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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 August 2007

Volume 110, Issue 4

Pages 703–937

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Diagnosis delays in childhood cancer : A review (pages 703–713)

      Tam Dang-Tan and Eduardo L. Franco

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22849

      This review examined 23 studies, published before April 15, 2007, on delays in diagnosis of childhood cancers and found that diagnosis delay varied across studies. The main factors related to diagnosis delay were child age, parent education, cancer type, symptoms, tumor site, cancer stage, and first medical specialty consulted.

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      Primary optic nerve sheath meningioma : Stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy as an emerging treatment of choice (pages 714–722)

      Branislav Jeremic and Susanne Pitz

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22859

      Stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy (SFRT) is capable of achieving excellent local tumor control, with improved/stable functional capacity in >80%, accompanied with very low toxicity in meticulously planned RT in the majority of patients with progressive functional loss and probably the vast majority of those with some degree of functional loss at presentation. Those blind at presentation benefit from postoperative RT, whereas those with only minimal functional loss at presentation must be carefully selected for the best treatment, because a wait-and-see policy will inevitably lead to serious dysfunction or even blindness.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Low locoregional failure rates in selected breast cancer patients with tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes who do not undergo completion axillary dissection (pages 723–730)

      Rosa F. Hwang, Ana M. Gonzalez-Angulo, Min Yi, Thomas A. Buchholz, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Henry M. Kuerer, Gildy V. Babiera, Welela Tereffe, Diane D. Liu and Kelly K. Hunt

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22847

      In selected patients with breast cancer who had a positive sentinel lymph node, the locoregional failure rate was low if they did not undergo completion axillary lymph node dissection. Prospective studies will be valuable to corroborate these results and to further refine the optimal selection criteria for this approach.

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      Metastases to the breast from nonbreast solid neoplasms : Presentation and determinants of survival (pages 731–737)

      Stephanie A. Williams, Richard A. Ehlers II, Kelly K. Hunt, Min Yi, Henry M. Kuerer, S. Eva Singletary, Merrick I. Ross, Barry W. Feig, W. Fraser Symmans and Funda Meric-Bernstam

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22835

      Patients with metastasis to the breast from other solid tumors have a poor prognosis overall, with a poorer prognosis associated with presence of other sites of disease, nonneuroendocrine histology, and lack of local therapy. Local therapy should be tailored to each individual; further work is needed to confirm whether in selected patients, surgical resection of metastasis to the breast may confer a survival advantage.

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Validation of the 6th edition AJCC pancreatic cancer staging system : Report from the National Cancer Database (pages 738–744)

      Karl Y. Bilimoria, David J. Bentrem, Clifford Y. Ko, Jamie Ritchey, Andrew K. Stewart, David P. Winchester and Mark S. Talamonti

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22852

      In anticipation of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual 7th Edition's publication, the authors aimed to evaluate the predictive ability and accuracy of the AJCC 6th edition staging system, to compare the 5th and 6th edition staging systems, and to discern the relative contributions of T, N, and M classifications to the overall predictive ability of the pancreatic cancer staging system.

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      The impact of total retrieved lymph nodes on staging and survival of patients with pT3 gastric cancer (pages 745–751)

      Jia Yun Shen, Sungsoo Kim, Jae-Ho Cheong, Yong Il Kim, Woo Jin Hyung, Won Hyuk Choi, Seung Ho Choi, Lin Bo Wang and Sung Hoon Noh

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22837

      In this study, the authors determined that increasing the number of total retrieved lymph nodes may improve the accuracy of lymph node staging in patients with pT3N0 gastric cancer and the accuracy of predicting prognosis for patients with pT3N2 and pT3N3 disease. The current results indicated that a thorough lymph node dissection is mandatory in all serosa-positive patients who have gastric cancer.

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      First clinical experience of orally active epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor combined with simplified FOLFOX6 as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (pages 752–758)

      Maria Giulia Zampino, Elena Magni, Cristian Massacesi, Alberto Zaniboni, Angelo Martignetti, Laura Zorzino, Katia Lorizzo, Luigi Santoro, Sabrina Boselli and Filippo de Braud

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22851

      A phase 2 trial of gefitinib (inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor) plus chemotherapy was conducted in 56 patients with untreated metastatic receptor-positive colorectal cancer. The combination has promising efficacy and manageable toxicity as a first-line treatment.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Phase 2 trial of epothilone B analog BMS-247550 (ixabepilone) in advanced carcinoma of the urothelium (E3800) : A trial of the eastern cooperative oncology group (pages 759–763)

      Robert Dreicer, Shuli Li, Judith Manola, Naomi B. Haas, Bruce J. Roth and George Wilding

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22839

      BMS-247550 (ixabepilone) as salvage therapy for advanced cancer has very modest activity with moderate toxicity. The utility of this agent in advanced urothelial cancer is undefined.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Outcome and patterns of recurrence of nonbilharzial pure squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder : A contemporary review of The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience (pages 764–769)

      Wassim Kassouf, Philippe E. Spiess, Arlene Siefker-Radtke, David Swanson, H. Barton Grossman, Ashish M. Kamat, Mark F. Munsell, Charles C. Guo, Bogdan A. Czerniak and Colin P. Dinney

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22853

      In select patients with resectable disease, radical cystectomy remains the mainstay of therapy for pure squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. Locoregional recurrence is the primary cause of death in the majority of patients.

