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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 October 2006

Volume 107, Issue 7

Pages 1423–1641

  1. Listen to the Patient

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      Problems getting back in the swing after breast cancer : Gaps in rehabilitative care (pages 1423–1424)

      Sharon Cowden

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22192

      Dr. Cowden is a pediatrician, breast cancer survivor and an avid golfer. She is married and has 3 children. Her third child is an adopted niece whose mother died of breast cancer.

  2. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      Early 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scanning in the lymphomas : Changing the paradigms of treatments? (pages 1425–1428)

      Morton Coleman and Lale Kostakoglu

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22178

      The accurate assessment of response to therapy is of vital importance in the management of Hodgkin disease, diffuse large cell lymphoma, and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The use of 18F-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography imaging for early, dynamic assessment of response represents an exciting new development in lymphoma therapy which may change the current paradigms of treatment.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      Novel approaches in the treatment of systemic mastocytosis (pages 1429–1439)

      Alfonso Quintas-Cardama, Ahmed Aribi, Jorge Cortes, Francis J. Giles, Hagop Kantarjian and Srdan Verstovsek

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22187

      It is believed that mutations in codon 816 of the Kit kinase domain play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of systemic mastocytosis (SM). A series of novel compounds with activity against this mutant kinase have widened greatly the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with SM.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Listen to the Patient
    3. Commentary
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Selective use of sentinel lymph node surgery during prophylactic mastectomy (pages 1440–1447)

      Judy C. Boughey, Nazanin Khakpour, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Merrick I. Ross, Henry M. Kuerer, Sonja E. Singletary, Gildy V. Babiera, Banu Arun, Kelly K. Hunt and Isabelle Bedrosian

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22176

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      The occurrence of occult invasive breast cancer in prophylactic mastectomy is extremely low. However, patients at higher risk for whom sentinel lymph node surgery should be considered include older women and patients with a history of lobular cancer or lobular carcinoma in situ.

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      Paget disease of the breast: Changing patterns of incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment in the U.S. (pages 1448–1458)

      Chin-Yau Chen, Li-Min Sun and Benjamin O. Anderson

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22137

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      Although the overall breast cancer incidence increased in the U.S. between 1988 and 2002, Paget disease of the breast decreased in incidence during the same period, particularly Paget disease associated with underlying ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer. Although patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery using central lumpectomy had equivalent outcomes equivalent to the outcomes of patients who underwent mastectomy for Paget disease, 82% of patients nonetheless underwent total or modified radical mastectomy.

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      Development and validation of nomograms for predicting residual tumor size and the probability of successful conservative surgery with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer (pages 1459–1466)

      Roman Rouzier, Lajos Pusztai, Jean-Remi Garbay, Suzette Delaloge, Kelly K. Hunt, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, Donald Berry and Henry M. Kuerer

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22177

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      Nomograms were developed and validated for predicting residual tumor size and the probability of a patient becoming eligible for breast conservation surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A web-based interface is now available to counsel patients about surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    4. Gastrointestinal Tract
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      The significance of neuroendocrine differentiation in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after preoperative chemoradiation (pages 1467–1474)

      Kim L. Wang, Qinghua Yang, Karen R. Cleary, Stephen G. Swisher, Arlene M. Correa, Ritsuko Komaki, Jaffer A. Ajani, Asif Rashid, Stanley R. Hamilton and Tsung-Teh Wu

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22179

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      Tumor cells with neuroendocrine differentiation were more resistant to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in esophageal and esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation in residual tumor predicted poor survival after preoperative chemoradiation therapy.

