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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 August 2007

Volume 110, Issue 3

Pages 471–702

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
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      Exogenous hormone use and meningioma risk : What do we tell our patients? (pages 471–476)

      Elizabeth B. Claus, Peter M. Black, Melissa L. Bondy, Lisa Calvocoressi, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Joseph L. Wiemels and Margaret Wrensch

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22783

      The decision to commence or continue use of hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives in women presumed or known to be diagnosed with intracranial meningioma is a common clinical question in neurosurgery. At present, there is no statistical evidence of an increased risk of meningioma among users of oral contraceptives. Although not definitive, available data suggest an association between the use of hormone replacement therapy and increased meningioma risk.

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      Expression and function of erythropoietin receptors in tumors : Implications for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in cancer patients (pages 477–488)

      Angus M. Sinclair, Marque D. Todd, Kevin Forsythe, Susan J. Knox, Steve Elliott and C. Glenn Begley

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22832

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      Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to promote tumor growth in anemic cancer patients through stimulation of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). For this report, the authors reviewed the biology and the conflicting data surrounding the expression and potential function of EpoR in tumor progression.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer (pages 489–498)

      Louis P. Garrison Jr, Deborah Lubeck, Deepa Lalla, Virginia Paton, Amylou Dueck and Edith A. Perez

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22806

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      Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. This cost-utility analysis estimates that adjuvant trastuzumab costs $26,417 per quality-adjusted life year gained, from a lifetime, payer perspective, a result that is robust to sensitivity analysis and achieves a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments.

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      Cost-effectiveness of switching to exemestane versus continued tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with primary breast cancer (pages 499–508)

      Nancy A. Risebrough, Shailendra Verma, Maureen Trudeau and Nicole Mittmann

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22824

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      A Markov model based on the Intergroup Exemestane Study demonstrated that, compared with continued tamoxifen, sequential therapy with tamoxifen and exemestane improved disease-free survival, life-years (LY) gained, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) gained, at an additional cost of Can$2889 per person over 7.5 years. With incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of Can$28,119/LY gained and Can$24,185/QALY, switching to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy appears to be a cost-effective treatment of primary breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

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      Serum EGFR and serum HER-2/neu are useful predictive and prognostic markers in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with metronomic chemotherapy (pages 509–517)

      Maria Teresa Sandri, Harriet Ann Johansson, Laura Zorzino, Michela Salvatici, Rita Passerini, Patrick Maisonneuve, Andrea Rocca, Giulia Peruzzotti and Marco Colleoni

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22825

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      Serum HER-2/neu and EGFR may represent useful markers for early prediction of probability of response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with advanced breast cancer treated with metronomic chemotherapy.

    4. Endocrine Disease
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      Linked claims and medical records for cancer case management : Evaluation of mammography abnormalities (pages 518–524)

      Margaret M. Eberl, Nancy Watroba, Marc Reinhardt, Jay Pomerantz, Joseph Serghany, Gregory Broffman, Chester H. Fox, Martin C. Mahoney and Stephen B. Edge

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22808

      Administrative claims supplemented with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS®) data accurately identify the follow-up care of patients with abnormal mammograms. Case management using this method may assist physicians in ensuring that all patients receive appropriate care.

    5. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Gemcitabine-based combinations for inoperable pancreatic cancer: Have we made real progress? : A meta-analysis of 20 phase 3 trials (pages 525–533)

      Emilio Bria, Michele Milella, Alain Gelibter, Federica Cuppone, Maria Simona Pino, Enzo Maria Ruggeri, Paolo Carlini, Cecilia Nisticò, Edmondo Terzoli, Francesco Cognetti and Diana Giannarelli

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22809

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      The addition of a second drug to gemcitabine for the first-line treatment of advanced, inoperable pancreatic adenocarcinoma did not improve overall survival compared with single-agent gemcitabine. However, platinum-containing combination regimens appeared to improve the overall response rate and progression-free survival and, thus, may be considered for selected patients.

