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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 April 2006

Volume 106, Issue 7

Pages 1421–1641

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Errata
    1. You have free access to this content
      Providing research participants with findings from completed cancer-related clinical trials : Not quite as simple as it sounds (pages 1421–1424)

      Maurie Markman

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21757

      Although it is important to recognize the right of research subjects to be provided with information regarding the results of completed clinical trials in which they have been participants, there are legitimate reasons why a patient may not want to know the ultimate outcome of the study.

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      Classification schemes for tumors diagnosed in adolescents and young adults (pages 1425–1430)

      Ronald D. Barr, Eric J. Holowaty and Jillian M. Birch

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21773

      The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a collaborative undertaking of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Cancer Institute in the U.S., under the aegis of the World Health Organization. Although the ICD-O system generally is applicable to cancer diagnosed in childhood, it is recognized that morphology takes precedence over topography in classifying neoplasms occurring in children. Consequently, a classification scheme has been proposed that although based on the ICD-O is tailored to the particular circumstances of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Errata
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      Systematic review of systemic adjuvant therapy for patients at high risk for recurrent melanoma (pages 1431–1442)

      Shailendra Verma, Ian Quirt, David McCready, Kate Bak, Manya Charette, Neill Iscoe and Melanoma Disease Site Group of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21760

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      A systematic review of the current literature on adjuvant therapy for melanoma indicated that high-dose interferon α therapy improves disease-free survival in patients who are at high risk of recurrent melanoma. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no compelling evidence of benefit from treatment with low-dose interferon, chemotherapy, levamisole, or vaccines.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Errata
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase polymorphisms, and the risk of developing breast carcinoma among women with benign breast disease (pages 1443–1452)

      Lisa Gallicchio, Meghan A. McSorley, Craig J. Newschaffer, Lucy W. Thuita, Han-Yao Huang, Sandra C. Hoffman and Kathy J. Helzlsouer

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21763

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      Findings from the current study suggest that inflammation through cyclooxygenase-2 pathways may play a role in the progression of benign breast disease (BBD) to breast carcinoma and that aspirin may help to lower the risk of this progression among women with BBD.

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      Interdependence of radial scar and proliferative disease with respect to invasive breast carcinoma risk in patients with benign breast biopsies (pages 1453–1461)

      Melinda E. Sanders, David L. Page, Jean F. Simpson, Peggy A. Schuyler, W. Dale Plummer and William D. Dupont

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21730

      Radial scars are benign breast lesions that have been implicated as independent risk factors for invasive breast carcinoma. The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of 9556 women who underwent a biopsy between 1950–1986 and were enrolled in the Nashville Breast Cohort to investigate the correlation between radial scars in a benign breast biopsy and the risk of invasive breast carcinoma.

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      Factors associated with surgical options for breast carcinoma (pages 1462–1466)

      Anees B. Chagpar, Jamie L. Studts, Charles R. Scoggins, Robert C.G. Martin 2nd, David J. Carlson, Alison L. Laidley, Souzan E. El-Eid, Terre Q. McGlothin, Robert D. Noyes, Kelly M. McMasters and University of Louisville Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Study

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21728

      In a prospective multicenter study, multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors that influence the decision between mastectomy and breast conservation surgery in women with breast carcinoma. Whereas clinicopathologic variables such as patient age, tumor size, tumor palpability, tumor location in the breast, and histologic subtype were all found to be independent determinants of surgery type, geographic location and the academic affiliation of the surgeon were also important predictors in the multivariate model.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Genetic, epigenetic, and clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinomas with the CpG island methylator phenotype and an association with Epstein–Barr virus (pages 1467–1479)

      Masanobu Kusano, Minoru Toyota, Hiromu Suzuki, Kimishige Akino, Fumio Aoki, Masahiro Fujita, Masao Hosokawa, Yasuhisa Shinomura, Kohzoh Imai and Takashi Tokino

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21789

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      CpG island methylator phenotype status appeared to be associated with distinct genetic, epigenetic, and clinicopathologic features in patients with gastric carcinoma. The finding that gastric carcinomas arise through different molecular pathways may affect not only tumor characteristics but also patient prognosis.

