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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 July 2007

Volume 110, Issue 2

Pages 231–470

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      The adequacy of the access-to-care debate : Looking through the cancer lens (pages 231–233)

      Richard C. Wender

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22787

      The American Cancer Society is calling for a deeper understanding of the meaning of adequate health insurance coverage in our nation's debate about access to care. Ensuring that primary care, prevention, early detection, and quality care are available to all will require health care reform.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Racial disparities in blacks with gynecologic cancers (pages 234–243)

      John Farley, John I. Risinger, G. Scott Rose and G. Larry Maxwell

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22797

      Black women have a lower incidence of gynecologic cancers but they have a higher mortality associated with their disease. The etiology of the racial disparity in outcome among gynecologic cancer patients is multifactoral and site-specific.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Phase 2 randomized trial of primary endocrine therapy versus chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (pages 244–254)

      Vladimir F. Semiglazov, Vladislav V. Semiglazov, Garik A. Dashyan, Elena K. Ziltsova, Vadim G. Ivanov, Alla A. Bozhok, Olga A. Melnikova, Ruslan M. Paltuev, Alexander Kletzel and Lev M. Berstein

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22789

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      This phase 2 randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors compared with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors were well tolerated, and rates of overall objective response and breast-conserving surgery were similar in both treatment groups.

    2. Discipline

      Endocrine Disease
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      Parathyroid carcinoma, atypical parathyroid adenoma, or parathyromatosis? (pages 255–264)

      Gustavo G. Fernandez-Ranvier, Elham Khanafshar, Kristin Jensen, Rasa Zarnegar, James Lee, Electron Kebebew, Quan-Yang Duh and Orlo H. Clark

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22790

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      Most patients with parathyroid carcinoma present with profound hypercalcemia and invasive histologic features. Atypical parathyroid adenoma and parathyromatosis may have some overlapping clinical and histologic characteristics but can usually be distinguished from parathyroid carcinoma.

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      Pulmonary and extrapulmonary poorly differentiated large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Diagnostic and prognostic features (pages 265–274)

      Antongiulio Faggiano, Jean-Cristophe Sabourin, Michel Ducreux, Jean Lumbroso, Pierre Duvillard, Sophie Leboulleux, Clarisse Dromain, Annamaria Colao, Martin Schlumberger and Eric Baudin

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22791

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      The results from this study highlighted the distinctive clinical features and prognostic indicators of poorly differentiated large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Proliferative indexes, expression of neuroendocrine markers, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and tumor stage at the time of diagnosis may help to individualize subgroups of patients with different outcomes.

    4. Disease Site

      Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Correlates of screening sigmoidoscopy use among men in a large nonprofit health plan (pages 275–281)

      Reina Haque, Virginia P. Quinn, Laurel A. Habel, Shelley M. Enger, Barbara Sternfeld, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, Marianne Sadler, Vicki Chiu and Bette Caan

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22775

      Screening sigmoidoscopy use decreased with older age and increased with higher education and household income levels. Compared with whites, Asians (adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30–1.53) and African Americans (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08–1.29) were more likely to undergo screening sigmoidoscopy.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Risk assessment of renal cell carcinoma using alkaline comet assay (pages 282–288)

      Xin Lin, Christopher G. Wood, Lina Shao, Maosheng Huang, Hushan Yang, Colin P. Dinney and Xifeng Wu

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22792

      DNA damage induced by mutagens has been associated with an individual's susceptibility to cancer. The results of the current study indicate that baseline and mutagen-induced DNA damages assessed by comet assay may predict the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

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      Primary Gleason pattern does not impact survival after permanent interstitial brachytherapy for Gleason score 7 prostate cancer (pages 289–296)

      Gregory S. Merrick, Robert W. Galbreath, Wayne M. Butler, Kent E. Waller, Zachariah A. Allen, Jonathan Lief and Edward Adamovich

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22793

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      The primary Gleason pattern did not impact survival in Gleason score 7 prostate cancer. Deaths from cardiovascular/pulmonary disease and second malignancies were almost 10 times more common than death from prostate cancer.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      An apoptotic molecular network identified by microarray: On the TRAIL to new insights in epithelial ovarian cancer (pages 297–308)