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      Elevated circulating endothelial progenitor marker CD133 messenger RNA levels predict colon cancer recurrence (pages 534–542)

      Edward H. Lin, Manal Hassan, Yanan Li, Hua Zhao, Ajay Nooka, Elizabeth Sorenson, Keping Xie, Richard Champlin, Xifeng Wu and Donghui Li

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22774

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      The authors examined whether increased levels of expression of CD133 messenger RNA (mRNA) in peripheral blood predicted disease recurrence in patients with colon cancer. The results indicated that elevated CD133 mRNA levels ≥4.79 predicted for colon cancer recurrence.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Clinical factors associated with outcome in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy (pages 543–550)

      Toni K. Choueiri, Jorge A. Garcia, Paul Elson, Mohamad Khasawneh, Saif Usman, Ali Reza Golshayan, Rachid C. Baz, Laura Wood, Brian I. Rini and Ronald M. Bukowski

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22827

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      Clinical features that were associated with outcome were identified in 120 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who received treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Time from diagnosis to current treatment, baseline platelet and neutrophil counts, baseline corrected serum calcium level, and initial Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were found to be independent, adverse prognostic factors for progression-free survival. These prognostic factors may be incorporated into patient care and clinical trials that use such novel, VEGF-targeted agents.

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      Long-term outcomes after treatment with brachytherapy and supplemental conformal radiation for prostate cancer patients having intermediate and high-risk features (pages 551–555)

      Michael Dattoli, Kent Wallner, Lawrence True, Jennifer Cash and Richard Sorace

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22810

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      A total of 282 consecutive patients with prostate cancer, each with at least 1 higher risk feature for extracapsular cancer extension, were treated with beam radiation and palladium-103 brachytherapy and followed for up to 14 years (median, 9.5). Despite the high risk of extracapsular extension, overall actuarial freedom from biochemical failure was impressive at 81%, including 87% and 72% for intermediate and high-risk disease, respectively (National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines), using ASTRO Consensus Definition, nadir +2, and prostate-specific antigen >0.2 ng/mL at last follow-up.

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      Activity of second-line chemotherapy in docetaxel-refractory hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients : Randomized phase 2 study of ixabepilone or mitoxantrone and prednisone (pages 556–563)

      Jonathan E. Rosenberg, Vivian K. Weinberg, W. Kevin Kelly, Dror Michaelson, Maha H. Hussain, George Wilding, Mitchell Gross, Douglass Hutcheon and Eric J. Small

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22811

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      This randomized, noncomparative, multicenter, clinical trial evaluated ixabepilone or mitoxantrone/prednisone (MP) as second-line chemotherapy for taxane-refractory, hormone-refractory, prostate cancer (HRPC). Ixabepilone and MP had modest activity as second-line chemotherapy for docetaxel-refractory HRPC. The median survival for the entire cohort treated in this study was 9.8 months.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity : Differences between pT4 N0 and other stage IVA categories (pages 564–571)

      Chun-Ta Liao, Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang, Hung-Ming Wang, Shu-Hang Ng, Chuen Hsueh, Li-Yu Lee, Chih-Hung Lin, I-How Chen, Shiang-Fu Huang, Ann-Joy Cheng and Tzu-Chen Yen

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22814

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      In patients with stage IVA (AJCC staging system, 1997) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the survival rates for pT4 N0 are better than those for T4 N1/TAny N2, and similar to those of patients with pstage III.

    11. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Recent trends of gallbladder cancer in Japan : An analysis of 4770 patients (pages 572–580)

      Masato Kayahara and Takukazu Nagakawa

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22815

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      The results from this 10-year study indicated that outcomes among patients with gallbladder cancer were affected by patient age and sex. No substantial differences in patient survival were observed over the 10 years of the study. The data did not support any advantage for aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

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      Phase 2 study of cetuximab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 581–589)

      Andrew X. Zhu, Keith Stuart, Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, Alona Muzikansky, Donald P. Reitberg, Jeffrey W. Clark, Peter C. Enzinger, Pankaj Bhargava, Jeffrey A. Meyerhardt, Kerry Horgan, Charles S. Fuchs and David P. Ryan

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22829

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      A phase 2 study demonstrated that although cetuximab could be safely administered with tolerable toxicity profiles, it showed no antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cetuximab trough concentrations were not notably altered in patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction.