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      Phase II trial of carboplatin, gemcitabine, and capecitabine in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (pages 770–775)

      Bryan J. Schneider, Basil El-Rayes, Jeffery H. Muler, Philip A. Philip, Gregory P. Kalemkerian, Kent A. Griffith and Mark M. Zalupski

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22857

      Patients with metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site were treated with carboplatin, gemcitabine, and capecitabine. Responses were achieved in 40% of patients, and treatment was well tolerated.

    9. Disease Site

      Genitourinary Disease
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      Differential expression of caveolin-1 in renal neoplasms (pages 776–782)

      Ila Tamaskar, Toni K. Choueiri, Linda Sercia, Brian Rini, Ronald Bukowski and Ming Zhou

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22838

      Caveolin-1 expression had 2 distinctive patterns in renal neoplasms: membranous and cytoplasmic. The results from this analysis in various subtypes of renal neoplasms indicated that caveolin-1 expression has potential both as a diagnostic marker in the differential diagnosis of renal tumors and as a therapeutic target, especially for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.

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      Ki-67 and coagulative tumor necrosis are independent predictors of poor outcome for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma and not surrogates for each other (pages 783–790)

      Matthew K. Tollefson, R. Houston Thompson, Yuri Sheinin, Christine M. Lohse, John C. Cheville, Bradley C. Leibovich and Eugene D. Kwon

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22840

      Prognostic information conveyed by Ki-67 and coagulative tumor necrosis are not interchangeable. Thus, Ki-67 and coagulative tumor necrosis should not be treated as surrogates for one another and both of these features should be evaluated when generating outcome predictions for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    11. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Inhibitory effect of meloxicam, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand, on the growth of human ovarian cancers (pages 791–800)

      Bing Xin, Yoshihito Yokoyama, Tatsuhiko Shigeto, Masayuki Futagami and Hideki Mizunuma

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22854

      Meloxicam and ciglitazone produce antitumor effects against ovarian cancer in conjunction with reduction of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis via prostaglandin E2 reduction. Their inhibitory effects on the growth of tumors suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Efficacy and safety of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and complete or near-complete cytogenetic response to interferon-α (pages 801–808)

      Susan Branford, Timothy Hughes, Alvin Milner, Rachel Koelmeyer, Anthony Schwarer, Chris Arthur, Robin Filshie, Susan Moreton, Kevin Lynch and Kerry Taylor

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22842

      Switching interferon-α-responsive patients with chronic myeloid leukemia to imatinib treatment (400 mg/day) appears to lead to a rapid improvement in achieving a major molecular response, a response with established prognostic value, and is well tolerated. The results of the current study should help patients with a good response to interferon-α and their physicians make evidence-based decisions regarding the potential benefits and risks of switching to imatinib.

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      Meta–analyses of the association between Chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphoma and the response of ocular adnexal lymphoma to antibiotics (pages 809–815)

      Amina Husain, Dianna Roberts, Barbara Pro, Peter McLaughlin and Bita Esmaeli

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22843

      The authors conducted 2 meta‒analyses using 14 previously published studies. One analysis concerned the association between Chlamydia psittaci (Cps) and ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) and the other was of responses of OAL to antibiotic treatment. The study findings suggest a striking variability in the association between Cps and OAL across geographic regions and even between studies from the same geographic regions. The overall rate of Cps positivity in our meta‒analysis (22%) was much lower than that reported previously. The findings of the current study also suggest that antibiotics have low efficacy against OAL.

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      Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the tonsil : Is a higher radiotherapy dose required? (pages 816–823)

      Siddhartha Laskar, Gaurav Bahl, Mary Ann Muckaden, Reena Nair, Sudeep Gupta, Ashish Bakshi, Sumeet Gujral, Tanuja Shet, Shyam Kishore Shrivastava and Ketayun Ardeshir Dinshaw

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22841

      The article is a review of 121 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the tonsil treated at a single institution. A combined modality treatment, comprised of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (with a dose of ≥45 Gy), resulted in satisfactory outcome in patients with this uncommon neoplasm.

