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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 August 2006

Volume 107, Issue 4

Pages 661–884

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Correspondence
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      Detection of occult sentinel lymph node micrometastases by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer : An NSABP Protocol B-32 Quality Assurance Study (pages 661–667)

      Donald L. Weaver, David N. Krag, Edward A. Manna, Takamaru Ashikaga, Brenda L. Waters, Seth P. Harlow, Kenneth D. Bauer and Thomas B. Julian

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22074

      Occult metastases identified on deeper sections and immunohistochemical stains of sentinel lymph nodes is being investigated on NSABP protocol B-32. Utilizing supervised automated image analysis as the reference and comparing this with routine screening by pathologists, we demonstrated that the probability of missing an occult metastasis ≤0.02, ≤ 0.05, and ≤0.10 mm was 75%, 69%, and 61%, respectively. Routine light microscope screening by pathologists missed no metastases larger than 0.10 mm.

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      Prognostic role of p27Kip1 deregulation in colorectal cancer (pages 668–675)

      Dan D. Hershko and Ma'anit Shapira

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22073

      Loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 promotes tumor progression and is associated with poor clinical outcome in many human cancers. In the current review the current knowledge on the prognostic significance of p27 and the mechanisms that deregulate its expression in colorectal cancer are discussed.

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      Consensus report of the International Society of Gastrointestinal Oncology on therapeutic progress in advanced pancreatic cancer (pages 676–685)

      Howard S. Hochster, Daniel G. Haller, Aimery de Gramont, Jordan D. Berlin, Philip A. Philip, Malcolm J. Moore and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22036

      The International Society of Gastrointestinal Oncology commissioned the authors of this report to discuss the available data on patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and to determine whether sufficient developments had taken place to form a new consensus on current recommendations and future research avenues. Based on a comprehensive review of past trials, the authors discuss reaching a consensus on endpoints in the treatment of pancreatic cancer and on the approach to new trials.

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      Recommendations for the use of Yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan in malignant lymphoma (pages 686–695)

      Oliver Weigert, Tim Illidge, Wolfgang Hiddemann and Martin Dreyling

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22066

      Radioimmunotherapy has demonstrated high efficacy and a favorable safety profile in patients with malignant lymphoma; however, clinicians face the challenge of how to best integrate this promising new treatment option into existing established treatment algorithms. This article focuseson current recommendations for the use of 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, outlines future perspectives,and provides practical recommendations for patient management.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Primary breast cancer phenotypes associated with propensity for central nervous system metastases (pages 696–704)

      Yee-Lu Tham, Krystal Sexton, Rita Kramer, Susan Hilsenbeck and Richard Elledge

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22041

      Younger patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors that are highly proliferative, genomically unstable, and p53-altered are at increased relative risk for central nervous system (CNS) metastases. HER-2 expression did not increase the relative risk of CNS metastases, nor did adjuvant hormonal or chemotherapies.

    2. Genitourinary Disease
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      Bladder cancer risk as modified by family history and smoking (pages 705–711)

      Jie Lin, Margaret R. Spitz, Colin P. Dinney, Carol J. Etzel, H. Barton Grossman and Xifeng Wu

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22071

      The authors investigated the role of family history in association with the risk of bladder cancer. The results indicated that a positive family history of bladder cancer, smoking habits, and proband age at onset may have interacted to increase the risk of bladder cancer the study population.

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      Urachal carcinoma: Clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes of an aggressive malignancy (pages 712–720)

      Richard A. Ashley, Brant A. Inman, Thomas J. Sebo, Bradley C. Leibovich, Michael L. Blute, Eugene D. Kwon and Horst Zincke

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22060

      The new 4-category Mayo Clinic staging system for urachal carcinoma accurately stratifies disease outcome. In this study, the authors showed that tumor grade and positive surgical margins are the most important predictors of cancer-specific death in multivariate analysis.

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      Differences in survival among patients with urachal and nonurachal adenocarcinomas of the bladder (pages 721–728)

      Jonathan L. Wright, Michael P. Porter, Christopher I. Li, Paul H. Lange and Daniel W. Lin

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22059

      Urachal adenocarcinomas represent 10% of all primary adenocarcinomas of the bladder. Overall and disease-specific mortality risks are improved in patients with urachal lesions, even after controlling for numerous patient and tumor characteristics.

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      Variations in reconstruction after radical cystectomy (pages 729–737)

      John L. Gore, Christopher S. Saigal, Jan M. Hanley, Matthias Schonlau, Mark S. Litwin and and the Urologic Diseases in America Project

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22058

      Based on an analysis of subjects who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, disparities were found in the utilization of continent reconstruction based on sociodemographic, clinical, and provider-based variables, disparities that may be ameliorated with the regionalization of bladder cancer care.

