumarasen Cooper

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21664

      High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types were distributed similarly between atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (53.0%) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (55.5%) and between atypical squamous cells, cannot rule out high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (80.0%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (87.5%) cytologic categories. HR HPV type testing by polymerase chain reaction analysis may benefit the management of patients who are diagnosed with ASC-US or LSIL according to the Bethesda 2001 criteria.

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      Expression of FasL in squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and its role in tumor escape mechanism (pages 1065–1077)

      Ramy Ibrahim, Helen Frederickson, Allyson Parr, Yvona Ward, Joel Moncur and Samir N. Khleif

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21697

      To date, several mechanisms have been described by which malignant cells escape from the immune system, one of which is through the expression of FasL. The authors hypothesized that the Fas/FasL interaction enables cervical carcinoma cells to induce apoptosis of the cells of the immune system and thereby escape from them. In addition, differences in FasL distribution between normal, dysplastic, and malignant cervical tissues have demonstrated that the persistence of FasL expression in the dysplastic layer of malignant tissues might be a way for the tumor to escape from the immune system.

    12. Head and Neck Disease
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      Implications for clinical staging of metastatic cutaneous squamous carcinoma of the head and neck based on a multicenter study of treatment outcomes (pages 1078–1083)

      Jennifer L. Andruchow, Michael J. Veness, Gary J. Morgan, Kan Gao, Anthony Clifford, Kerwin F. Shannon, Michael Poulsen, Lizbeth Kenny, Carsten E. Palme, Patrick Gullane, Christopher Morris, William M. Mendenhall, Kepal N. Patel, Jatin P. Shah and Christopher J. O'Brien

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21698

      A retrospective multicenter study of the clinical behavior of metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid gland and neck was undertaken. Analysis of 325 patients indicated that treatment outcome was influenced by the clinical stage of disease in the parotid gland and the presence of metastatic nodal involvement in the neck. Based on these findings, a review of the current TNM staging system for cutaneous carcinoma involving the head and neck is warranted.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Second autologous or allogeneic transplantation after the failure of first autograft in patients with multiple myeloma (pages 1084–1089)

      Muzaffar H. Qazilbash, Rima Saliba, Marcos De Lima, Chitra Hosing, Daniel Couriel, Ana Aleman, Linda Roden, Richard Champlin and Sergio A. Giralt

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21700

      Most patients undergoing high-dose therapy and autologous transplant for multiple myeloma eventually experience recurrence. However, the optimal salvage treatment for these patients is not well defined. Both autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations have been used for salvage therapy. In the current study, the outcomes of salvage autologous or allogeneic transplants were analyzed retrospectively in patients who developed recurrent disease after an autograft.

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      Results of intensive chemotherapy in 998 patients age 65 years or older with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: : Predictive prognostic models for outcome (pages 1090–1098)

      Hagop Kantarjian, Susan O'Brien, Jorge Cortes, Francis Giles, Stefan Faderl, Elias Jabbour, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, William Wierda, Sherry Pierce, Jianqin Shan and Elihu Estey

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21723

      Elderly patients (age ≥ 65 yrs) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) generally have a poor prognosis. AML-type therapy results are often derived from studies in younger patients and may not apply to elderly AML. Many investigators and oncologists advocate, at times, only supportive care or frontline single agents, Phase I–II studies, low-intensity regimens, or ‘targeted’ therapies. However, baseline expectations for outcomes of elderly AML with ‘standard’ AML-type therapy are not well defined. This analysis establishes baseline expectations with intensive chemotherapy for CR rates, including mortality rates, and survival. These expectations may help in advising elderly patients with AML on therapy, and in comparing results with those of investigational programs.

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      Long-term follow-up results of the combination of topotecan and cytarabine and other intensive chemotherapy regimens in myelodysplastic syndrome (pages 1099–1109)

      Hagop Kantarjian, Miloslav Beran, Jorge Cortes, Susan O'Brien, Francis Giles, Sherry Pierce, Jianqin Shan, William Plunkett, Michael Keating and Elihu Estey

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21699

      Progressive or higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is often treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens used for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients with MDS are often older and may have contraindications to anthracycline-based regimens. Topotecan-cytarabine regimens have shown encouraging results in higher-risk MDS.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Unexpected long-term survival after low-dose palliative radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1110–1116)

      Michael P. Mac Manus, Jane P. Matthews, Morikatsu Wada, Andrew Wirth, Valentina Worotniuk and David L. Ball

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21704

      Many experienced oncologists have encountered patients with proven nonsmall cell lung cancer who received modest doses of palliative radiotherapy (RT) and who unexpectedly survived for > 5 years; some were apparently cured. The authors used a very large prospective database to estimate the frequency of this phenomenon and to look for correlative prognostic factors.

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      His239Arg SNP of HRAD9 is associated with lung adenocarcinoma (pages 1117–1122)

      Yoshimasa Maniwa, Masahiro Yoshimura, Vladimir P. Bermudez, Kenji Okada, Naoki Kanomata, Chiho Ohbayashi, Yoshihiro Nishimura, Yoshitake Hayashi, Jerard Hurwitz and Yutaka Okita

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21705

      Sequence analyses of the HRAD9 gene derived from 50 surgical specimens of lung adenocarcinoma were performed to investigate the status of this gene. Analysis of the coding regions indicated that there was no alteration in the HRAD9 sequence. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of mRNA revealed that the gene was transcribed in all samples examined. However, these studies detected the presence of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (His239Arg) that occurred with a high frequency. This polymorphism appears to be associated with an increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma.

