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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 April 2006

Volume 106, Issue 8

Pages 1643–1864

  1. A Note from History

    1. Top of page
    2. A Note from History
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Thoughts about the cause of cancer (pages 1643–1649)

      Steven I. Hajdu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21807

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  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. A Note from History
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Drug therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome : Building evidence for action (pages 1650–1652)

      Ayalew Tefferi and Louis Letendre

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21793

      Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is currently a consensus-based pathologic diagnosis that is determined by partly subjective findings on bone marrow histology and peripheral blood smear. MDS constitutes a stem cell-derived, ineffective clonal myeloproliferation that results in symptomatic cytopenia and will eventually evolve into acute myeloid leukemia. MDS is rare in persons younger than 50 years but is a common hematologic malignancy in the elderly. As such, the overwhelming majority of patients with MDS are not suitable candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At the same time, insufficient knowledge regarding disease pathogenesis has restricted the development of effective drug therapy.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. A Note from History
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma : From palliation to cure (pages 1653–1663)

      Maria A. Hawkins and Laura A. Dawson

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21811

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      The results of a systematic literature review indicated that external beam radiation therapy (RT) is an effective palliative treatment for patients with locoregional and metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More recently, technologic advances in RT have allowed for very conformal delivery of high-dose radiation, extending the role of RT to the curative setting for liver-confined HCC. Evidence is emerging that high-dose RT can be delivered safely in patients with inoperable HCC, either on its own or combined with transarterial chemoembolization. Tumor control appears to be greater in patients who receive higher RT doses.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. A Note from History
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Breast cancer in octogenarians (pages 1664–1668)

      Ella Evron, Hadassah Goldberg, Alexander Kuzmin, Roee Gutman, Shulamith Rizel, Avishy Sella and Haim Gutman

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21788

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      Most octogenarian breast cancer patients are long lived, and their tumors are not less virulent than those of younger patients. Whereas many octogenarians may benefit from standard local treatment, less than standard local treatment may be applied with a slight increase in axillary failure rate.

    2. Endocrine Disease
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      Prognostic factors of recurrence in encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland : A clinicopathologic study of 50 cases (pages 1669–1676)

      Ronald A. Ghossein, David H. Hiltzik, Diane L. Carlson, Snehal Patel, Ashok Shaha, Jatin P. Shah, Robert M. Tuttle and Bhuvanesh Singh

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21825

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      Encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid with ≥ 4 foci of vascular invasion have a high risk of recurrence and should not be labeled as minimally invasive.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Vascular endothelial growth factor, FLT-1, and FLK-1 analysis in a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray (pages 1677–1684)

      Gina G. Chung, Harry H. Yoon, Maciej P. Zerkowski, Sriparna Ghosh, Laurie Thomas, Malini Harigopal, Lori A. Charette, Ronald R. Salem, Robert L. Camp, David L. Rimm and Barbara A. Burtness

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21783

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      To compare the in situ expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its primary receptors VEGF receptor 1 (FLT-1) and VEGF receptor 2 (FLK-1) on a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray (TMA), the authors used their own series of algorithms (AQUA). Using TMA and the AQUA technologies as a platform, the results showed that VEGF, FLT-1, and FLK-1 were expressed variably in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and that FLT-1 was correlated significantly with disease stage and survival.

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      Down-regulation of locus-specific human lymphocyte antigen class I expression in Epstein–Barr virus-associated gastric cancer : Implication for viral-induced immune evasion (pages 1685–1693)

      Nirmal Dutta, Arnab Gupta, Debendra Nath Guha Mazumder and Subrata Banerjee

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21784

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      The presence of Epstein–Barr virus in gastric cancer tissues leads to differential, locus-specific loss of human lymphocyte antigen class I expression. It may allow the malignant cells to avoid the immune surveillance of both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

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      Is T classification still correlated with lymph node status after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer? (pages 1694–1700)

      Duck-Woo Kim, Dae Yong Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Kyung Hae Jung, Hee Jin Chang, Dae KyungSohn, Seok-Byung Lim, Hyo Seong Choi, Seung-yong Jeong and Jae-Gahb Park

