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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 December 2007

Volume 110, Issue 11

Pages 2363–2596

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Palliative whole-brain radiotherapy fractionation: Convenience versus cognition? (pages 2363–2365)

      Stephen Lutz

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23069

      Although the acute side effects of radiotherapy are influenced by total dose and length of the treatment course, the late effects on the central nervous system may be more pronounced with a larger daily fraction size. Nevertheless, palliative care physicians are calling for shorter treatment courses for their patients who will not likely live long enough to experience the consequences of those late effects.

      See also pages 000–000.

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      The times they are a-changin' (Bob Dylan, 1964) (pages 2366–2369)

      Deborah A. Bradley and Bruce G. Redman

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23053

      New targeted therapies are available for the treatment of advanced kidney cancer. The knowledge gained with these agents has resulted in a change in the approach and design of clinical research for this disease.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Computed tomography screening for lung cancer: Review of screening principles and update on current status (pages 2370–2384)

      William C. Black

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23059

      Screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) is controversial. The objectives of this article were to review the basic principles of screening, to summarize the results of previous observational and analytical studies of CT screening for lung cancer, and to describe the design of the 2 ongoing randomized controlled trials of CT screening and what may be learned from those studies in the near future.

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      Challenges in the recruitment of adolescents and young adults to cancer clinical trials (pages 2385–2393)

      Megan E. Burke, Karen Albritton and Neyssa Marina

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23060

      Over the last 25 years, cancer survival rates for adolescents and young adults have not improved at the same rate as younger children and older adults, due in part to lack of recruitment to clinical trials. This article defines the population most affected by this lack of progress, clarifies the significance of clinical trials in oncology progress, reviews the barriers to recruiting adolescents and young adults with cancer to clinical trials, and suggests steps to significantly impact clinical trial enrollment for this group.

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      Preoperative chemotherapy treatment of breast cancer—A review (pages 2394–2407)

      Aman U. Buzdar

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23083

      Despite proven benefits of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced, invasive breast cancer, no regimen is recommended as the treatment of choice. Preoperative chemotherapy regimens encompass single-agent and combination therapy and sequential treatment. For this article, the author reviewed the literature to determine which regimen was most beneficial. The results indicated that studies have yielded a wide range of response rates, and no single regimen has emerged as a clear leader. The future of preoperative therapy lies in tailoring treatment to individual patients by identifying response predictors and developing novel agents. Ultimately, this may lead to improved outcomes for women with breast cancer.

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      Emerging issues in smoking among adolescent and adult cancer survivors : A comprehensive review (pages 2408–2419)

      James L. Klosky, Vida L. Tyc, Danette M. Garces-Webb, Joanna Buscemi, Robert C. Klesges and Melissa M. Hudson

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23061

      As the number of adolescent and adult survivors of cancer increases, it is essential to identify efficacious prevention and smoking cessation programs in this high-risk group. This comprehensive review summarizes the smoking findings from the oncology literature, highlighting the tobacco research emerging from the healthy literature in application to an adolescent and adult cancer context.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Placement of radiopaque clips for tumor localization in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast conservation therapy (pages 2420–2427)

      Julia L. Oh, Giang Nguyen, Gary J. Whitman, Kelly K. Hunt, Tse-Kuan Yu, Wendy A. Woodward, Welela Tereffe, Eric A. Strom, George H. Perkins and Thomas A. Buchholz

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23068

      The placement of radiopaque clips in patients with breast cancer who were receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast-conservation therapy was associated with better local control independent of stage and other clinicopathologic findings. The authors of this study concluded that such tumor-marker clip placement should be an integral part of the multidisciplinary approach in appropriate patients.

    2. Genitourinary Disease
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      Cytoreductive nephron-sparing surgery does not appear to undermine disease-specific survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 2428–2433)

      Georg C. Hutterer, Jean-Jacques Patard, Marc Colombel, Arie S. Belldegrun, Christian Pfister, Francois Guille, Walter Artibani, Francesco Montorsi, Allan J. Pantuck and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23054

      The disease-specific survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma was compared according to the type of surgery, nephron-sparing surgery (N = 45) versus radical nephrectomy (N = 732), in unmatched and matched analyses. The data were limited in size and completeness and may indicate that renal cell carcinoma-specific survival may not be undermined if nephron-sparing surgery is performed in properly selected cases.