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      Time to first disease progression, but not β2-microglobulin, predicts outcome in myeloma patients who receive thalidomide as salvage therapy (pages 824–829)

      Antonio Palumbo, Sara Bringhen, Patrizia Falco, Federica Cavallo, Maria Teresa Ambrosini, Ilaria Avonto, Francesca Gay, Tommaso Caravita, Benedetto Bruno and Mario Boccadoro

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22855

      Several baseline parameters were evaluated to determine their value in predicting the outcome of patients with recurrent or refractory myeloma who are treated with thalidomide and dexamethasone. A time to first disease progression longer than 12 months was found to be the best predictor of prolonged survival, whereas elevated β-microglobulin levels did not appear to affect outcome.

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      Serum Aspergillus galactomannan antigen values strongly correlate with outcome of invasive aspergillosis : A study of 56 patients with hematologic cancer (pages 830–834)

      Gail Woods, Marisa H. Miceli, Monica L. Grazziutti, Weizhi Zhao, Bart Barlogie and Elias Anaissie

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22863

      Using a statistical test of correlation, a strong correlation was demonstrated between serum Aspergillus galactomannan values and survival outcome among 56 patients with hematologic cancer and invasive aspergillosis.

    17. Lung Disease
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      A study of the volatile organic compounds exhaled by lung cancer cells in vitro for breath diagnosis (pages 835–844)

      Xing Chen, Fengjuan Xu, Yue Wang, Yuefeng Pan, Deji Lu, Ping Wang, Kejing Ying, Enguo Chen and Weimin Zhang

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22844

      In this article, an innovative pathologic analysis method for lung cancer and the early diagnosis of lung cancer at the cellular level were introduced. Solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography is used as the detection system to determine the volatile organic compounds that exist in the culture medium of several target cells, including different kinds of lung cancer cells, bronchial epithelial cells, tastebud cells, osteogenic cells, and lipocytes.

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      Prognostic value of circulating chromogranin A and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 845–853)

      Vanesa Gregorc, Anna Spreafico, Irene Floriani, Barbara Colombo, Vienna Ludovini, Lorenza Pistola, Guido Bellezza, Maria Grazia Viganò, Eugenio Villa and Angelo Corti

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22856

      The results show that chromogranin A, a protein secreted by many neuroendocrine cells, is an independent indicator of poor prognosis in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Increased serum levels are independent from protein expression in tumor tissue and more likely related to neuroendocrine response associated with worsening of patient condition.

    19. Neuro-Oncology
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      The efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery for pituitary adenomas : Long-term results of 125 consecutive patients treated in a single institution (pages 854–860)

      Doo-Sik Kong, Jung-Il Lee, Do Hoon Lim, Kwang Won Kim, Hyung Jin Shin, Do-Hyun Nam, Kwan Park and Jong Hyun Kim

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22860

      The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to define the efficacy and safety of fractionated radiotherapy (FRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the treatment of patients with pituitary adenomas. The findings indicated that single-dose SRS results in more prompt normalization of hormone secretion and may be recommended over FRT for suitable patients.

    20. Sarcoma
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      Bendamustine hydrochloride in patients with refractory soft tissue sarcoma : A noncomparative multicenter phase 2 study of the German sarcoma group (AIO-001) (pages 861–866)

      Joerg T. Hartmann, Frank Mayer, Jan Schleicher, Marius Horger, Jens Huober, Ines Meisinger, Jan Pintoffl, Gabriele Käfer, Lothar Kanz and Viktor Grünwald

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22846

      Bendamustine hydrochloride, a bifunctional alkylating agent that is not cross-resistant to other DNA-interacting substances, including anthracyclines and oxazaphosphorines, was investigated in patients with refractory sarcomas. The safety profile was favorable and a 3-month progression-free survival rate of 35% was noted.

    21. Skin
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      Genetic polymorphisms in DNA base-excision repair genes ADPRT, XRCC1, and APE1 and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 867–875)

      Chunying Li, Zhibin Hu, Jiachun Lu, Zhensheng Liu, Li-E Wang, Adel K. El-Naggar, Erich M. Sturgis, Margaret R. Spitz and Qingyi Wei

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22861

      The authors hypothesized that common, nonsynonymous, single-nucleotide polymorphisms of selected DNA base-excision repair genes (adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase gene [ADPRT], x-ray repair cross-complementing 1, and apurinic/apyimidinic endonuclease) may contribute to the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), and they tested this hypothesis in a hospital-based study of 830 patients with incident SCCHN and 854 cancer-free control participants who were frequency-matched by age, sex, and ethnicity. They also explored possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in the study population. The results indicated that individuals who had the adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase gene ADPRT alanine 762 valine (Ala762Ala) andAla/Ala+Val/Ala genotypes were at lower risk of developing SCCHN compared with individualswho had the ADPRT Val/Val genotype.