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21794

      Pathologic T-classification is still the most reliable predictor of lymph node metastasis in patients with rectal cancer patients who have undergone preoperative chemoradiotherapy. The risk of lymph node metastasis was 3.4% in rectal cancer that had regressed to ypT0 or ypT1.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Soluble Fas—A promising novel urinary marker for the detection of recurrent superficial bladder cancer (pages 1701–1707)

      Robert S. Svatek, Michael P. Herman, Yair Lotan, Roberto Casella, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Arthur I. Sagalowsky and Shahrokh F. Shariat

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21795

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      The authors tested the hypothesis that elevated urinary levels of soluble Fas (sFas) would aid in the surveillance of patients with a past history of nonmuscle-invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The results indicated that urine sFas was an independent predictor of bladder cancer recurrence and invasiveness in patients who had a past history of nonmuscle-invasive bladder TCC.

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      Androgen-deprivation therapy as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer : Data from Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) (pages 1708–1714)

      Jun Kawakami, Janet E. Cowan, Eric P. Elkin, David M. Latini, Janeen DuChane and Peter R. Carroll

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21799

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      Primary androgen-deprivation therapy (PADT) is an increasingly common treatment for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, who represented 14% of patients from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) data registry from 1989 to 2002, although those patients generally were older, had less education, and had higher risk disease characteristics. At 5 years, 67% of patients remained on PADT, 4.1% of patients on this treatment died of prostate cancer (compared with a 19% death rate from all causes), and 14% had gone on to receive definitive curative therapy.

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      Phase II trial of oral uracil/tegafur plus leucovorin in patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma (pages 1715–1721)

      Manish S. Bhandari, Kenneth J. Pienta, Judith Fardig, Karin Olson and David C. Smith

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21815

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      The combination of oral uracil and tegafur with leucovorin appears to have modest activity and toxicity in patients with advanced hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma.

    9. Head and Neck Disease
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      Response measurement after intraarterial chemoradiation in advanced head and neck carcinoma : Magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation under general anesthesia? (pages 1722–1729)

      Guido B. van den Broek, Coen R. N. Rasch, Frank A. Pameijer, Ellen Peter, Michiel W. M. van den Brekel and Alfons J. M. Balm

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21786

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      Chemoradiation is used increasingly in squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with advanced head and neck cancer who have tumors that are unlikely to be cured by this intense treatment preferably should be recognized early. Posttreatment magnetic resonance imaging is predictive for local control and evaluation under general anesthesia will add extra information only in selective patients.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      t(3;21)(q26;q22) in myeloid leukemia : An aggressive syndrome of blast transformation associated with hydroxyurea or antimetabolite therapy (pages 1730–1738)

      C. Cameron Yin, Jorge Cortes, Bedia Barkoh, Kimberly Hayes, Hagop Kantarjian and Dan Jones

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21797

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      The t(3;21) translocation producing the AML1-EVI1-MDS1 fusion protein is associated in nearly all patients with a highly aggressive, therapy-related leukemic blast syndrome. Prior treatment with hydroxyurea or other antimetabolites is implicated as a contributory cause.

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      Respective clustering of unfavorable and favorable cytogenetic clones in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia with homozygosity for JAK2V617F and response to erythropoietin therapy (pages 1739–1743)

      Ayalew Tefferi, Jacob J. Strand, Terra L. Lasho, Michelle A. Elliott, Chin-Yang Li, Ruben A. Mesa and Gordon W. Dewald

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21787

      The authors explored the relation between specific cytogenetic clones and JAK2V617F mutational status in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) and the effects on treatment response to erythropoietin (Epo). Unfavorable and favorable cytogenetic clones in MMM clustered with homozygosity for JAK2V617F and treatment response to Epo-based therapy, respectively.

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      Superiority of prolonged low-dose azanucleoside administration? : Results of 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine retreatment in high-risk myelodysplasia patients (pages 1744–1750)

      Björn Rüter, Pierre W. Wijermans and Michael Lübbert

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21796

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      The optimal treatment duration with decitabine (DAC) in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains a matter of debate. Although at least 2 consolidating courses after best response usually are performed, the response to treatment after disease recurrence has not been systematically studied to date. The authors report on 22 patients with MDS who were retreated with low-dose DAC after disease recurrence. A 45% response rate was noted, but both quality and duration of the 2 responses were inferior to initial DAC treatment.