    13. Lung Disease
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      Effects of presurgical exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness among patients undergoing thoracic surgery for malignant lung lesions (pages 590–598)

      Lee W. Jones, Carolyn J. Peddle, Neil D. Eves, Mark J. Haykowsky, Kerry S. Courneya, John R. Mackey, Anil A. Joy, Vikaash Kumar, Timothy W. Winton and Tony Reiman

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22830

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      Preoperative exercise training is a beneficial intervention to improve cardiorespiratory fitness in patients undergoing pulmonary resection. This benefit may have important implications for surgical outcome and postsurgical recovery in this population. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted.

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      Phase 1 trial of everolimus and gefitinib in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (pages 599–605)

      Daniel T. Milton, Gregory J. Riely, Christopher G. Azzoli, Jorge E. Gomez, Robert T. Heelan, Mark G. Kris, Lee M. Krug, William Pao, Barbara Pizzo, Naiyer A. Rizvi and Vincent A. Miller

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22816

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      A phase 1 study was performed to determine a safe dose of everolimus (RAD001) combined with gefitinib in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Treatment-related toxicity was acceptable and encouraging activity leads the authors to recommend the combination of everolimus 5 mg and gefitinib 250 mg, each administered daily, for further study.

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      Irinotecan and cisplatin with concurrent split-course radiotherapy in locally advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer : A multiinstitutional phase 2 study (pages 606–613)

      Minoru Fukuda, Hiroshi Soda, Masaaki Fukuda, Akitoshi Kinoshita, Yoichi Nakamura, Seiji Nagashima, Hiroshi Takatani, Kazuhiro Tsukamoto, Shigeru Kohno and Mikio Oka

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22817

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      Patients received irinotecan 60 mg/m2 intravenously on Days 1, 8, and 15, and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 intravenously on Day 1 in the first group. The doses were reduced to 50 and 60 mg/m2 in the second group, respectively. Two cycles of chemotherapy were repeated every 4 weeks. Thoracic radiotherapy of 2 Gy/day commenced on Day 2 of each chemotherapy cycle, with 28 and 32 Gy administered in the first and second cycles, respectively. Fifty patients were eligible and 48 patients were assessable for response, toxicity, and survival. The overall response was 83%. The median overall survival time and the 2- and 5-year survival rates were 20.1 months, 47.1%, and 17.1%, respectively. This combined modality is active and further investigations are warranted at the second group dose level.

    16. Melanoma
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      Melanoma in the young: Differences and similarities with adult melanoma : A case-matched controlled analysis (pages 614–624)

      Daan P. Livestro, Emily M. Kaine, James S. Michaelson, Martin C. Mihm, Frank G. Haluska, Alona Muzikansky, Arthur J. Sober and Kenneth K. Tanabe

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22818

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      This comparison of melanoma in children with melanoma in adult control patients who were matched for primary tumor thickness revealed important differences and similarities in tumor biology. Lymph node metastases were more prevalent in young patients with melanoma compared with the adult (thickness-matched) control patients; however, the 5- and 10-year survival rates were similar.

    17. Neuro-Oncology
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      National inpatient complications and outcomes after surgery for spinal metastasis from 1993–2002 (pages 625–630)

      Chirag G. Patil, Shivanand P. Lad, Justin Santarelli and Maxwell Boakye

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22819

      Using the National Inpatient Sample from 1993 through 2002, 26,233 admissions for surgically managed spinal metastasis with a complication rate of 21.9% and mortality rate of 5.6% were identified. Multivariate analysis showed that comorbidities and complications have a strong impact on mortality and discharge disposition.

    18. Discipline

      Psychosocial Oncology
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      Unmet psychosocial needs of Pennsylvanians with cancer: 1986–2005 (pages 631–639)

      Frances K. Barg, Peter F. Cronholm, Joseph B. Straton, Shimrit Keddem, Kathryn Knott, Joyce Grater, Peter Houts and Steven C. Palmer

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22820

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      Unmet psychosocial need has not diminished in the past 20 years despite numerous advances in the understanding of psychosocial aspects and the provision of resources for people with cancer. Younger cancer patients with comorbid conditions are most likely to experience significant amounts of unmet need during and after the treatment period.

