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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 November 2006

Volume 107, Issue 10

Pages 2317–2522

  1. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
      Molecularly targeted therapy for melanoma : Current reality and future options (pages 2317–2327)

      Jürgen C. Becker, John M. Kirkwood, Sanjiv S. Agarwala, Reinhard Dummer, David Schrama and Axel Hauschild

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22273

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      Targeted therapy is a current strategy to provide a more effective and less toxic therapy. In the current review the relevant targets, drugs, and first clinical studies applied to melanoma are discussed.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Is intraoperative touch imprint cytology of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer cost effective? (pages 2328–2336)

      Jacqueline S. Jeruss, Kelly K. Hunt, Yan Xing, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Scott B. Cantor, Merrick I. Ross and Janice N. Cormier

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22275

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      Touch imprint cytologic analysis, when compared with standard postoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) assessment, permits a cost-effective, intraoperative evaluation of SLNs.

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      Serum epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2 predicts poor survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer (pages 2337–2345)

      Christopher Souder, Kim Leitzel, Suhail M. Ali, Laurence Demers, Dean B. Evans, Hilary A. Chaudri-Ross, Wolfgang Hackl, Peter Hamer, Walter Carney and Allan Lipton

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22255

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      Pretreatment serum epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients who had decreased serum EGFR levels and normal serum HER-2 levels had shorter survival compared with patients who had normal levels of both serum EGFR and HER-2.

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      Changes in surgical management resulting from case review at a breast cancer multidisciplinary tumor board (pages 2346–2351)

      Erika A. Newman, Amy B. Guest, Mark A. Helvie, Marilyn A Roubidoux, Alfred E. Chang, Celina G. Kleer, Kathleen M. Diehl, Vincent M. Cimmino, Lori Pierce, Daniel Hayes, Lisa A. Newman and Michael S. Sabel

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22266

      The treatment of breast cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, and patients are often referred to a multidisciplinary cancer clinic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of this approach on the surgical management of patients with breast cancer.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Quality measures for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with colorectal cancer : A systematic review (pages 2352–2360)

      Robert G. Prosnitz, Meenal B. Patwardhan, Gregory P. Samsa, Christopher R. Mantyh, Deborah A. Fisher, Douglas C. McCrory, Kathryn E. Cline, Rebecca N. Gray and Michael A. Morse

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22278

      Despite the obvious importance of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) before or after surgery in the management of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), little is known regarding the quality of adjuvant CT and RT for CRC or the optimal means of measuring that quality. To explore this issue, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify the available quality measures for adjuvant CT and RT in patients with CRC and rated those measures in terms of their importance/usability, scientific acceptability, and validity.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Effects of obesity and height on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and percentage of free PSA levels among African-American and Caucasian men (pages 2361–2367)

      Jay H. Fowke, Lisa B. Signorello, Sam S. Chang, Charles E. Matthews, Maciej S. Buchowski, Michael S. Cookson, Flora M. Ukoli and William J. Blot

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22249

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      Obesity and race have been associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and may contribute to delayed prostate cancer detection and advanced disease at diagnosis. However, the contribution of obesity to racial disparities in PSA remains unclear. It was found that the effect of body mass index on PSA was modest and did not substantively differ by race.

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      Standardization of pelvic lymphadenectomy performed at radical cystectomy : Can we establish a minimum number of lymph nodes that should be removed? (pages 2368–2374)

      Theresa M. Koppie, Andrew J. Vickers, Kinjal Vora, Guido Dalbagni and Bernard H. Bochner

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22250

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      The current study of 1121 patients undergoing radical cystectomy with lymph node (LN) dissection for bladder cancer attempted to determine whether a threshold number exists, above which removing additional lymph nodes has no impact on survival. It was found that although the probability of survival rose as the number of LNs removed increased, there was no evidence that a minimum number of LNs is sufficient for optimizing the control of bladder cancer, highlighting the challenges of interpreting retrospective lymph node data.