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      Utility of molecular genetic signatures in the delineation of gastric neoplasia (pages 1480–1488)

      Mark Kidd, Irvin M. Modlin, Shrikant M. Mane, Robert L. Camp, Geeta N. Eick, Igor Latich and Michelle N. Zikusoka

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21758

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      Molecular genetic signatures provide a sophisticated tool to categorize tumor types and can provide an accurate biologic rationale for predicting clinical behavior and outcome. In the current study, expression of Chromogranin A (CgA), melanoma antigen D1 (MAGE-D2), and metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) mRNA and CgA and MTA1 protein differentiates gastric neoplasia (adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors [GISTs], and gastric carcinoids) and identifies tumors with clinically and histologically defined malignancy.

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      Overexpression in colorectal carcinoma of two lysosomal enzymes, CLN2 and CLN1, involved in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (pages 1489–1497)

      Toshihiko Tsukamoto, Juri Iida, Yoh Dobashi, Taiji Furukawa and Fumio Konishi

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21764

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      Lysosomal proteases have been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. In the current study, using subtraction cloning for genes that are expressed differentially in metastasis, the authors isolated a clone encoding ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 2 (CLN2), which is a lysosomal serine protease defective in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Increased CLN2 activity has been reported in breast carcinoma and the antiapoptotic effect of another causative gene of NCL, ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 1 (CLN1), also has been reported. Expression levels of CLN2 and CLN1 expression levels have been correlated with colorectal carcinoma progression and metastasis. These enzymes may be potential molecular targets.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Phase I/II study of thalidomide in combination with interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1498–1506)

      Robert J. Amato, Margaret Morgan and Anish Rawat

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21737

      The authors used a Phase I/II study to determine the efficacy and safety profile of thalidomide with interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

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      Impact of age, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and cancer on prostate-specific antigen level (pages 1507–1513)

      Rinaa S. Punglia, Anthony V. D'Amico, William J. Catalona, Kimberly A. Roehl and Karen M. Kuntz

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21766

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      A technique is demonstrated for finding the underlying mean and standard deviation of prostate-specific antigen in men with and without cancer, after adjusting for verification bias and stratifying by prostate size. These more accurate estimates of these values may have implications for prostate carcinoma screening recommendations, and may inform their modification for men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

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      Frequency and prognostic relevance of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1514–1520)

      Alexander Buchner, Rainer Riesenberg, Ines Kotter, Alfons Hofstetter, Christian Stief and Ralph Oberneder

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21775

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      In the current study, disseminated cytokeratin-positive (CK+) tumor cells were detected by immunocytochemistry in the bone marrow of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (M1 RCC) in 42% of cases (23 of 55 patients). The frequency of CK+ cells in RCC patients with M0 disease was found to be significantly lower (P < .01). The detection of ≥ 3 CK+ cells in M1 RCC patients appears to be a significant negative prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis.

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      Lymphovascular invasion in prostate cancer : Prognostic significance in patients treated with radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy (pages 1521–1526)

      Joseph P. Brooks, Paul S. Albert, John O'Connell, David G. McLeod and Matthew M. Poggi

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21774

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      Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a pathologic finding in 5% to 53% of postradical prostatectomy specimens and has been associated with aggressive clinical features. In this investigation, the authors determined that LVI was useful as a pathologic marker for reduced efficacy of postprostatectomy radiotherapy in terms of increased risk of biochemical recurrence and distant metastasis.

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      Risk factors for adverse outcomes after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (pages 1527–1535)

      Brent K. Hollenbeck, David C. Miller, David Taub, Rodney L. Dunn, Shukri F. Khuri, William G. Henderson, James E. Montie, Willie Underwood III and John T. Wei

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21765

      A wide range of patient risk factors are associated with morbidity, mortality, and prolonged hospitalization after transurethral surgery for bladder carcinoma. These data can empower providers to selectively refer high-risk patients to tertiary centers, be applied to the counseling of patients regarding postoperative expectations, and be used to modify individual patient risk preoperatively, which may result in improved outcomes.