    19. Disease Site

      Skin
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      p63 expression as a new prognostic marker in Merkel cell carcinoma (pages 640–647)

      Sofia Asioli, Alberto Righi, Marco Volante, Vincenzo Eusebi and Gianni Bussolati

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22828

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      This study deals with the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 47 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). The study data indicate that p63 expression in patients with MCC is associated with a worse prognosis and represents a new independent marker of clinical evolution.

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      Docetaxel: A therapeutic option in the treatment of cutaneous angiosarcoma : Report of 9 patients (pages 648–651)

      Tohru Nagano, Yozo Yamada, Tetsuya Ikeda, Haruhisa Kanki, Tsuneyoshi Kamo and Chikako Nishigori

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22822

      Effective treatment options are limited for patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS). The objective of the current study was to determine whether docetaxel was effective in the treatment of patients with cutaneous AS that was resistant to conventional therapy. The results indicated that weekly docetaxel was safe and effective for the treatment of these patients.

    21. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      The usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) and a comparison of 18F-FDG-pet with 67gallium scintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphoma : Relation to histologic subtypes based on the World Health Organization classification (pages 652–659)

      Norifumi Tsukamoto, Masaru Kojima, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Noboru Oriuchi, Takafumi Matsushima, Akihiko Yokohama, Takayuki Saitoh, Hiroshi Handa, Keigo Endo and Hirokazu Murakami

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22807

      18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) was useful for the detection of disease sites in patients who all histologic types of lymphoma, including indolent lymphomas, with the exceptions of small lymphocytic and splenic marginal zone lymphomas. Compared with gallium-67 scintigraphy, 18F-FDG-PET was useful primarily in the detection of follicular lymphoma, mantel cell lymphoma, and the nasal type of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    22. Cancer Disparities
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      Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in association with survival in a large population-based cohort of elderly patients with colon cancer (pages 660–669)

      Xianglin L. Du, Shenying Fang, Sally W. Vernon, Hashem El-Serag, Y. Tina Shih, Jessica Davila and Monica L. Rasmus

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22826

      Lower socioeconomic status and lack of definitive treatment were associated strongly with decreased survival in both men and women with colon cancer. Racial disparities in survival were explained substantially by differences in socioeconomic status.

    23. Medical Oncology
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      Updated efficacy and toxicity analysis of irinotecan and oxaliplatin (IROX) : Intergroup trial N9741 in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (pages 670–677)

      Amanda C. Ashley, Daniel J. Sargent, Steven R. Alberts, Axel Grothey, Megan E. Campbell, Roscoe F. Morton, Charles S. Fuchs, Ramesh K. Ramanathan, Stephen K. Williamson, Brian P. Findlay, Henry C. Pitot and Richard M. Goldberg

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22831

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      The authors examined the efficacy and toxicity of oxaliplatin combined with irinotecan (IROX) from Intergroup Study N9741. IROX is less active than oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX) but with a similar toxicity profile except in patients >70 years.

    24. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Costs of uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting among working-age cancer patients receiving highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (pages 678–685)

      Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Ying Xu and Linda S. Elting

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22823

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      The study used proprietary claims data from 1997 to 2002 to estimate costs associated with uncontrolled chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) among working-age cancer patients treated with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The results indicated that despite a prevalent use of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, uncontrolled CINV remained a common and costly problem for these patients.

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      Health-related quality of life among patients cured by surgery for esophageal cancer (pages 686–693)

      Pernilla Lagergren, Kerry N. L. Avery, Rachael Hughes, C. Paul Barham, Derek Alderson, Stephen J. Falk and Jane M. Blazeby

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22833

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      Patients who survived for ≥3 years after they underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer reported significantly poorer physical function and significantly more breathlessness, diarrhea, and reflux than they reported before treatment.

    26. Translational Research
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      Telomere length in peripheral blood cells of germline TP53 mutation carriers is shorter than that of normal individuals of corresponding age (pages 694–702)

      Marie Trkova, Kamila Prochazkova, Vera Krutilkova, David Sumerauer and Zdenek Sedlacek

      Article first published online: 13 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22834

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      Telomere length was analyzed in 20 carriers of germline TP53 mutations and 83 healthy individuals by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Statistically significant telomere shortening was observed in mutation carriers, providing a possible link between p53, telomeres, predisposition to early onset cancer, and anticipation in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

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