    13. Lung Disease
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      Hypermethylation of the TSLC1/IGSF4 promoter is associated with tobacco smoking and a poor prognosis in primary nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 1751–1758)

      Shinji Kikuchi, Daisuke Yamada, Takeshi Fukami, Tomoko Maruyama, Akihiko Ito, Hisao Asamura, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Masataka Onizuka and Yoshinori Murakami

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21800

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      TSLC1/IGSF4 methylation is associated with tobacco smoking and could be an indicator of poor prognosis.

    14. Neuro-Oncology
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      Progressive low-grade oligodendrogliomas : Response to temozolomide and correlation between genetic profile and O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase protein expression (pages 1759–1765)

      Netta Levin, Iris Lavon, Bracha Zelikovitsh, Dana Fuchs, Felix Bokstein, Yakov Fellig and Tali Siegal

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21809

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      Twenty-eight radiotherapy-naive patients with progressive, low-grade oligodendrogliomas were treated with temozolomide. Marked clinical improvements were recorded in 54% of patients, and 61% of patients achieved an objective response. Response to temozolomide was associated with 1p deletion and low O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression. The results indicated that MGMT immunostaining may serve as a surrogate marker for predicting tumor chemosensitivity.

    15. Sarcoma
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      Results of a prospective minimal disseminated disease study in human rhabdomyosarcoma using three different molecular markers (pages 1766–1775)

      Francesca Sartori, Rita Alaggio, Giulio Zanazzo, Alberto Garaventa, Andrea Di Cataldo, Modesto Carli and Angelo Rosolen

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21772

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      MyoD1, myogenin, and PAX-FKHR transcripts are rhabdomyosarcoma tumor markers that can be used for studying minimal bone marrow infiltration. Their sensitivity and specificity are higher compared with current immunohistochemical approaches.

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      Outcome and prognostic factor analysis of 217 consecutive isolated limb perfusions with tumor necrosis factor-α and melphalan for limb-threatening soft tissue sarcoma (pages 1776–1784)

      Dirk J. Grunhagen, Johannes H. W. de Wilt, Wilfried J. Graveland, Cornelis Verhoef, Albertus N. van Geel and Alexander M. M. Eggermont

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21802

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      Two hundred seventeen consecutive isolated limb perfusions (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and melphalan resulted in a 75% response rate and provided limb preservation in 87% of a patient population with locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). This efficacy justifies a permanent role for ILP in the multimodality treatment of locally advanced STS.

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      Treatment with taxanes of refractory or life-threatening Kaposi sarcoma not associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection (pages 1785–1789)

      Laurence Fardet, Pierre-Emmanuel Stoebner, Herve Bachelez, Vincent Descamps, Delphine Kerob, Laurent Meunier, Michel Dandurand, Patrice Morel and Celeste Lebbe

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21791

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      The authors report on 12 patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection who had refractory Kaposi sarcoma and were treated with paclitaxel or docetaxel. Major and rapid clinical responses were observed in all patients, and most patients had good tolerance.

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      Palliative radiation therapy for metastatic Ewing sarcoma (pages 1790–1793)

      Bridget F. Koontz, Robert W. Clough and Edward C. Halperin

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21812

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      Radiotherapy for metastatic Ewing sarcoma was effective palliation for pain and other symptoms, with an overall response rate of 84%. The median percentage of remaining lifespan spent in treatment was 10%. It was possible for treatment to be effective without consuming excessive time.

    19. Discipline

      Clinical Trials
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      Decitabine improves patient outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes : Results of a phase III randomized study (pages 1794–1803)

      Hagop Kantarjian, Jean-Pierre J. Issa, Craig S. Rosenfeld, John M. Bennett, Maher Albitar, John DiPersio, Virginia Klimek, James Slack, Carlos de Castro, Farhad Ravandi, Richard Helmer III, Lanlan Shen, Stephen D. Nimer, Richard Leavitt, Azra Raza and Hussain Saba

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21792

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      In a randomized Phase III trial, decitabine was found to be clinically effective in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, with demonstrated durable responses and an improved time to acute myelogenous leukemia transformation or death. Decitabine treatment also was associated with increased transfusion independence, improved cytogenetics, and a better quality of life.

      See also pages 1650-2 and pages 1744-50.