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      Surgical pathology stage by American Joint Commission on Cancer criteria predicts patient survival after preoperative chemoradiation for localized gastric carcinoma (pages 1475–1482)

      Pooja R. Rohatgi, Paul F. Mansfield, Christopher H. Crane, Tsung-Teh Wu, Punita K. Sunder, William A. Ross, Jeffrey S. Morris, Peter W. Pisters, Barry W. Feig, Leonard L. Gunderson and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22180

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      When a preoperative chemoradiation strategy was employed for gastric cancer, the surgical pathology stage, a reflection of cancer's biologic heterogeneity, was a better prognosticator of overall survival than the baseline clinical stage. Surgical pathology stage, in this setting, may serve as an intermediate endpoint for Phase II/III trials.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Predictors of outcome in patients undergoing postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer (pages 1483–1490)

      Philippe E. Spiess, Gordon A. Brown, Ping Liu, Nizar M. Tannir, Shi-Ming Tu, James G. Evans, Bogdan Czerniak, Ashish M. Kamat and Louis L. Pisters

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22182

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      The current study highlights many key prognostic features that must be considered in patients undergoing postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) with disease-specific survival negatively predicted by systemic symptoms at presentation, serum tumor marker elevation (alpha fetoprotein >9 ng/mL and β-human chorionic gonadotropin >4.1 mIU/mL) before surgery, as well as development of postoperative complications and recurrence. Furthermore, advanced clinical stage and viable tumor in the surgical specimen both predict a poorer recurrence-free survival.

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      Relevance of extracapsular extension of pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with bladder cancer treated in the contemporary era (pages 1491–1495)

      Wassim Kassouf, Dan Leibovici, Tony Luongo, Mark F. Munsell, Funda Vakar, Colin P. Dinney, H. Barton Grossman and Ashish M. Kamat

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22139

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      In a contemporary series which incorporates multimodal therapy for bladder cancer, extra capsular extension of nodal metastasis does not confer an adverse prognosis to patients treated by radical cystectomy.

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      Biochemical and clinical significance of the posttreatment prostate-specific antigen bounce for prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy alone : A multiinstitutional pooled analysis (pages 1496–1502)

      Eric M. Horwitz, Lawrence B. Levy, Howard D. Thames, Patrick A. Kupelian, Alvaro A. Martinez, Jeffrey M. Michalski, Thomas M. Pisansky, Howard M. Sandler, William U. Shipley, Michael J. Zelefsky, Anthony L. Zietman and Deborah A. Kuban

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22183

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      Patients treated with external beam radiation therapy alone who experience a posttreatment prostate-specific antigen bounce have increased risk of biochemical failure. However, this risk does not translate into increased clinical failure.

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      Viable malignant germ cell tumor in the postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimen : Can it be predicted using clinical parameters? (pages 1503–1510)

      Philippe E. Spiess, Gordon A. Brown, Louis L. Pisters, Ping Liu, Shi-Ming Tu, James G. Evans, Ashish M. Kamat, Peter Black and Nizar M. Tannir

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22181

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      Patients who have evidence of viable tumor in their postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) specimen are at increased risk of disease progression and require aggressive surveillance and management. Although the serum α-fetoprotein level prior to PC-RPLND and the size of the retroperitoneal mass on final pathology helped to predict which patients were at increased risk of having viable cancerous elements in their specimen, these variables were not sufficiently accurate for predicting histology to constitute the basis of any treatment decision. Although the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) risk categories played an important prognostic role in patients with germ cell tumors, the incidence of viable disease in the various risk groups was similar, which the authors believe resulted from differences in the amounts of preoperative chemotherapy received. This may be explained by the finding that patients in the intermediate-risk and poor-risk IGCCC categories traditionally received extensive chemotherapy at the authors' institution.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-β (LPAAT-β) is highly expressed in advanced ovarian cancer and is associated with aggressive histology and poor survival (pages 1511–1519)

      Catherine S.M. Diefenbach, Robert A. Soslow, Alexia Iasonos, Irina Linkov, Cyrus Hedvat, Lynn Bonham, Jack Singer, Richard R. Barakat, Carol Aghajanian and Jakob Dupont

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22184

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      Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase-β (LPAAT-β) tumor expression is an emerging prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer. In all, 158 ovarian tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and demonstrated a high frequency of LPAAT-β expression that was associated with aggressive histology and decreased progression-free and overall survival.