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      Predictors of survival from urachal cancer : A mayo clinic study of 49 cases (pages 2434–2440)

      Julian R. Molina, J. Fernando Quevedo, Alfred F. Furth, Ronald L. Richardson, Horst Zincke and Patrick A. Burch

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23070

      In this study, we analyzed clinical outcomes from 49 patients with the diagnosis of urachal cancer who were seen at the Mayo Clinic from 1950 to 2003. The overall survival for all stages was 62 months. Stage at presentation by the TNM staging system is the main predictor of outcome after surgery for urachal cancer.

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      A nomogram for predicting low-volume/low-grade prostate cancer : A tool in selecting patients for active surveillance (pages 2441–2447)

      Hiroyuki Nakanishi, Xuemei Wang, Atsushi Ochiai, Kiril Trpkov, Asli Yilmaz, J. Bryan Donnelly, John W. Davis, Patricia Troncoso and R. Joseph Babaian

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23055

      The authors established a nomogram with which to predict low-volume/low-grade prostate cancer. This nomogram had good performance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.727, and it may be used as a tool in selecting patients for active surveillance.

    5. Gynecologic Oncology
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      A phase II evaluation of goserelin and bicalutamide in patients with ovarian cancer in second or higher complete clinical disease remission (pages 2458–2466)

      Douglas Levine, Kay Park, Margrit Juretzka, Julie Esch, Martee Hensley, Carol Aghajanian, Sharyn Lewin, Jason Konner, Felicia Derosa, David Spriggs, Alexia Iasonos and Paul Sabbatini

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23072

      The use of goserelin and bicalutamide was not found to prolong the median progression-free survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in a second or greater clinical disease remission. The number of patients remaining in disease remission at given time points is reported and may serve as a clinical trial endpoint for future consolidation studies if validated in sufficient numbers of patients.

    6. Head and Neck
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      Chordoma and chondrosarcoma: Similar, but quite different, skull base tumors (pages 2467–2477)

      Kaith Almefty, Svetlana Pravdenkova, Benedicto O. Colli, Ossama Al-Mefty and Murat Gokden

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23073

      Chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base are frequently amalgamated because of similar anatomic location, clinical presentation, and radiologic findings. However, these tumors differ with regard to origin and histology, and differ markedly in outcome. Chondroid chordoma carries the same poor prognosis as chordoma. The optimal treatment for all groups involves radical resection followed by high-dose radiotherapy in patients with chordoma. Radiotherapy may not be necessary in patients with low-grade chondrosarcoma.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Medroxyprogesterone, interferon alfa-2a, interleukin 2, or combination of both cytokines in patients with metastatic renal carcinoma of intermediate prognosis : Results of a randomized controlled trial (pages 2448–2457)

      Sylvie Negrier, David Perol, Alain Ravaud, Christine Chevreau, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Remy Delva, Emmanuel Sevin, Armelle Caty and Bernard Escudier

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23056

      Subcutaneous interleukin-2 and/or interferon-alfa provide no survival benefit in metastatic renal cancers of intermediate prognosis, and they induce a significant risk of toxicity. Newly available angiogenesis inhibitors should be preferred for these patients.

    8. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Low serum albumin level is associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases treated with alemtuzumab (Campath-1H)-based therapies (pages 2478–2483)

      Gautam Borthakur, E Lin, Stefan Faderl, Alessandra Ferrajoli, William Wierda, Francis Giles, Mary L. Browning, Hagop Kantarjian, Michael Keating and Susan O'Brien

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23031

      Alemtuzumab therapy for the treatment of fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation. In this study, a low pretreatment serum albumin level predicted for symptomatic reactivation of cytomegalovirus in 113 patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders who received alemtuzumab-based therapy.

    9. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Is resection of periampullary or pancreatic adenocarcinoma with synchronous hepatic metastasis justified? (pages 2484–2492)

      Ana Luiza Gleisner, Lia Assumpcao, John L. Cameron, Christopher L. Wolfgang, Michael A. Choti, Joseph M. Herman, Richard D. Schulick and Timothy M. Pawlik

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23074

      Data from the current study demonstrated that more aggressive surgical approaches that combine resection of primary pancreatic or periampullary adenocarcinoma with hepatic resection yield similar overall survival durations compared with palliative bypass alone yet have increased morbidity, hospital stay length, and mortality.

