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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 September 2006

Volume 107, Issue 5

Pages 885–1100

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
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      A concept for the standardized detection of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow from patients with primary breast cancer and its clinical implementation (pages 885–892)

      Tanja Fehm, Stephan Braun, Volkmar Muller, Wolfgang Janni, Gerhard Gebauer, Christian Marth, Christian Schindlbeck, Diethelm Wallwiener, Elin Borgen, Bjorn Naume, Klaus Pantel and Erich Solomayer

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22076

      For patients with primary breast cancer, prospective international studies have demonstrated with the highest level of evidence that the presence of disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow is an independent prognostic factor. The main objectives of this report were to propose a standard concept for the detection of disseminated tumor cells and to recommend a guideline for its clinical implementation.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
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      Advances and surgical decision-making for breast reconstruction (pages 893–907)

      Steven J. Kronowitz and Henry M. Kuerer

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22079

      In patients who undergo breast reconstruction after mastectomy, choosing the best method of reconstruction is essential to optimize and minimize the potential for postoperative complications. Various clinicopathologic factors are used in the surgical decision-making for breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

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      Current controversies in high-dose-rate versus low-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer (pages 908–915)

      Alexandra J. Stewart and Akila N. Viswanathan

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22054

      This article reviews the controversies relevant to high-dose rate versus low-dose rate brachytherapy in cervical cancer treatment. Topics including the use of brachytherapy for FIGO Stage III cervical cancer and the use of concomitant chemotherapy are discussed.

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      Phase II study of single-agent bortezomib for the treatment of patients with fludarabine-refractory B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 916–924)

      Stefan Faderl, Kanti Rai, John Gribben, John C. Byrd, Ian W. Flinn, Susan O'Brien, Shihong Sheng, Dixie-Lee Esseltine and Michael J. Keating

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22097

      Three doses of bortezomib (1.0 mg/m2, 1.3 mg/m2, and 1.5 mg/m2), administered on Days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of a 21-day treatment cycle, for a maximum of 9 cycles, were evaluated in fludarabine-refractory patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although no objective responses were seen after treatment with bortezomib, biologic activity (including reduction in lymphocytosis, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy) was observed in some patients, and therapy was acceptably tolerated. Further evaluation of bortezomib in combination with other agents is warranted.

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      Role of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 925–934)

      Tomislav Letilovic, Radovan Vrhovac, Srdan Verstovsek, Branimir Jaksic and Alessandra Ferrajoli

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22086

      Angiogenesis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This review focuses on the prognostic significance and therapeutic implications of angiogenesis in CLL.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      A nonreplicating adenoviral vector that contains the wild-type p53 transgene combined with chemotherapy for primary breast cancer : Safety, efficacy, and biologic activity of a novel gene-therapy approach (pages 935–944)

      Massimo Cristofanilli, Savitri Krishnamurthy, Laura Guerra, Kristine Broglio, Banu Arun, Daniel J. Booser, Kerstin Menander, Jill Van Wart Hood, Vicente Valero and Gabriel N. Hortobagyi

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22080

      The authors hypothesized that the intratumoral administration of a nonreplicating adenoviral vector (Ad5) that contains the human wild-type p53 transgene (AdCMV-p53), combined with chemotherapy, could increase the efficacy of primary systemic therapy, as measured by pathologic complete response. The results of this Phase II trial indicated that Ad5CMV-p53 combined with primary systemic therapy was safe and active and was associated with local immunomodulatory effects.

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      Multicenter evaluation of the breast lesion excision system, a percutaneous, vacuum-assisted, intact-specimen breast biopsy device (pages 945–949)

      Angela Sie, David C. Bryan, Victor Gaines, Larry K. Killebrew, Christine H. Kim, Carrie C. Morrison, William R. Poller, Ada P. Romilly, Kathy Schilling and Janet H. Sung

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22090

      The current study determined the underestimation rates for atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ using the Breast Lesion Excision System, a percutaneous, vacuum-assisted, intact-specimen breast biopsy device.

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      Chemoprevention: Drug pricing and mortality : The case of tamoxifen (pages 950–958)

      Joy Melnikow, Christina Kuenneth, L. Jay Helms, Amber Barnato, Miriam Kuppermann, Stephen Birch and James Nuovo

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22075

      Tamoxifen may increase mortality in women at the lower end of the “high-risk”range for breast cancer. If U.S. prices approximated Canadian prices, then tamoxifen use for breast cancer risk reduction in women with a 5-year risk >3% could be a reasonable strategy to reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      Promoting culturally appropriate colorectal cancer screening through a health educator : A randomized controlled trial (pages 959–966)

      Shin-Ping Tu, Vicky Taylor, Yutaka Yasui, Alan Chun, Mei-Po Yip, Elizabeth Acorda, Lin Li and Roshan Bastani

      Article first published online: 24 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22091

      A culturally appropriate clinic-based intervention was developed to increase colorectal cancer screening among low-income and less acculturated Chinese Americans. In a randomized controlled trial, the multifaceted intervention significantly increased fecal occult blood test screening in this group of minority patients.