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      Effect of obesity on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (pages 1520–1524)

      James C. Pavelka, Rebecca S. Brown, Beth Y. Karlan, Ilana Cass, Ronald S. Leuchter, Leo D. Lagasse and Andrew J. Li

      Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22194

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      Obesity predicts recurrence and mortality in epithelial ovarian cancer in a manner independent of treatment-related factors or comorbidities.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Activity of 9-nitro-camptothecin, an oral topoisomerase I inhibitor, in myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (pages 1525–1529)

      Alfonso Quintas-Cardama, Hagop Kantarjian, Susan O'Brien, Elias Jabbour, Francis Giles, Farhad Ravandi, Stefan Faderl, Sherry Pierce, Jenny Shan, Srdan Verstovsek and Jorge Cortes

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22186

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      Topoisomerase I inhibitors, like topotecan, have activity in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). 9-Nitro-camptothecin (9-NC) is a new oral topoisomerase inhibitor with a good safety profile. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the activity and safety of 9-NC in MDS and CMML.

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      Outcomes and diffusion of doxorubicin-based chemotherapy among elderly patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 1530–1541)

      Victor R. Grann, Dawn Hershman, Judith S. Jacobson, Wei-Yann Tsai, Jian Wang, Russell McBride, Nandita Mitra, Michael L. Grossbard and Alfred I. Neugut

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22188

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      The authors analyzed the predictors and outcomes of chemotherapy among elderly patients with lymphoma. The findings indicated that doxorubicin remains an important component of therapy for patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Given the clinical trial-based evidence of its benefits, in the absence of specific contraindications, most patients, including the elderly, should be treated with regimens that include doxorubicin.

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      Rituximab combined with cladribine or with cladribine and cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with indolent lymphoproliferative disorders and mantle cell lymphoma (pages 1542–1550)

      Tadeusz Robak, Piotr Smolewski, Barbara Cebula, Anna Szmigielska-Kaplon, Krzysztof Chojnowski and Jerzy Z. Blonski

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22196

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      The feasibility, efficacy, and toxicity of combined regimens consisting of either rituximab plus cladribine (RC) or RC plus cyclophosphamide in the treatment of patients with refractory or recurrent, indolent lymphoid malignancies were evaluated. These regimens were highly effective and were tolerated well in heavily pretreated patients.

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      Treatment outcome in young adults and children >10 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Sweden : A comparison between a pediatric protocol and an adult protocol (pages 1551–1561)

      Helene Hallböök, Göran Gustafsson, Bengt Smedmyr, Stefan Söderhäll, Mats Heyman and for the Swedish Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Group and the Swedish Childhood Leukemia Group

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22189

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      Older teenagers who were treated on the pediatric Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)-92 protocol had better outcomes than patients who were treated on an adult Swedish national ALL protocol. Treatment protocol was the only independent prognostic factor for older teenagers.

    16. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      P48 is a predictive marker for outcome of postoperative interferon-α treatment in patients with hepatitis B virus infection-related hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 1562–1569)

      Yong-Bing Qian, Ju-Bo Zhang, Wei-Zhong Wu, Hong-Bin Fang, Wei-Dong Jia, Peng-Yuan Zhuang, Bo-Heng Zhang, Qi Pan, Yang Xu, Lu Wang, Zhao-You Tang and Hui-Chuan Sun

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22206

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      The results of this study indicated that P48 tumor expression is useful as a marker for the prediction of outcome in patients who receive interferon-α (IFN-α) after undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. To provide maximal benefit and to avoid the toxicities of IFN-α, postoperative IFN-α treatment should be given based on tumor P48 status.

    17. Lung Disease
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      An association between glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism and younger age at onset of lung carcinoma (pages 1570–1577)

      David P. Miller, Kofi Asomaning, Geoffrey Liu, John C. Wain, Thomas J. Lynch, Donna Neuberg, Li Su and David C. Christiani

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22124

      In this case–control study, the authors analyzed the effect of age as a modifying factor in the association between the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) polymorphism and lung cancer. The results indicated that the GSTP1 GG genotype was associated with increased lung cancer susceptibility among younger study participants.