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      Phase II trial evaluating a docetaxel-capecitabine combination as treatment for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 738–745)

      Jean-Marc Ferrero, Emmanuel Chamorey, Stephane Oudard, Sabine Dides, Gerard Lesbats, Gerard Cavaglione, Pierre Nouyrigat, Cyril Foa and Regis Kaphan

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22070

      In hormone-refractory prostate cancer, weekly docetaxel plus oral capecitabine gave 68.2% biological response and significant pain relief, with a median overall survival of 17.7 months. Except for Grade 3–4 cutaneous toxicities (13.1%) and changes in nail (6.5%), the safety profile was good.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Inhibition of survivin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human endometrial cancer (pages 746–756)

      Zhihong Ai, Lianhua Yin, Xianrong Zhou, Ying Zhu, Dongmei Zhu, Yinhua Yu and Youji Feng

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22044

      Survivin is highly expressed in endometrial cancer and inhibition of survivin by RNA interference reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Survivin is an attractive target for endometrial cancer treatment.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      The relation between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α expression with anemia and outcome in surgically treated head and neck cancer (pages 757–766)

      Stuart C. Winter, Ketan A. Shah, Cheng Han, Leticia Campo, Helen Turley, Russell Leek, Rogan J. Corbridge, Graham J. Cox and Adrian L. Harris

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21983

      Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression was correlated with a poor outcome in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas HIF-2α had an additive effect on outcome. The results did not indicate that anemia influenced tumor hypoxia.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Thalidomide therapy in adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome : A North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial (pages 767–772)

      Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Gerardo Colon-Otero, Antje Hoering, Ayalew Tefferi, Robert D. Niedringhaus, Allen Vukov, Chin-Yang Li, David M. Menke, Susan M. Geyer, Steven R. Alberts and For the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22047

      Thalidomide alone demonstrated very limited activity in unselected patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. At the schedule and dose levels used in the current study, it is not a safe and viable therapeutic option.

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      The influence of increasing age on the deliverability and toxicity of fludarabine-based combination chemotherapy regimens in patients with indolent lymphoproliferative disorders (pages 773–780)

      Mark N. Polizzotto, Constantine S. Tam, Alvin Milner, E. Henry Januszewicz, H. Miles Prince, David Westerman, Max M. Wolf and John F. Seymour

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22022

      The delivery and toxicity of 3 fludarabine-based chemotherapy regimens in patients age 60 years and older were compared with those in younger patients. Treatments were tolerated well and could be delivered safely to older patients who had a good performance status with modestly increased myelosuppression but no increase in serious infection or treatment-related mortality.

    11. Lung Disease
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      A prognostic model for advanced stage nonsmall cell lung cancer : Pooled analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group trials (pages 781–792)

      Sumithra J. Mandrekar, Steven E. Schild, Shauna L. Hillman, Katie L. Allen, Randolph S. Marks, James A. Mailliard, James E. Krook, Andrew W. Maksymiuk, Kari Chansky, Karen Kelly, Alex A. Adjei and James R. Jett

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22049

      In addition to the widely accepted prognostic factors of performance status, body mass index, and stage, pretreatment blood counts were significant prognostic factors for overall survival and time to progression in patients with advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer. The authors developed a prediction equation based on the patients' own prognostic factors that may be used to evaluate the benefit of a treatment in Phase II trials by comparing the observed survival to the expected survival of a cohort in place of historic comparisons, which may have substantially different baseline patient characteristics. The usefulness of this work to clinical research and clinical practice is compelling in this population, in which advances in treatment have been slow, producing only modest improvements in survival.

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      Prognostic variability among nonsmall cell lung cancer patients with pathologic N1 lymph node involvement : Epidemiological figures with strong clinical implications (pages 793–798)

      Adele Caldarella, Emanuele Crocetti, Camilla E. Comin, Alberto Janni, Andrea Lopes Pegna and Eugenio Paci

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22072

      The prognosis varies for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who have pathologic lymph node involvement (pN1). In this study, patients who had hilar lymph node involvement had a statistically worse prognosis than patients who had pulmonary lymph node involvement, and the findings indicated that this difference in survival may lead to different therapies for these patient subgroups.

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      A phase II study of irinotecan plus cisplatin for patients with advanced stage IIIB or IV NSCLC previously treated with nonplatinum-based chemotherapy (pages 799–805)

      Heung T. Kim, Ji-Youn Han, Dae H. Lee, Jong H. Chun, Hong G. Lee, Jae J. Lee, Hyae Y. Kim, Sung Y. Lee and Jin S. Lee

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22063

      The second-line irinotecan and cisplatin is a highly active and well-tolerated regimen in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer who were previously treated with nonplatinum-based chemotherapy.