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      The addition of induction chemotherapy to preoperative, concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves tumor response in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (pages 967–974)

      S. Chris Malaisrie, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Arlene M. Correa, Jaffer A. Ajani, Ritsuko R. Komaki, David C. Rice, Ara A. Vaporciyan, Garrett L. Walsh, Jack A. Roth, Tsung T. Wu and Stephen G. Swisher

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22077

      The feasibility of induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and surgery for patients with locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer has been demonstrated in Phase II trials. In the current study, the authors showed that CCRT significantly improved tumor response at the time of surgery compared with traditional concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. Overall survival and disease-free survival were increased in patients who received CCRT, especially in the subset of patients who had more advanced esophageal cancer (Stage III-IVA).

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Response to low-dose ketoconazole and subsequent dose escalation to high-dose ketoconazole in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (pages 975–981)

      Mari Nakabayashi, Wanling Xie, Meredith M. Regan, David M. Jackman, Philip W. Kantoff and William K. Oh

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22085

      In a retrospective study, 28.3% of patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer demonstrated a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline of ≥50% when low-dose ketoconazole was used as a secondary hormonal therapy. The duration of primary androgen deprivation therapy and total duration of all previous hormonal therapies were associated with time to progression.

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      Should we screen for bladder cancer in a high-risk population? : A cost per life-year saved analysis (pages 982–990)

      Yair Lotan, Robert S. Svatek and Arthur I. Sagalowsky

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22084

      Urine-based markers are cost-effective in bladder cancer screening in a high-risk population. Prospective randomized trials in a completely asymptomatic high-risk cohort are indicated before bladder cancer screening can be recommended.

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      Cancer incidence after localized therapy for prostate cancer (pages 991–998)

      Kihyuck Moon, George J. Stukenborg, Jessica Keim and Dan Theodorescu

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22083

      By evaluating men with incident prostate cancer who were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry, the authors observed that patients who received external radiation had significantly greater odds of developing secondary primary cancers both overall and in the areas that were exposed to radiation. In this report, the authors demonstrate for the first time to their knowledge that, despite the higher doses of radiation delivered, patients who received radioactive implants had the lowest odds of developing a second cancer.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Deficiencies in myeloid antigen-presenting cells in women with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (pages 999–1007)

      Bang-Ning Lee, Michele Follen, Graciela Rodriquez, De-Yu Shen, Anais Malpica, William T. Shearer and James M. Reuben

      Article first published online: 27 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22092

      Deficiencies in the ability of monocyte-derived dendritic cells to present human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen to autologous T cells may lead to the development of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in HPV-infected women.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Sudden blast crisis in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia who achieved complete cytogenetic remission after imatinib therapy (pages 1008–1013)

      Giuliana Alimena, Massimo Breccia, Roberto Latagliata, Ida Carmosino, Eleonora Russo, Francesca Biondo, Daniela Diverio, Marco Mancini, Mauro Nanni and Franco Mandelli

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22046

      The occurrence of blast crisis after imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia is rare, and its clinical biologic characteristics are not well known. In this report, the authors relate their experience in 6 patients who developed blast crisis after they had achieved complete cytogenetic remission on imatinib.

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      Combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHOP) improves response rates but not survival and has lower hematologic toxicity compared with combined mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, and prednisone (MCP) in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas : Results of a prospective randomized trial of the German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (pages 1014–1022)

      Christina Nickenig, Martin Dreyling, Eva Hoster, Michael Pfreundschuh, Lorenz Trumper, Marcel Reiser, Hannes Wandt, Eva Lengfelder, Michael Unterhalt and Wolfgang Hiddemann

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22093

      The German Low-Grade Lymphoma Study Group performed a randomized trial comparing combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (CHOP) versus combined mitoxantrone, chlorambucil, and prednisone (MCP) as first-line therapy for patients with advanced-stage follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. The results indicated that, particularly in younger, high-risk patients who are candidates for autologous stem cell transplantation, CHOP should be preferred over MCP.

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      The effect of immunoglobulin VH gene mutation status and other prognostic factors on the incidence of major infections in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 1023–1033)

      Sebastian Francis, Mamatha Karanth, Guy Pratt, Jane Starczynski, Laura Hooper, Chris Fegan, Chris Pepper, David Valcarcel, Donald W. Milligan and Julio Delgado

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22094

      Correlations between new prognostic markers and infectious complications were assessed retrospectively in 280 unselected patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. Older age, clinical Stage B or C disease, unmutated immunoglobulin VH gene, genetic abnormalities, and positive CD38 status were associated with a significantly shorter time to first infection and increased infection-related mortality.

