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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 September 2007

Volume 110, Issue 6

Pages 1173–1403

  1. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
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      Association between megestrol acetate treatment and symptomatic adrenal insufficiency with hypogonadism in male patients with cancer (pages 1173–1177)

      Rony Dev, Egidio Del Fabbro and Eduardo Bruera

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22924

      In patients with cancer, megestrol acetate is used to treat cachexia. However, treatment with megestrol acetate can result in adrenal insufficiency, and its use may be associated with symptomatic hypogonadism in men.

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      Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pages 1178–1186)

      Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Stefania Paolini and Giovanni Martinelli

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22881

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      Although the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), imatinib, has demonstrated high efficacy in phase 2 studies in patients with Ph+ ALL, resistance develops in a large proportion of patients, and other more potent inhibitors of BCR/ABL have been developed. The authors reviewed and analyzed the clinical effects of 2 innovative TKIs: dasatinib, a clinically approved multitargeted kinase inhibitor of BCR-ABL and SRC kinases; and nilotinib, an imatinib analog with a modified aminopyrimidine backbone.

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      Accelerated partial breast irradiation : Consensus statement of 3 German Oncology societies (pages 1187–1194)

      Rolf Sauer, Marie-Luise Sautter-Bihl, Wilfried Budach, Petra Feyer, Wolfgang Harms, Rainer Souchan, Diethelm Wollwiener, Rolf Kreienberg and Frederik Wenz

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22910

      Accelerated partial breast irradiation has recently been introduced for selected patients with breast cancer as a potential alternative to whole-breast irradiation. However, this is still an experimental treatment and should be restricted to controlled clinical trials.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review Articles
    3. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel and epirubicin : A retrospective review of the M. D. Anderson experience (pages 1195–1200)

      Shaheenah Dawood, Ana M. Gonzalez-Angulo, Florentia Peintinger, Kristine Broglio, William F. Symmans, Shu-Wan Kau, Rabiul Islam, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Aman U. Buzdar

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22895

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      The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a preoperative trastuzumab/anthrocycline chemotherapy regimen given outside the controlled environment of a clinical trial. Stage II and III HER2-positive breast cancer patients achieved a high rate of pathologic complete response with trastuzumab given concurrently with paclitaxel and FEC75 (fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy. No severe cardiac events were observed with the regimen. The data concur with the results of a previously published trial.

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      Within-stage racial differences in tumor size and number of positive lymph nodes in women with breast cancer (pages 1201–1208)

      Russell McBride, Dawn Hershman, Wei-Yann Tsai, Judith S. Jacobson, Victor Grann and Alfred I. Neugut

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22884

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      Racial disparities in breast cancer survival are well known and occur even on a stage for stage basis. The authors hypothesized that even within stage, there could be black-white differences that could account for some of the observed racial disparities. Indeed, we did find such a skew, with blacks having larger tumors than whites within each stage, and more positive lymph nodes. Nonetheless, further adjustment of survival analyses with specific tumor sizes and numbers of positive lymph nodes did not reduce the observed racial disparities beyond what simple adjustment with tumor stage had done.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Thyroid carcinomas with a variable insular component : Prognostic significance of histopathologic patterns (pages 1209–1217)

      Vittoria Rufini, Massimo Salvatori, Guido Fadda, Luigi Pinnarelli, Paola Castaldi, Maria Lodovica Maussier and Guido Galli

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22913

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      The presence of a predominant insular component (IC) in the context of a differentiated thyroid carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis in terms of ongoing disease or death. Predominant IC should be considered a separate entity from not only the classical papillary or follicular carcinomas but also the focal IC tumor.

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      BRAFV600E mutation and p27kip1 expression in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid ≤1 cm and their paired lymph node metastases (pages 1218–1226)

      Vito Rodolico, Daniela Cabibi, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Pierina Richiusa, Nicola Gebbia, Anna Martorana, Antonio Russo, Marco C. Amato, Aldo Galluzzo and Carla Giordano

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22912

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      Tissue samples from 214 consecutive patients who underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy with histological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) ≤1 cm were analyzed for BRAFV600E mutation and for p27kip1 expression. Our data suggest that BRAFV600E mutation and p27kip1 down-regulation in cancer cells of PTC ≤1cm may be considered as factors facilitating tumor-cell growth and progression once these are seeded in the lymph nodes.