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      Treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer : A RAND Appropriateness Panel (pages 2375–2383)

      Ronald J. Halbert, Robert A. Figlin, Michael B. Atkins, Myriam Bernal, Thomas E. Hutson, Robert G. Uzzo, Ronald M. Bukowski, Khuda Dad Khan, Christopher G. Wood and Robert W. Dubois

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22260

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      The authors used the RAND/University of California-Los Angeles Appropriateness Method to rate the appropriateness of systemic treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. The results begin the process of defining an appropriate role for newer targeted therapies, cytokines, and surgery in the treatment of this disease.

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      Multiinstitutional validation of the UCSF cancer of the prostate risk assessment for prediction of recurrence after radical prostatectomy (pages 2384–2391)

      Matthew R. Cooperberg, Stephen J. Freedland, David J. Pasta, Eric P. Elkin, Joseph C. Presti Jr, Christopher L. Amling, Martha K. Terris, William J. Aronson, Christopher J. Kane and Peter R. Carroll

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22262

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      The University of California, San Francisco Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) is a pretreatment instrument for predicting risk of prostate cancer recurrence. Study findings in a sociodemographically diverse, multiinstitutional cohort confirm CAPRA as an accurate and straightforward predictor of both pathologic and biochemical outcomes after radical prostatectomy.

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      Survival of men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with prostatectomy, brachytherapy, or no definitive treatment : Impact of age at diagnosis (pages 2392–2400)

      Jonathan D. Tward, Christopher M. Lee, Lisa M. Pappas, Aniko Szabo, David K. Gaffney and Dennis C. Shrieve

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22261

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      Cause-specific and overall mortality was investigated for men undergoing prostatectomy, brachytherapy, or no definitive therapy for localized prostate cancer in a large US population database. Both definitive therapies had a similar magnitude of cause-specific survival benefit, and appeared superior to no definitive treatment.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Comparison of mRNA abundance quantified by gene expression profiling and percentage of positive cells using immunophenotyping for diagnostic antigens in acute and chronic leukemias (pages 2401–2407)

      Wolfgang Kern, Alexander Kohlmann, Claudia Schoch, Susanne Schnittger and Torsten Haferlach

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22251

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      The present data prove the high degree of correlation between findings obtained by microarray analysis and flow cytometry. They are in favor of a future application of the microarray technology as a robust diagnostic tool in leukemias.

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      Routine clinical use of alemtuzumab in patients with heavily pretreated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia : A nation-wide retrospective study in Austria (pages 2408–2416)

      Michael Fiegl, Andreas Falkner, Georg Hopfinger, Stefan Brugger, August Zabernigg, Franz Bauer, Ferdinand Haslbauer, Dita Demirtas, Peter Grossschmidt, Georg Tatzreiter, Günther Gastl, Richard Greil and The Austrian Collaborative Study Group on Alemtuzumab in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22263

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      The authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter study to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of alemtuzumab used in routine clinical practice for 115 unselected patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Treatment resulted in an overall response rate of 23% and a median overall survival of 20.2 months with manageable toxicities, confirming that broad use of this agent is active and feasible in the routine clinical setting.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Hsp60 and Hsp10 down-regulation predicts bronchial epithelial carcinogenesis in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (pages 2417–2424)

      Francesco Cappello, Antonino Di Stefano, Sabrina David, Francesco Rappa, Rita Anzalone, Giampiero La Rocca, Silvestro E. D'Anna, Francesca Magno, Claudio F. Donner, Bruno Balbi and Giovanni Zummo

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22265

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      The loss of Hsp60 and Hsp10 immunopositivity is related to the development and progression of bronchial cancer in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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      Silencing the receptor EphA2 suppresses the growth and haptotaxis of malignant mesothelioma cells (pages 2425–2435)

      Najmunnisa Nasreen, Kamal A. Mohammed and Veena B. Antony

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22254

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      The authors explored the hypotheses that expression of the ephrin-A1 ligand receptor EphA2 in malignant mesothelioma cells (MMCs) plays a key role in the growth and haptotactic migration of malignant mesothelioma and that silencing EphA2 expression by using small-interfering RNA inhibits the proliferation and haptotaxis of MMCs and induces apoptosis in MMCs. The results suggested that constitutive expression of EphA2 may contribute to the aggressive behavior and cellularsurvival of MMCs.