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      Interferon-α and 5-fluorouracil combination therapy after palliative hepatic resection in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, portal venous tumor thrombus in the major trunk, and multiple nodules (pages 2493–2501)

      Hiroaki Nagano, Atsushi Miyamoto, Hiroshi Wada, Hideo Ota, Shigeru Marubashi, Yutaka Takeda, Keizo Dono, Koji Umeshita, Masato Sakon and Morito Monden

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23033

      The authors evaluated the effect of interferon (IFN)-α/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combination chemotherapy in 30 patients who underwent palliative hepatic resection for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results indicated that combination IFNα/5-FU therapy is a promising modality for patients with advanced HCC, and response to this therapy was correlated with expression of the IFN-α type 2 receptor.

    11. Lung Disease
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      A highly sensitive particle agglutination assay for the detection of P53 autoantibodies in patients with lung cancer (pages 2502–2506)

      Ashraf Agaylan, Daniel Binder, Markus Sauer, Hannes Neuweiler, Oliver Meyer, Holger Kiesewetter and Abdulgabar Salama

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23057

      The authors describe a highly sensitive and simple particle agglutination immunoassay using superparamagnetic particles for capturing p53 autoantibodies, p53 protein, and p53 protein-antibody complexes from large volumes of serum samples (2 mL). The newly developed assay was easy to perform and had sensitivity superior to that of the currently available p53 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

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      Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lung : Absence of KIT mutations (pages 2507–2510)

      Marie-Christine Aubry, Michael C. Heinrich, Julian Molina, Jean E. Lewis, Ping Yang, Stephen D. Cassivi and Christopher L. Corless

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23075

      Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the lung are rare tumors that can exhibit poor survival and for which current adjuvant therapy remains ineffective. The aim of the current study was to evaluate KIT expression and KIT-activating mutations. Although KIT expression was identified in nearly all cases, no mutation was detected in a subset of these cases.

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      The value of medical interventions for lung cancer in the elderly : Results from SEER-CMHSF (pages 2511–2518)

      Rebecca M. Woodward, Martin L. Brown, Susan T. Stewart, Kathleen A. Cronin and David M. Cutler

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23058

      Partly as a result of the typically rapid progression and lethality of lung cancer, spending to treat nonsmall cell lung cancer in the elderly has increased greatly relative to the economy but not more so than spending on other diseases,. The cost-effectiveness ratio for nonsmall cell lung cancer is higher than traditional thresholds used to define cost-effective care.

    14. Melanoma
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      Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in early cutaneous melanocytic lesion progression (pages 2519–2527)

      Janine G. Einspahr, Tracy L. Thomas, Kathylynn Saboda, Brian J. Nickolof, James Warneke, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, James Ranger-Moore, Laura Duckett, Jerry Bangert, John P. Fruehauf and David S. Alberts

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23076

      The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in melanocytic cells was low or absent in benign nevi, increased significantly in dysplastic melanocytic nevi (DN), and increased further in primary melanoma. The results from this study indicated that increased VEGF-A expression in DN may be a good indicator of preneoplastic change.

    15. Neuro-Oncology
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      Study of radiolabeled indium-111 and yttrium-90 ibritumomab tiuxetan in primary central nervous system lymphoma (pages 2528–2534)

      Fabio M. Iwamoto, Jazmin Schwartz, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, Scott Peak, Chaitanya R. Divgi, Andrew D. Zelenetz, John Humm and Lauren E. Abrey

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23077

      Three-dimensional brain dosimetry studies with indium-111 ibritumomab tiuxetan suggested the feasibility of delivering radiolabeled monoclonal anti-CD20 antibodies as a component of therapy for B-cell brain lymphomas.

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      A phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor, tipifarnib, in children with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma, medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or brainstem glioma: A children's oncology group study (pages 2535–2541)

      Maryam Fouladi, H. Stacy Nicholson, Tianni Zhou, Fred Laningham, Kathleen J. Helton, Emi Holmes, Kenneth Cohen, Rose Anne Speights, John Wright and Ian F. Pollack

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23078

      The authors conducted an open-label, Phase II study of the farnesyl transferase inhibitor tipifarnib to evaluate its safety and efficacy in children with recurrent or refractory medulloblastoma/,primitive neuroectodermal tumor, high-grade glioma, and diffuse intrinsic brainstem glioma. Tipifarnib was tolerated well in children but had little activity as a single agent in children with recurrent central nervous system malignancies.