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      Noninvasive imaging for evaluation of the systemic delivery of capsid-modified adenoviruses in an orthotopic model of advanced lung cancer (pages 1578–1588)

      Merja Sarkioja, Anna Kanerva, Jarmo Salo, Lotta Kangasniemi, Minna Eriksson, Mari Raki, Tuuli Ranki, Tanja Hakkarainen and Akseli Hemminki

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22209

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      Advanced generation oncolytic adenoviruses were developed and tested on lung cancer cell lines, clinical samples, and in a novel orthotopic murine model of advanced lung cancer. Good antitumor activity was seen in vitro and in vivo, noninvasive imaging allowed for the detection of individual treatment responses, and reasonable biodistribution data sets the stage for clinical translation.

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      Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung compared with other histotypes shows higher messenger RNA and protein levels for thymidylate synthase (pages 1589–1596)

      Paolo Ceppi, Marco Volante, Silvia Saviozzi, Ida Rapa, Silvia Novello, Alberto Cambieri, Marco Lo Iacono, Susanna Cappia, Mauro Papotti and Giorgio V. Scagliotti

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22208

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      The authors investigated the association between thymidylate synthase (TS) expression and histopathologic data in 56 specimens of resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The results consistently indicated higher TS expression levels in squamous cell carcinomas and high-grade carcinomas. This information may be useful for selecting which patients with NSCLC should receive treatment with TS-inhibiting agents.

    20. Neuro-Oncology
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      Gliomatosis cerebri: 20 Years of experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (pages 1597–1606)

      Gregory T. Armstrong, Peter C. Phillips, Lucy B. Rorke-Adams, Alexander R. Judkins, A. Russell Localio and Michael J. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22210

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      The outcome of pediatric patients with gliomatosis cerebri is extremely poor; however, treatment may prolong overall survival. In this study, the authors determined that age <10 years and contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging studies at diagnosis may be risk factors for shorter survival.

    21. Sarcoma
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      Treatment algorithm for locally recurrent osteosarcoma based on local disease-free interval and the presence of lung metastasis (pages 1607–1616)

      Saminathan S. Nathan, Richard Gorlick, Susan Bukata, Alex Chou, Carol D. Morris, Patrick J. Boland, Andrew G. Huvos, Paul A. Meyers and John H. Healey

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22197

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      Local recurrence in osteosarcoma is clinically distinct from metastasis, although associated with a similar reduction in survival. The prognostic factors in locally recurrent osteosarcoma were investigated and these factors were translated into a management strategy.

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      Treatment of metastatic sarcoma to the liver with bland embolization (pages 1617–1623)

      Mary A. Maluccio, Anne M. Covey, Johanna Schubert, Lynn A. Brody, Constantinos T. Sofocleous, George I. Getrajdman, Ronald DeMatteo and Karen T. Brown

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22191

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      The authors evaluated the impact of bland particle embolization on survival in patients with metastatic sarcoma to the liver. Bland embolization was efficacious in some patients, especially those with gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and radiographic evidence of response was correlated with improved survival. This regional therapy may enter the treatment algorithm for patients who have unresectable disease or disease that has failed conventional therapies.

    23. Discipline

      Epidemiology
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      How much can current interventions reduce colorectal cancer mortality in the U.S.? : Mortality projections for scenarios of risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment (pages 1624–1633)

      Iris Vogelaar, Marjolein van Ballegooijen, Deborah Schrag, Rob Boer, Sidney J. Winawer, J. Dik F. Habbema and Ann G. Zauber

      Version of Record online: 24 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22115

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      The results of this study indicated that colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality may be reduced up to 50% by the Year 2020 if currently available interventions in risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment are disseminated more widely throughout the population starting in 2006. However, without such changes, it is projected that CRC mortality will decrease by only 17% by the Year 2020.

    24. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Prevention of severe menorrhagia in oncology patients with treatment-induced thrombocytopenia by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (pages 1634–1641)

      Dror Meirow, Jaron Rabinovici, Daniela Katz, Reuven Or and Dina Ben-Yehuda

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22199

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      Female oncology patients undergoing myelosupressive therapy are at high risk of developing significant menorrhagia during prolonged severe thrombocytopenia (40%). D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone depot treatment effectively prevented severe menorrhagia in these patients, whereas progesterone administration was significantly less effective.

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