      Véronique Ouellet, Cécile Le Page, Jason Madore, Marie-Claude Guyot, Véronique Barrès, Christian Lussier, Patricia N. Tonin, Diane M. Provencher and Anne-Marie Mes-Masson

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22812

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      Tissue array analyses of apoptosis-related candidates that were identified previously by microarray analysis (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand [TRAIL], caspase-8 [CASP8], FLICE-inhibitory protein [FLIP], and cytochrome [CYC] C) and other members of the pathway (DcR1, DcR1, DR4, DR5, and activated CASP3) were conducted, and all proteins, except DcR1 and DcR2, showed significantly different expression levels in grade 0 epithelial ovarian tumors (low malignant potential) compared with the expression levels in grade 2 and 3 tumors. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-related candidates was correlated with prognosis, and these results not only contribute to the understanding the disease but also may be useful clinically.

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      A prospective analysis of imatinib-induced c-kit modulation in ovarian cancer : A phase II clinical study with proteomic profiling (pages 309–317)

      Edwin M. Posadas, Virginia Kwitkowski, Herbert L. Kotz, Virginia Espina, Lori Minasian, Nana Tchabo, Ahalya Premkumar, Mahrukh M. Hussain, Richard Chang, Seth M. Steinberg and Elise C. Kohn

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22757

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      Imatinib therapy has demonstrated some activity in women with ovarian cancer, although it has been associated with fluid collection and other toxicity. Inhibition of 721Tyr c-kit and other signaling endpoints was observed in both tumor and stroma of treated patients, suggesting that imatinib may add value to other interventions for ovarian cancer.

    9. Head and Neck Disease
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      X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the risk of salivary gland carcinomas (pages 318–325)

      Tang Ho, Guojun Li, Jiachun Lu, Chong Zhao, Qingyi Wei and Erich M. Sturgis

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22794

      For this molecular epidemiologic case-control study, the authors investigated the association between 6 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the x-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 DNA repair gene XRCC1 and the risk of salivary gland carcinoma. The results revealed apparent associations between salivary gland carcinoma risk and 2 of the variant alleles: a lower risk with 1915C and higher risk with 194Trp.

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      STAT1 activation in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity : A potential predictive marker of response to adjuvant chemotherapy (pages 326–333)

      Klaus Laimer, Gilbert Spizzo, Peter Obrist, Guenther Gastl, Thomas Brunhuber, Georg Schäfer, Burghard Norer, Michael Rasse, Michael C. Haffner and Wolfgang Doppler

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22813

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      STAT1 activation status in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity was determined immunhistochemically on a tissue microarray of paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 89 patients. In the group of patients who received chemotherapy, high nuclear STAT1 staining was associated with good prognosis.

    11. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Randomized controlled trials of treatments for hematologic malignancies : Study characteristics and outcomes (pages 334–339)

      Masamitsu Yanada, Hiroto Narimatsu, Takeshi Suzuki, Keitaro Matsuo and Tomoki Naoe

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22776

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      Among randomized controlled trial (RCT) reports regarding treatments for hematologic malignancies published in English between 1995 and 2004, new treatments were shown to be superior to standard treatments in only 33% of studies. The finding that ‘negative’ studies were characterized by a lower than expected observed rate in terms of the primary endpoint in the experimental arm may indicate that giving adequate consideration to the effect of an experimental therapy could be critical when planning an RCT.

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      Novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy before allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia : No evidence for increased transplant-related toxicity (pages 340–344)

      Elias Jabbour, Jorge Cortes, Hagop Kantarjian, Sergio Giralt, Borje S. Andersson, Francis Giles, Elizabeth Shpall, Partow Kebriaei, Richard Champlin and Marcos de Lima

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22778

      Previous treatment with novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase transplant-related toxicity in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation after imatinib failure.