    12. Head and Neck Disease
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      Results of postoperative reirradiation for recurrent or second primary head and neck carcinoma (pages 1536–1547)

      Nicolien Kasperts, Ben J. Slotman, C. Rene Leemans, Remco de Bree, Patricia Doornaert and Johannes A. Langendijk

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21768

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      The effects of a second course of postoperative radiation therapy on locoregional control, survival, toxicity, and quality of life were investigated in patients who underwent resection of a second primary or a recurrent locoregional head and neck tumor in a previously irradiated area. The results indicated that postoperative repeat radiation therapy for recurrent locoregional tumors and/or second primary tumors should be considered for patients who have high-risk histopathologic features.

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      Elevated plasma big ET-1 is associated with distant failure in patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 1548–1553)

      Hai-Qiang Mai, Zong-Yuan Zeng, Chang-Qing Zhang, Kai-Tao Feng, Xiang Guo, Hao-Yuan Mo, Man-Quan Deng, Hua-Qing Min and Ming-Huang Hong

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21790

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      Patients with advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma had elevated plasma big ET-1 (endothelin-1) levels compared with the levels in healthy control participants; high pretreatment plasma big ET-1 levels generally are associated with posttreatment distant failure.

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      Severity, risk factors, and physician practices in the management of anemia during concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck carcinoma (pages 1554–1559)

      Tawee Tanvetyanon and Abdul M. Choudhury

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21769

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      Anemia is a well recognized complication of concurrent chemoradiation therapy for head and neck carcinoma. It impairs a patient's quality of life and has also been reported to be associated with increased tumor recurrence and decreased long-term survival. The authors reviewed medical records of the patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck carcinoma from 1999–2003 with the objective of identifying the severity, risk factors, and physician practices in the management of anemia.

    15. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma : Simultaneous treatment with combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy is safe and improves survival—Results of the German Multicenter Trial (pages 1560–1568)

      Rudolf Weiss, Paris Mitrou, Keikawus Arasteh, Dirk Schuermann, Marcus Hentrich, Ulrich Duehrsen, Hinrich Sudeck, Ingo G. H. Schmidt-Wolf, Ioannis Anagnostopoulos and Dieter Huhn

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21759

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      After a group of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL) received combined cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy, their median survival was longer than the median follow-up (47 mos) in a group of standard-risk patients with ARL. Based on age-adjusted International Prognostic Index scores, survival in this group was comparable to the survival of patients with lymphoma who had no human immunodeficiency infection.

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      Chemoimmunotherapy with hyper-CVAD plus rituximab for the treatment of adult Burkitt and Burkitt-type lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1569–1580)

      Deborah A. Thomas, Stefan Faderl, Susan O'Brien, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Jorge Cortes, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Francis J. Giles, Srdan Verstovsek, William G. Wierda, Sherry A. Pierce, Jianqin Shan, Mark Brandt, Fredrick B. Hagemeister, Michael J. Keating, Fernando Cabanillas and Hagop Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21776

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      The addition of rituximab to hyper-CVAD may improve outcome in adult Burkitt lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, particularly in elderly patients.

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      Clinical and radiologic predictors of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in cancer patients : Should the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria be revised? (pages 1581–1586)

      Ray Hachem, David Sumoza, Hend Hanna, Essam Girgawy, Mark Munsell and Issam Raad

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21755

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      Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. The outcomes of such infections depend on early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy. The data from all 96 cancer patients in the current study were analyzed using recursive partitioning and multivariate analysis. Leukemia, neutropenia, cavitation, and nodular lesions were found to occur significantly more often among cases than controls (P = 0.03, 0.002, 0.04, and 0.02, respectively). IPA should be suspected in leukemia patients with profound neutropenia, pleuritic chest pain, and cavitary or nodular lesions found on computed tomography scan. These findings should be confirmed further in a larger prospective clinical trial.