    20. Epidemiology
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      Predictive validity of five comorbidity indices in prostate carcinoma patients treated with curative intent (pages 1804–1814)

      David L. Boulos, Patti A. Groome, Michael D. Brundage, D. Robert Siemens, William J. Mackillop, Jeremy P.W. Heaton, Karleen M. Schulze and Susan L. Rohland

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21813

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      Five chart-based comorbidity indices were assessed for their ability to predict survival in a prostate carcinoma patient cohort treated with curative intent. The Chronic Disease Score (CDS), Index of Coexistent Disease (ICED), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), Kaplan-Feinstein Index, and Charlson Index each explained some outcome variability beyond age, but differences among indices were not statistically significant. The CDS was the easiest index to apply and explained the most outcome variability.

    21. Medical Oncology
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      Vancomycin tolerance, a potential mechanism for refractory gram-positive bacteremia observational study in patients with cancer (pages 1815–1820)

      Amar Safdar and Kenneth V. I. Rolston

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21801

      Lack of clinical and/or microbiologic response to vancomycin should raise the suspicion of possible infection due to vancomycin-tolerant Gram-positive bacteria, and alternative bactericidal therapy should be instituted early, especially in patients with underlying immune suppression.

    22. Pediatric Oncology
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      Phase II investigation of docetaxel in pediatric patients with recurrent solid tumors : A report from the Children's Oncology Group (pages 1821–1828)

      Ted Zwerdling, Mark Krailo, Philip Monteleone, Rebecca Byrd, Judith Sato, Rose Dunaway, Nita Seibel, Zhengjia Chen, John Strain and Gregory Reaman

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21779

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      Docetaxel was evaluated in patients with recurrent pediatric tumors and was found to have activity against Ewing sarcoma. Hematologic, neurologic, dermatologic, and edema were significant.

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      Use of health care services by survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Canada (pages 1829–1837)

      Amanda K. Shaw, Lisa Pogany, Kathy N. Speechley, Elizabeth Maunsell, Maru Barrera and Leslie S. Mery

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21798

      The large majority of childhood cancer survivors in Canada may not be receiving optimal care of at least 1 follow-up visit per year with a practitioner familiar in long-term care of childhood cancer survivors. This limited preventive care could have major implications on survivors' long-term health.

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      High histologic and overall response to dose intensification of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine in patients with high-risk ewing sarcoma family tumors : The Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital experience (pages 1838–1845)

      Giuseppe Maria Milano, Raffaele Cozza, Ilaria Ilari, Luigi De Sio, Renata Boldrini, Alessandro Jenkner, Maretta De Ioris, Alessandro Inserra, Carlo Dominici and Alberto Donfrancesco

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21780

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      The combination of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine was just as active and tolerable as other regimens that have been tested in recent clinical trials for patients with Ewing sarcoma (ES) and extraosseous ES/primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Dose intensification was correlated with better disease control and a high percentage of necrosis in high-risk patients with these tumors.

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      Concomitant administration of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide for high-risk sarcomas : The St. Jude children's research hospital experience (pages 1846–1856)

      Fariba Navid, Victor M. Santana, Catherine A. Billups, Thomas E. Merchant, Wayne L. Furman, Sheri L. Spunt, Alvida M. Cain, Bhaskar N. Rao, Gregory A. Hale and Alberto S. Pappo

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21810

      Dose intensification by concomitant administration of vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and etoposide within a defined period to patients with high-risk sarcoma was dependent in part on the timing of local control. This therapy was associated with significant toxicity and provided marginal benefit.

    26. Translational Research
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      Comparison of two antibodies for immunohistochemical evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in colorectal carcinomas, adenomas, and normal mucosa (pages 1857–1862)

      Rohit Bhargava, Beiyun Chen, David S. Klimstra, Leonard B. Saltz, Cyrus Hedvat, Laura H. Tang, William Gerald, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Philip B. Paty, Jing Qin and Jinru Shia

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21782

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      The 2 most commonly used antibodies for assessing epidermal growth factor receptor expression in colorectal carcinomas, the PharmDx kit and the 31G7 clone, showed comparable immunohistochemical results. In addition, manual scoring had a high degree of concordance with automated scoring.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. A Note from History
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 1864)

      Elena B. Elkin, Clifford Hudis, Colin B. Begg and Deborah Schrag

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21806

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