    17. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      Decision analysis to assess the efficacy of routine sentinel lymphadenectomy in patients undergoing prophylactic mastectomy (pages 2542–2550)

      Judy C. Boughey, Janice N. Cormier, Yan Xing, Kelly K. Hunt, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Gildy V. Babiera, Merrick I. Ross, Henry M. Kuerer, Sonja E. Singletary and Isabelle Bedrosian

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23067

      The results from this study indicated that the potential benefit of routine sentinel lymph node surgery in patients undergoing prophylactic mastectomy is outweighed by the potential complications associated with this approach. Axillary lymph node dissection after a diagnosis of occult invasive carcinoma, therefore, is a more favorable lymph node staging strategy in this patient population.

    18. Disease Site

      Pathology
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      Clinical relevance of the distribution of the lesions in 500 consecutive breast cancer cases documented in large-format histologic sections (pages 2551–2560)

      Tibor Tot

      Article first published online: 11 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23052

      Breast carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases that deviate from each other not only with regard to their clinical manifestations and outcome but also in their histologic appearance. The submacroscopic morphology of breast carcinomas, the distribution of the lesions, and the extent of the disease are seldom studied. The objective of the current study was to identify breast carcinoma growth patterns indicating increased metastatic potential of the tumor and a need for more aggressive therapy.

    19. Discipline

      Pediatric Oncology
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      Biopsy or debulking surgery as initial surgery for locally advanced rhabdomyosarcomas in children? : The experience of the Italian cooperative group studies (pages 2561–2567)

      Giovanni Cecchetto, Gianni Bisogno, Federica De Corti, Patrizia Dall'Igna, Alessandro Inserra, Andrea Ferrari, Alberto Garaventa, Angela Scagnellato and Modesto Carli

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23079

      A series of patients with initially localized, unresected rhabdomyosarcoma (IRS Group III), who were undergoing diagnostic biopsy or surgical resection with macroscopic residual tumors (debulking operation [DO]) were analyzed. No significant advantages of DO versus biopsy were detected with regard to patient outcome. Biopsy, which is less aggressive, appears to be the best option for these patients.

    20. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Emotional well-being does not predict survival in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group study (pages 2568–2575)

      James C. Coyne, Thomas F. Pajak, Jonathan Harris, Andre Konski, Benjamin Movsas, Kian Ang and Deborah Watkins Bruner

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23080

      The objective of the current study was to examine whether emotional well-being predicted survival in a large sample of patients with head and neck cancer who were participating in multicenter clinical trials. No statistically significant univariate or multivariate effects were observed for emotional well-being, and there were no effects limited to subgroups.

    21. Radiation Oncology
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      Individualized estimates of second cancer risks after contemporary radiation therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2576–2586)

      David C. Hodgson, Eng-Siew Koh, Tu Huan Tran, Mostafa Heydarian, Richard Tsang, Melania Pintilie, Tony Xu, Lei Huang, Rainer K. Sachs and David J. Brenner

      Article first published online: 16 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23081

      For patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma, contemporary involved-field radiation therapy is predicted to substantially reduce risk of secondary breast and lung cancer compared with mantle radiation therapy, with substantial variation in risk among individuals. Individualized prospective risk estimates could facilitate patient-specific counseling and the development of more effective radiation therapy techniques.

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      Evaluation of 2 whole-brain radiotherapy schedules and prognostic factors for brain metastases in breast cancer patients (pages 2587–2592)

      Dirk Rades, Radka Lohynska, Theo Veninga, Lukas J. A. Stalpers and Steven E. Schild

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23082

      In 207 breast cancer patients with brain metastases, short-course (5 fractions of 4 grays [Gy] each) and long-course (10 fractions of 3 Gy each and 20 fractions of 2 Gy each) whole-brain radiotherapy were compared for survival and local control, as well as 6 additional potential prognostic factors. Karnofsky performance score, the presence of extracranial metastases, and recursive partitioning analysis class were found to be significantly associated with outcome. The radiotherapy schedule was found to have no significant impact on survival or local control. A dose of 5 fractions at 4 Gy each appears preferable because it is less time consuming and more convenient for patients.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Reply to early discontinuation of tamoxifen : A lesson for oncologists (page 2596)

      Thomas I. Barron, Roisin M. Connolly and John Feely

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23066

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