    13. Lung Disease
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      A phase I/II study of weekly high-dose erlotinib in previously treated patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1034–1041)

      Daniel T. Milton, Christopher G. Azzoli, Robert T. Heelan, Ennapadam Venkatraman, Jorge E. Gomez, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, William Pao, Naiyer A. Rizvi, Megan Dunne and Vincent A. Miller

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22088

      The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent an important advance in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but many patients who are treated with these agents do not benefit from their use. In an attempt to overcome resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition, the authors of the current study administered high-dose, oral erlotinib on a weekly schedule to determine the safety and efficacy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

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      Elevated mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferase-1 as an independent prognostic factor in primary nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1042–1049)

      Hojoong Kim, Young Mi Kwon, Jin Seuk Kim, Joungho Han, Young Mog Shim, Joobae Park and Duk-Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22087

      Elevated mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) may be an independent prognostic factor in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and CpG island hypermethylation in NSCLC may be maintained by a complex interaction of several factors rather than by a simple transcriptional up-regulation of DNMT1.

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      Phase II trial of weekly paclitaxel and gemcitabine for previously untreated, stage IIIB-IV nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1050–1054)

      Wallace Akerley, Howard Safran, Ken Zaner, Neal Ready, Tony Mega and Teresa Kennedy

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22095

      Paclitaxel and gemcitabine administered on a weekly schedule are active and well tolerated by patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    16. Sarcoma
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      Diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of paraffin embedded tissues : Clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of 44 patients from the French sarcoma group (pages 1055–1064)

      Jean-Michel Coindre, Isabelle Hostein, Philippe Terrier, Corinne Bouvier-Labit, Francoise Collin, Jean-Jacques Michels, Martine Trassard, Bernard Marques, Dominique Ranchere and Louis Guillou

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22099

      To evaluate the value of molecular testing for the diagnosis of clear cell sarcomas (CCS), 44 paraffin embedded CCS specimens and 14 conventional melanomas were examined for the presence of EWS-ATF1 transcripts by using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Prognostic factors were assessed in 41 patients with CCS. This method of detection produced a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 100%. Mitotic index and grade were predictive for survival and distant metastasis.

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      Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors : Prognostic factors and survival in a series of patients treated at a single institution (pages 1065–1074)

      Matteo Anghileri, Rosalba Miceli, Marco Fiore, Luigi Mariani, Andrea Ferrari, Chiara Mussi, Laura Lozza, Paola Collini, Patrizia Olmi, Paolo G. Casali, Silvana Pilotti and Alessandro Gronchi

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22098

      The authors investigated and compared prognostic factors and clinical outcomes among patients who had malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). The presence of NF-1 syndrome did not affect survival, but patients with NF-1 were more likely to have larger tumors.

    18. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      Family history of breast cancer as a risk factor for ovarian cancer in a prospective study (pages 1075–1083)

      Neely Kazerouni, Mark H. Greene, James V. Lacey Jr., Pamela J. Mink and Catherine Schairer

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22082

      A detailed breast cancer family history as well as an individual's age and personal history of breast cancer are useful for identifying women at elevated genetic risk of ovarian cancer.

    19. Pediatric Oncology
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      Secondary chromosomal abnormalities predict outcome in pediatric and adult high-stage Burkitt lymphoma (pages 1084–1092)

      Mihaela Onciu, Ellen Schlette, Yinmei Zhou, Susana C. Raimondi, Francis J. Giles, Hagop M. Kantarjian, L. Jeffrey Medeiros, Raul C. Ribeiro, Ching-Hon Pui and John T. Sandlund

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22089

      The current study was a retrospective analysis of the tumor karyotypic abnormalities and their prognostic significance in 70 pediatric and adult patients with Burkitt lymphoma, with predominantly high-stage disease, treated on modern intensive chemotherapy regimens. Although there were no significant differences between chromosomal abnormalities in children and adults, abnormalities of chromosomes 13 (13q) and 22 (22q) had a negative prognostic impact in children, whereas abnormalities of chromosome 17 were associated with a poor outcome in adults.

  4. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Communication
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      Vinorelbine, doxorubicin, and prednisone in androgen-independent prostate cancer (pages 1093–1100)

      Lester S. Borden Jr., Peter E. Clark, James Lovato, M. Craig Hall, Diana Stindt, Michele Harmon, Randi M. Mohler and Frank M. Torti

      Article first published online: 3 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22078

      The authors conducted a Phase II trial with combined vinorelbine tartrate, doxorubicin, and daily prednisone to investigate the antitumor activity and palliative response of this regimen in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC). The combination produced substantive palliation and a moderate response rate in men with AIPC.

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