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      Proteomic-based prediction of clinical behavior in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1587–1594)

      Maher Albitar, Steven J. Potts, Francis J. Giles, Susan O'Brien, Michael Keating, Deborah Thomas, Charlotte Clarke, Iman Jilani, Christine Aguilar, Elihu Estey and Hagop Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21770

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      Proteomic analysis of peripheral blood plasma from acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients was used to identify biomarkers that could predict recurrence. The best decision trees using these biomarkers correctly predicted recurrence 84% to 92% of the time.

    19. Lung Disease
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      Significance of thymidylate synthase gene expression level in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung (pages 1595–1601)

      Hiroshi Hashimoto, Yuichi Ozeki, Mitsuharu Sato, Kiyohaya Obara, Noriyuki Matsutani, Yoshinori Nakagishi, Toshiro Ogata and Tadaaki Maehara

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21777

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      In the current study, the expression level of thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNA assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was found to be significantly related with some pathologic variables and prognoses in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, it was shown that TS may be associated with tumor cell proliferation.

    20. Sarcoma
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      Quantitative analysis of promoter hypermethylation in multiple genes in osteosarcoma (pages 1602–1609)

      Peng Hou, Meiju Ji, Bin Yang, Zaozao Chen, Junjun Qiu, Xin Shi and Zuhong Lu

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21762

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      The objectives of the current study were to characterize the methylation changes in osteosarcoma more extensively and to identify epigenetic biomarkers that may be useful in the diagnosis and prevention of osteosarcoma. Tumor tissues from patients with osteosarcoma had a significantly higher incidence of hypermethylation for several genes compared with corresponding normal tissues, and the epigenetic changes observed may have prognostic importance for patients with osteosarcoma.

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      Retroperitoneal sarcoma : A population-based analysis of epidemiology, surgery, and radiotherapy (pages 1610–1616)

      Geoffrey A. Porter, Nancy N. Baxter and Peter W. T. Pisters

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21761

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      A population-based analysis found that most patients who undergo surgery for retroperitoneal sarcoma do not receive any adjuvant radiotherapy, and very few receive preoperative radiotherapy. Differences in adjuvant radiotherapy use related to demographic and geographic factors suggest that at least some treatment variations reflect differences in individual and institutional practice patterns.

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      Expression of Bcl-2 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors : Correlation with progression-free survival in 81 patients treated with imatinib mesylate (pages 1617–1623)

      Dejka M. Steinert, Mauricio Oyarzo, Xuemei Wang, Haesun Choi, Peter F. Thall, L. Jeffrey Medeiros, A. Kevin Raymond, Robert S. Benjamin, Wei Zhang and Jonathan C. Trent

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21781

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      Bcl-2 expression was observed in most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) but in all tumors with pure epithelioid morphology. In contrast to studies performed in the pre-imatinib era, in which Bcl-2 was found to be a negative prognostic indicator, the current study suggests a trend toward better progression-free survival with increasing Bcl-2 expression level in GISTs from patients subsequently treated with imatinib.

    23. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma (pages 1624–1633)

      Kenneth R. Hess, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Sarah H. Taylor, Wei Wei, Martin N. Raber, Renato Lenzi and James L. Abbruzzese

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21778

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      By using clinical data from greater than 4000 patients, well known, distinct metastatic patterns were confirmed that have been associated previously with distant-stage adenocarcinoma primary tumors. The authors developed algorithms for predicting the location of primary tumors based on these distinct metastatic patterns and achieved 64% accuracy, compared with 9% accuracy when a random classifier was used.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      Incidence and clinical relevance of abnormal complete blood counts in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (pages 1634–1640)

      Zsofia B. Long, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Sandra L. Brooks, Lori Fischbach, T. Robert Harris, Debra A. Eshelman, Gail E. Tomlinson and George R. Buchanan

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21771

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      Mildly abnormal blood count values are common during follow-up of childhood cancer survivors. Epipodophyllotoxin therapy was found to be associated with an increased frequency of high mean corpuscular volume levels.

  4. Errata

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Errata
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