    14. Melanoma
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      Predicting sentinel node status in AJCC stage I/II primary cutaneous melanoma (pages 2436–2445)

      Laura L. Kruper, Francis R. Spitz, Brian J. Czerniecki, Douglas L. Fraker, Anne Blackwood-Chirchir, Michael E. Ming, David E. Elder, Rosalie Elenitsas, DuPont Guerry and Phyllis A. Gimotty

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22295

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      The authors examined the histologic features of 682 vertical growth phase (VGP) melanomas and the clinical characteristics of these patients and identified 3 factors, Breslow thickness, mitogenicity, and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), that were statistically significantly associated with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) and that were used to define 5 groups with sentinel lymph node biopsy positivity rates from 2% to 40%. This classification suggests broadening the indications for SLN biopsy to include any patient with a VGP mitogenic lesion, particularly if both mitoses are present and TIL are absent; these 2 attributes should be sought in all VGP lesions, including those ≤1.0 mm.

    15. Neuro-Oncology
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      Cotreatment with a novel phosphoinositide analogue inhibitor and carmustine enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy by attenuating AKT activity in gliomas (pages 2446–2454)

      Timothy E. Van Meter, William C. Broaddus, Dana Cash and Helen Fillmore

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22248

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      The role of heightened serine-threonine kinase AKT/protein kinase B signaling in cancer has been well documented. In malignant gliomas, this increase has been attributed primarily to loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor suppressor and constitutive activation of the growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In this study, the authors attempted to target AKT signaling directly, by both pharmacologic and genetic means, to assess whether AKT activity plays a significant role in suppression of apoptotic cell death during the administration of standard chemotherapy in patients with glioma.

    16. Sarcoma
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      Complications of combined modality treatment of primary lower extremity soft-tissue sarcomas (pages 2455–2461)

      Christopher P. Cannon, Matthew T. Ballo, Gunar K. Zagars, Attiqa N. Mirza, Patrick P. Lin, Valerae O. Lewis, Alan W. Yasko, Robert S. Benjamin and Peter W.T. Pisters

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22298

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      In patients treated with limb-salvage surgery combined with radiation therapy for soft-tissue sarcomas of the lower extremity, preoperative radiation and large tumor size are associated with acute wound complications, whereas proximal tumor site, prior surgical complication, and higher radiation dose are associated with chronic radiation-related complications. Radiation to the entire circumference of bone may increase the rate of future fracture, but overall fracture rates are extremely low, and prophylactic fixation is not warranted.

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      Phase II study of daily oral perifosine in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (pages 2462–2467)

      Howard H. Bailey, Michelle R. Mahoney, David S. Ettinger, William J. Maples, Paula M. Fracasso, Anne M. Traynor, Charles Erlichman and Scott H. Okuno

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22308

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      The novel signal transduction antagonist perifosine was administered daily to patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. Whereas the study did not meet the required level of clinical activity, further study of perifosine in sarcomas is recommended due to repeated significant responses and possible pharmacodynamic relations.

    18. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Prognostic significance of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography in patients with pathologic stage I lung adenocarcinoma (pages 2468–2473)

      Takashi Ohtsuka, Hiroaki Nomori, Ken-ichi Watanabe, Masahiro Kaji, Tsuguo Naruke, Keiichi Suemasu and Kimiichi Uno

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22268

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      [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been frequently used for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the current study, the prognostic significance of FDG uptake on PET was evaluated in patients with pathologic Stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

    19. Medical Oncology
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      Lanreotide autogel every 6 weeks compared with Lanreotide microparticles every 3 weeks in patients with well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors : A Phase III Study (pages 2474–2481)