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      Intensive chemotherapy is not recommended for patients aged >60 years who have myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia with high-risk karyotypes (pages 345–352)

      Sabine Knipp, Barbara Hildebrand, Andrea Kündgen, Aristoteles Giagounidis, Guido Kobbe, Rainer Haas, Carlo Aul, Norbert Gattermann and Ulrich Germing

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22779

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      The authors studied 160 patients with a median age of 67 years who received intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The median survival was 9.5 months for the entire group, 18 months for patients who had a normal karyotype, 6 months for patients who had an abnormal karyotype, and 4 months for patients who had a high-risk karyotype. Elderly patients with AML or advanced MDS did not benefit from intensive chemotherapy if they had karyotype anomalies, especially those in the high-risk category.

    14. Lung Disease
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      Susceptibility to lung cancer and genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolite-related enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 3, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, and cytochrome P450 2E1 in the Japanese population (pages 353–362)

      Yuji Minegishi, Hiromasa Tsukino, Manabu Muto, Koichi Goto, Akihiko Gemma, Shoichiro Tsugane, Shoji Kudoh, Yutaka Nishiwaki and Hiroyasu Esumi

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22795

      To clarify the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes may influence susceptibility to lung cancer, the authors conducted a hospital-based case-control study and examined genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and cytochrome P450 2E1 genes. The results suggested a positive association between alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk: Drinking may increase the risk, especially among individuals with the variant ALDH2 alleles.

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      The value of combined-modality therapy in elderly patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 363–368)

      Steven E. Schild, Sumithra J. Mandrekar, Aminah Jatoi, William L. McGinnis, Phillip J. Stella, Richard L. Deming, James R. Jett, Yolanda I. Garces, Katie L. Allen, Alex A. Adjei and for the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22780

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      Elderly patients with stage IIII nonsmall cell lung cancer appeared to gain a survival advantage from radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy compared with RT alone. As is the case with younger patients, this benefit came at the cost of additional toxicity.

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      Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes by benzo[a]pyrene in lung cancer cells (pages 369–374)

      Ichiro Yoshino, Takuro Kometani, Fumihiro Shoji, Atsushi Osoegawa, Taro Ohba, Hidenori Kouso, Tomoyoshi Takenaka, Tomofumi Yohena and Yoshihiko Maehara

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22728

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      Benzo[a]pyrene-exposed lung cancer cells exhibited a dramatic increase in the expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, and most of the increased expression levels remained 8 weeks after the removal of benzo[a]pyrene from the culture. Thus, the results from this study indicated that benzo[a]pyrene appears to induce EMT in lung cancer cells and that it may drive disease progression.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Analysis of prognostic factors in ewing sarcoma family of tumors : Review of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital studies (pages 375–384)

      Carlos Rodríguez-Galindo, Tiebin Liu, Matthew J. Krasin, Jianrong Wu, Catherine A. Billups, Najat C. Daw, Sheri L. Spunt, Bhaskar N. Rao, Victor M. Santana and Fariba Navid

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22821

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      Significant advances have been made in the treatment of Ewing sarcoma; more intensive treatments and better control measures and supportive care have combined to improve the outcomes of patients with localized disease. It is important to identify clinically relevant prognostic factors that will allow for risk-adapted therapy.

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      The role of noncartilage-specific molecules in differentiation of cartilaginous tumors : Lessons from chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma (pages 385–394)

      Salvatore Romeo, Jan Oosting, Leida B. Rozeman, Liesbeth Hameetman, Antonie H. M. Taminiau, Anne Marie Cleton-Jansen, Judith V. M. G. Bovée and Pancras C. W. Hogendoorn

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22798

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      The authors addressed cartilage differentiation in bone neoplasms by comparing expression profiles of chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. They identified matrix and adhesion molecules that are crucial for neoplastic cartilage formation and promising, novel diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of chondromyxoid fibroma versus high-grade central chondrosarcoma.

    19. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      The impact of health insurance status on stage at diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancer (pages 395–402)

      Amy Y. Chen, Nicole M. Schrag, Michael T. Halpern and Elizabeth M. Ward

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22788

      In a large national sample of individuals who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer, patients who were uninsured and patients who were covered by Medicaid were significantly more likely to present with advanced overall disease stage than patients who had private health insurance.

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      Insurance status and stage of cancer at diagnosis among women with breast cancer (pages 403–411)

      Michael T. Halpern, John Bian, Elizabeth M. Ward, Nicole M. Schrag and Amy Y. Chen

      Version of Record online: 11 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22786

      In a large national sample of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer, those who were uninsured or covered by Medicaid were significantly more likely to present with advanced disease than those who had private health insurance. Black and Hispanic women also were more likely than white women to present with advanced disease.