    22. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      Differences in breast carcinoma characteristics in newly diagnosed African–American and Caucasian patients : A single-institution compilation compared with the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and end results database (pages 876–884)

      Gloria J. Morris, Sashi Naidu, Allan K. Topham, Fran Guiles, Yihuan Xu, Peter McCue, Gordon F. Schwartz, Pauline K. Park, Anne L. Rosenberg, Kristin Brill and Edith P. Mitchell

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22836

      Using their tumor registry, the authors found that African–American patients with breast cancer present with more aggressive features compared with Caucasian patients by virtue of higher stage of disease, tumor grade, and more estrogen receptor negativity, a finding that parallels data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. In addition, African–American patients appear to have a higher Ki-67 proliferation index and p53 expression than their Caucasian counterparts, which may explain the disparate behavior of their disease.

    23. Diagnostic Imaging
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      Cost effectiveness of mammography screening for Chinese women (pages 885–895)

      Irene O. L. Wong, Karen M. Kuntz, Benjamin J. Cowling, Cindy L. K. Lam and Gabriel M. Leung

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22848

      The authors developed a decision analytic model to estimate the cost effectiveness of mass biennial mammography screening in Hong Kong Chinese women, who have lower breast cancer incidence compared with women in the West, with the objective of informing evidence-based screening policies in China and East Asia. The findings indicated a much higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio than that in the West, as reported previously, and screening women ages 40 years to 69 years was the least costly, nondominated option.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 116, Issue 2, 540, Article first published online: 20 NOV 2009

    24. Epidemiology
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      Epidemiology of multiple myeloma in Taiwan : Increasing incidence for the past 25 years and higher prevalence of extramedullary myeloma in patients younger than 55 years (pages 896–905)

      Shang-Yi Huang, Ming Yao, Jih-Luh Tang, Wen-Chung Lee, Woei Tsay, Ann-Li Cheng, Chiu-Hwa Wang, Yao-Chang Chen, Ming-Ching Shen and Hwei-Fang Tien

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22850

      In Taiwan, incidence of multiple myeloma has dramatically increased in recent years and is associated with a birth-cohort effect. Higher prevalence of extramedullary myeloma in patients younger than 55 years is noteworthy.

    25. Medical Oncology
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      Prostate cancer laterality as a rationale of focal ablative therapy for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer (pages 906–910)

      Vladimir Mouraviev, Janice M. Mayes, Leon Sun, John F. Madden, Judd W. Moul and Thomas J. Polascik

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22858

      This study suggests that 1 in 5 men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) have small volume, completely unilateral cancers that may be amenable to hemiablation of the prostate. Hemiablation may preserve the patient's quality of life without decreasing PCa therapeutic efficacy.

    26. Radiation Oncology
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      The risk of death from heart disease in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer who receive postoperative radiotherapy : Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (pages 911–917)

      Brian E. Lally, Frank C. Detterbeck, Ann M. Geiger, Charles R. Thomas Jr., Mitchell Machtay, Antonius A. Miller, Lynn D. Wilson, Timothy E. Oaks, W. Jeffrey Petty, Mike E. Robbins and A. William Blackstock

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22845

      The authors investigated whether the mortality from heart disease, a manifestation of intercurrent disease after postoperative radiotherapy (PORT), has decreased over time for patients with nonsmall cell cancer (NSCLC). The results demonstrated that the risk of heart disease mortality associated with PORT has declined in more recent years. The authors suggest that this is secondary to improvements in the treatment planning and delivery of thoracic radiotherapy.

    27. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Effects of supervised exercise training on cardiopulmonary function and fatigue in breast cancer survivors during and after treatment (pages 918–925)

      Carole M. Schneider, City C. Hsieh, Lisa K. Sprod, Susan D. Carter and Reid Hayward

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22862

      Moderate intensity, individualized, prescriptive exercise interventions maintain or improve cardiovascular and pulmonary function with concomitant reductions in fatigue in breast cancer survivors during and after cancer treatment. However, it is critical that exercise be individualized to the specific needs of the cancer survivor to prevent exacerbation of the physiological toxicities and psychological stress that occur as a result of cancer treatments.

    28. Translational Research
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      Patient survival by Hsp70 membrane phenotype : Association with different routes of metastasis (pages 926–935)

      Karin Pfister, Jürgen Radons, Raymonde Busch, James G. Tidball, Michael Pfeifer, Lutz Freitag, Horst-Jürgen Feldmann, Valeria Milani, Rolf Issels and Gabriele Multhoff

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22864

      Membrane-bound heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70) acts as a positive or negative prognostic marker in different tumor entities. These findings could be explained by their different routes of metastasis. Colon and gastric carcinoma but not squamous cell and lower rectal carcinoma metastasize to the liver and, thus, might improve overall survival. It is hypothesized that liver-residing natural killer cells provide an “immunological filter” for Hsp70 membrane-positive tumor cells coming from the spanchnic system.

  3. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    4. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 936)

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22925

    2. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 937)

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22926

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