    18. Melanoma
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      Nuclear expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin in malignant melanoma (pages 1123–1129)

      Yiling Ding, Victor G. Prieto, Peter S. Zhang, Seth Rosenthal, Kathleen J. Smith, Henry G. Skelton and A. Hafeez Diwan

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21727

      Expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin has been demonstrated in some melanocytic lesions and is believed to be required for melanoma cell viability. However, its diagnostic value in differentiating melanomas from nevi has not yet been examined.

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      Elevated serum level of YKL-40 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma (pages 1130–1139)

      Henrik Schmidt, Julia Sidenius Johansen, Julie Gehl, Poul F. Geertsen, Kirsten Fode and Hans von der Maase

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21678

      YKL-40, a novel serum tumor marker produced by cancer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils, was an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in 110 patients with metastatic melanoma.

    20. Neuro-Oncology
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      Value of postoperative stereotactic radiosurgery and conventional radiotherapy for incompletely resected typical neurocytomas (pages 1140–1143)

      Dirk Rades and Steven E. Schild

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21628

      The results of the current study shows that outcome after incomplete resection of typical neurocytomas can be improved by either conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The results of SRS were found to be similar to those of conventional radiotherapy. SRS is a reasonable alternative to conventional radiotherapy.

    21. Peritoneal Disease
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      Cytoreductive surgery followed by intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion : Analysis of morbidity and mortality in 209 peritoneal surface malignancies treated with closed abdomen technique (pages 1144–1153)

      Shigeki Kusamura, Rami Younan, Dario Baratti, Pasqualina Costanzo, Myriam Favaro, Cecilia Gavazzi and Marcello Deraco

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21708

      Analysis of morbidity and mortality of cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion (IPHP) in the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies revealed that extent of procedure and dose of CDDP for IPHP are independent risk factors for major morbidity. The procedure presented acceptable morbidity, toxicity, and mortality rates, all of which support the need for prospective Phase III clinical trials.

    22. Sarcoma
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      Prognostic factors for osteosarcoma of the extremity treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy : 15-year experience in 789 patients treated at a single institution (pages 1154–1161)

      Gaetano Bacci, Alessandra Longhi, Michela Versari, Mario Mercuri, Antonio Briccoli and Piero Picci

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21724

      Independent prognostic factors for osteosarcoma patients are age ≤ 14 years, high serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, tumor volume > 200 mL, two-drug regimen chemotherapy, inadequate surgical margins, and poor histologic response to treatment, which must be considered when deciding risk-adapted treatments.

    23. Discipline

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      Developing epidemic of melanoma in the hispanic population of California (pages 1162–1168)

      Myles G. Cockburn, John Zadnick and Dennis Deapen

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21654

      For the first time it is reported that melanoma incidence has recently increased significantly in the Hispanic population of California (one-third of the U.S. Hispanic population), and that most of the increase is among thick tumors with poor prognosis, suggesting that future mortality rates in Hispanics will be high. We recommend primary and secondary prevention efforts targeted to the Hispanic community.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      In utero exposure to female hormones and germ cell tumors in children (pages 1169–1177)

      Sadhna Shankar, Stella Davies, Roger Giller, Mark Krailo, Mary Davis, Kathleen Gardner, Hui Cai, Leslie Robison and Xiao-Ou Shu

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21670

      A case–control study of children with malignant germ cell tumors did not find a strong association between malignant germ cell tumors in children and maternal exposure to female hormones during pregnancy.

    25. Psychological Oncology
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      Parental cancer : Characteristics of parents as predictors for child functioning (pages 1178–1187)

      Annemieke Visser, Gea A. Huizinga, Harald J. Hoekstra, Winette T.A. van der Graaf and Josette E.H.M. Hoekstra-Weebers

      Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21691

      This study shows that primary school children of parents diagnosed with cancer seem to be particularly vulnerable when living with a single parent, when they have no or few siblings, and when they are the oldest child in their family, whereas adolescents seem to be more at risk when parents experience treatment complications. Results also indicate that there is an association between physical and mental functioning of parents and emotional and/or behavioral problems in children.

    26. Translational Research
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      Valproate enhances imatinib-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in chronic myeloid leukemia cells (pages 1188–1196)

      Alessandro Morotti, Daniela Cilloni, Francesca Messa, Francesca Arruga, Ilaria Defilippi, Sonia Carturan, Renata Catalano, Valentina Rosso, Annalisa Chiarenza, Chiara Pilatrino, Angelo Guerrasio, Riccardo Taulli, Enrico Bracco, Marisa Pautasso, Daniela Baraban, Enrico Gottardi and Giuseppe Saglio

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21725

      This study found that administration of valproate enhanced cytotoxic effects of imatinib in those patient resistant to imatinib or in which complete cytogenetic remission had yet to be reached.