    21. Epidemiology
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      Birth weight and risk of cancer (pages 412–419)

      Martin Ahlgren, Jan Wohlfahrt, Lina W. Olsen, Thorkild I.A. Sørensen and Mads Melbye

      Version of Record online: 30 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22773

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      In a cohort study of more than 200,000 men and women, we observed a 7% increase in cancer risk per 1000‒g increase in birth weight. Few cancers demonstrated nonlinear associations with birth weight, and testicular cancer was found to be negatively associated with birth weight.

    22. Medical Oncology
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      Generation and characterization of an ascitogenic mesothelin-expressing tumor model (pages 420–431)

      Wen-Fang Cheng, Chien-Fu Hung, Chee-Yin Chai, Chi-An Chen, Chien-Nan Lee, Yi-Ning Su, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Chang-Yao Hsieh, Ie-Ming Shih, Tian-Li Wang and T.-C. Wu

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22781

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      A suitable preclinical model of peritoneal-based tumors will assist in the illustration of the mechanisms of molecular oncogenesis and facilitate in tackling issues related to early screening, diagnosis, and therapy. A tumor model was created that will allow exploration of these clinical applications.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
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      Childhood intracranial ependymoma : Twenty-year experience from a single institution (pages 432–441)

      Hui-Kuo G. Shu, Walter F. Sall, Amit Maity, Zelig A. Tochner, Anna J. Janss, Jean B. Belasco, Lucy B. Rorke-Adams, Peter C. Phillips, Leslie N. Sutton and Michael J. Fisher

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22782

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      In the current report, the authors discuss the 20-year experience at their institution in the treatment of pediatric intracranial ependymomas. They undertook this review because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment were available. With a median follow-up of nearly 10 years, the 5-year overall survival rate was 66% in the patients who were included in the study. A radiation dose response of up to 54 grays was identified. In addition, a correlation was observed between cervical spinal cord tumor extension and failure outside of the primary tumor site. To the authors' knowledge, this surprising finding has not been previously reported. The current results support the current trend toward radiation dose escalation. In addition, patients who have cord extension may require greater vigilance to rule out the presence of craniospinal axis tumor spread.

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      Bone health in children and adolescents after allogeneic stem cell transplantation : High prevalence of vertebral compression fractures (pages 442–451)

      Mervi Taskinen, Ulla M. Saarinen-Pihkala, Liisa Hovi, Kim Vettenranta and Outi Mäkitie

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22796

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      After undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation in childhood, approximately one-third of young patients were found to have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) before reaching adulthood. This was due in part to inadequate BMD gain during the pubertal years. Instant vertebral assessment revealed a high prevalence of asymptomatic vertebral compression fractures in this group of patients.

    25. Translational Research
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      Trop-1 are conserved growth stimulatory molecules that mark early stages of tumor progression (pages 452–464)

      Paola Zanna, Marco Trerotola, Giovanna Vacca, Veronica Bonasera, Barbara Palombo, Emanuela Guerra, Cosmo Rossi, Rossano Lattanzio, Mauro Piantelli and Saverio Alberti

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22785

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      Trop-1 is [ELM1]a cell adhesion regulatory molecule that is overexpressed by a large fraction of tumors in man. Evolutionarily conserved structure, expression patterns, and function of Trop-1 were identified. The pattern of expression of Trop-1 in immature progenitor cells suggests that Trop-1 may become a novel, useful marker of stem cells in normal tissues and in cancer. Trop-1 expression was shown to be sufficient to stimulate the growth of immortalized cells and of tumors in vivo, and marks early stages of tumor progression in primary neoplastic lesions.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Author reply (page 466)

      Nehmat Houssami, Stefano Ciatto and Ian Ellis

      Version of Record online: 22 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22801

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      Author reply (page 468)

      Nicholas Bruchovsky, Laurence Klotz and Juanita Crook

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22803

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      Author reply (page 470)

      Reshma Jagsi and Lori J. Pierce

      Version of Record online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22805

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