    14. Melanoma
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      A randomized trial to improve early detection and prevention practices among siblings of melanoma patients (pages 806–814)

      Alan C. Geller, Karen M. Emmons, Daniel R. Brooks, Catherine Powers, Zi Zhang, Howard K. Koh, Timothy Heeren, Arthur J. Sober, Frederick Li and Barbara A. Gilchrest

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22050

      In this randomized trial for skin cancer risk reduction among melanoma siblings (n = 494), intervention siblings were more likely to examine all moles, including those on the back (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.06-2.91).

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      What motivates men age ≥ 50 years to participate in a screening program for melanoma? (pages 815–823)

      Monika Janda, Philippa H. Youl, John B. Lowe, Peter D. Baade, Mark Elwood, Ian T. Ring and Joanne F. Aitken

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22051

      Within a population-based screening program for melanoma, men age ≥50 years significantly increased their participation in screening for melanoma and intention to screen. Within skin-screening clinics provided within the intervention program, men age ≥50 years contributed 48.5% of melanomas, and 45% of all keratinocyte carcinomas diagnosed.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Caspase-8 levels correlate with the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in high-grade but not lower grade neuroblastoma (pages 824–831)

      Andrea Muscat, Christine Hawkins and David M. Ashley

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22052

      Transcriptional regulation of caspase-8 may reside with interferon γ-sensitive promoters through the action of transcription factors, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1). In this study, the authors observed a strong correlation between caspase-8 levels and STAT-1 levels in high-grade neuroblastoma samples; however, no such correlation was observed in lower stage clinical tumor samples.

    17. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Targeting epigenetic abnormalities with histone deacetylase inhibitors (pages 832–840)

      Barbara A. Conley, John J. Wright and Shivaani Kummar

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22064

      Histone deacetylase inhibitors increase histone acetylation, modulating gene expression. Several agents have shown promising activity in early-phase clinical trials. Continued evaluations of these compounds based on preclinical data are ongoing.

    18. Pediatric Oncology
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      Comprehensive long-term follow-up programs for pediatric cancer survivors (pages 841–848)

      Noreen M. Aziz, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Sandra Brooks and Alicia J. Turoff

      Article first published online: 2 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22096

      The authors surveyed 24 comprehensive long-term follow-up (LTFU) programs for pediatric cancer survivors. This report describes the frequency, content, and setting of follow-up care delivered by the surveyed pediatric comprehensive LTFU programs.

    19. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Influence of tumor type, disease status, and patient age on self-reported interest regarding participation in cancer clinical trials (pages 849–853)

      Maurie Markman, Judith Petersen and Robert Montgomery

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.21997

      There is limited information available regarding the reasons cancer patients decide to enter clinical trials. After analyzing data obtained from >115,000 cancer patients or their families, researchers determined that patients with the most serious cancer-related conditions expressed an increased interest in obtaining information, and there was a reduced desire for such information among the very elderly.

    20. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Validation of the functional assessment of cancer therapy esophageal cancer subscale (pages 854–863)

      Gail Darling, David T. Eton, Joanne Sulman, Alan G. Casson and David Cella

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22055

      A subscale for assessment of health-related quality of life for esophageal cancer to be used with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy has been developed and validated. The FACT-E demonstrated very good to excellent convergent and divergent validity, internal consistency, and responsiveness to change.

    21. Translational Research
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      Combinational antitumor effect of siRNA against midkine and paclitaxel on growth of human prostate cancer xenografts (pages 864–873)

      Yoshifumi Takei, Kenji Kadomatsu, Tatsunori Goto and Takashi Muramatsu

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22068

      The authors showed a therapeutic strategy against prostate cancers involving RNA interference against human midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor, which is overexpressed in human prostate cancers. Downregulation of MK with a synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited tumor growth in human prostate cancer (PC-3) xenografts, and antitumor activity of the siRNA in mice was augmented when combined with paclitaxel. We can reduce the dosage of a chemotherapeutic in combination with a molecular targeting therapeutic consisting of nucleic acids, especially based on RNA interference.

  3. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Correspondence
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      The Birmingham International Workshop on Supportive, Palliative, and End-of-Life Care Research (pages 874–881)

      Neil A. Hagen, Julia Addington-Hall, Michael Sharpe, Alison Richardson, Charles S. Cleeland and on Behalf of the Participants

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22067

      The authors outline the context, discussions, and recommendations of the International Symposium on Supportive, Palliative, and End of Life Care, which was held October 5 and 6, 2005 in Birmingham, England. The potential benefits and challenges of international collaborative research activities are highlighted in supportive, palliative, and end-of-life care within the broader health care research community.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Correspondence
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      Author reply (page 883)

      Sibylle Loibl, Manfred Kaufmann and Gunther von Minckwitz

      Article first published online: 6 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22065

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      Author reply (page 884)

      Mark F. Evans, Gladwyn Leiman and Kumarasen Cooper

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22053

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