      Emilio Bajetta, Giuseppe Procopio, Laura Catena, Antonia Martinetti, Sara De Dosso, Sergio Ricci, Alberto S. Lecchi, Paolo F. Boscani, Stefano Iacobelli, Giacomo Carteni, Filippo De Braud, Paola Loli, Andreas Tartaglia, Roberto Bajetta and Leonardo Ferrari

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22272

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      A noninferiority study was conducted in which 60 patients with neuroendorcrine tumors (NET) received either lanreotide Autogel or lanreotide microparticles on different dosing schedules, although all patients received the same total monthly dose. Assessment after 18 weeks showed that the longer dosing interval with lanreotide Autogel was as effective for controlling NET as lanreotide microparticles.

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      Phase I clinical trial of bortezomib in combination with gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumors (pages 2482–2489)

      David P. Ryan, Leonard J. Appleman, Thomas Lynch, Jeffrey G. Supko, Panagiotis Fidias, Jeffrey W. Clark, Mayer Fishman, Andrew X. Zhu, Peter C. Enzinger, Oscar Kashala, James Cusack Jr. and Joseph P. Eder

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22264

      The maximum tolerated dose of bortezomib when given by intravenous bolus injection on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 was 1.0 mg/m2 in combination with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 given as a 30-minute infusion on Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The concurrent administration of gemcitabine together with bortezomib did not significantly affect the inhibition of 20S proteasome activity.

    21. Radiation Oncology
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      Random control clinical trial on the effects of aerobic exercise training on erythrocyte levels during radiation treatment for breast cancer (pages 2490–2495)

      Jacqueline S. Drouin, Timothy J. Young, Jerome Beeler, Kevin Byrne, Thomas J. Birk, William M. Hryniuk and Lynn E. Hryniuk

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22267

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      The results from the current study indicate that women who perform moderate-intensity aerobic exercise during 7 weeks of radiation treatment of breast cancer prevent the declines in erythrocyte levels observed in nontraining women during the same time. The study also found a positive association between final erythrocyte measures and changes in physical fitness as measured by graded exercise testing and oxygen analysis.

    22. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      A population-based study of the impact of specific symptoms on quality of life in women with breast cancer 1 year after diagnosis (pages 2496–2503)

      Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Hartwig Ziegler and Hermann Brenner

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22274

      Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can affect psychological, sexual, and physical functioning to a great extent, but the relative importance of specific symptoms for long-lasting impairments in quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients has rarely been assessed quantitatively. In a population-based sample of women with breast cancer at 1 year after diagnosis, fatigue emerged as the strongest predictor by far and explained approximately 30% to 50% of the variability within various aspects of QOL.

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      Significant impact of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma on patients' quality of life : Results of a 2005 National Cutaneous Lymphoma Foundation Survey (pages 2504–2511)

      Marie-France Demierre, Stephanie Gan, Judy Jones and Donald R. Miller

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22252

      Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma had a profound and severe impact on patients' role functioning, emotional, and social well being. Striking health distress was prevalent in almost all patients who responded to a Cutaneous Lymphoma Foundation health-related quality-of-life survey in the United States.

    24. Translational Research
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      Neoplastic stem cells: A novel therapeutic target in clinical oncology (pages 2512–2520)

      Axel Schulenburg, Herbert Ulrich-Pur, Dietmar Thurnher, Boban Erovic, Stefan Florian, Wolfgang R. Sperr, Peter Kalhs, Brigitte Marian, Friedrich Wrba, Christoph C. Zielinski and Peter Valent

      Version of Record online: 12 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22277

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      Although major questions remain unanswered regarding the origin and function of cancer stem cells, their existence in various neoplasms is a widely accepted hypothesis. In addition, more and more data support the concept that antineoplastic therapies are curative only when all cancer stem cells in a given tumor are eliminated. In the current article, the authors have provided a short survey of the current knowledge on neoplastic stem cells and the clinical implications that arise on the basis of this new, exciting hypothesis.

  3. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Article
    3. Original Articles
    4. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 2522)

      Yee Lu Tham and Richard Elledge

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22271

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