    5. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Multimodality therapy for pancreatic cancer in the U.S. : Utilization, outcomes, and the effect of hospital volume (pages 1227–1234)

      Karl Y. Bilimoria, David J. Bentrem, Clifford Y. Ko, James S. Tomlinson, Andrew K. Stewart, David P. Winchester and Mark S. Talamonti

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22916

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      Despite decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality and clinical trials suggesting improved outcomes with adjuvant therapy, national practice patterns in the management of pancreatic cancer remain poorly defined. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate multimodality therapy utilization and outcomes relative to hospital type and volume.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Is full bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection always necessary for postchemotherapy residual tumor? (pages 1235–1240)

      Stephen D. W. Beck, Richard S. Foster, Richard Bihrle, John P. Donohue and Lawrence H. Einhorn

      Version of Record online: 30 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22898

      In select patients, a modified postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to produce a recurrence rate similar to that produced by a full bilateral template. The results from this study indicated that patients who present with retroperitoneal disease that is limited to the primary landing zone of the affected testicle both prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy should be considered potential candidates for a modified postchemotherapy dissection.

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      C-reactive protein is an informative predictor of renal cell carcinoma-specific mortality : A European study of 313 patients (pages 1241–1247)

      Pierre I. Karakiewicz, Georg C. Hutterer, Quoc-Dien Trinh, Claudio Jeldres, Paul Perrotte, Andrea Gallina, Jacques Tostain and Jean-Jacques Patard

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22896

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      C-reactive protein represents an informative predictor of renal cell carcinoma-specific mortality. Its routine use could allow better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of renal cell carcinoma patients.

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      Neoadjuvant docetaxel treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer : A clinicopathologic study (pages 1248–1254)

      Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Ming Zhou, Alwyn M. Reuther, Robert Dreicer and Eric A. Klein

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22897

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      Although longer follow-up studies and larger numbers of patients will be required to ascertain the value of neoadjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, the negative findings from this study may explain the lack of clinical response after neoadjuvant treatment. In this study, the increased expression of p53 and Bcl-2 detected after treatment, although it was subject to limited interpretation based on the study size, suggested that the apoptotic pathway may be an important target of docetaxel, and further investigation is warranted.

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      Differences in prognostic factors and survival among white and Asian men with prostate cancer, California, 1995–2004 (pages 1255–1263)

      Anthony S. Robbins, Theresa M. Koppie, Scarlett L. Gomez, Arti Parikh-Patel and Paul K. Mills

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22872

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      A study of prognostic factors and survival from prostate cancer was conducted in non-Hispanic whites and 6 Asian subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese), using data from all men in California diagnosed with incident prostate cancer during 1995–2004 and followed through 2004 (n = 116,916). Traditional prognostic factors for survival from prostate cancer did not explain why most Asian men had better survival compared with whites, but they did explain the poorer survival of South Asian men compared with whites.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Low-molecular weight forms of cyclin E differentiate ovarian carcinoma from cells of mesothelial origin and are associated with poor survival in ovarian carcinoma (pages 1264–1271)

      Ben Davidson, Martina Skrede, Ilvars Silins, Ie-Ming Shih, Claes G. Trope and Vivi Ann Flørenes

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22918

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      Expression of the low-molecular weight (LMW) forms of cyclin E differentiated ovarian carcinoma from benign and malignant mesothelial cells and was associated with increased cyclin E protein expression in immunohistochemical analyses. LMW cyclin E expression was unrelated chemotherapy response; however, the current results indicated that these LMW forms may be markers of aggressive disease in patients with metastatic ovarian carcinoma.

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      Metastatic patterns at autopsy in patients with ovarian carcinoma (pages 1272–1280)

      Uwe Güth, Dorothy Jane Huang, Gregor Bauer, Marco Stieger, Edward Wight and Gad Singer

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22919

      The authors analyzed data from the autopsy reports, histologic slides, and clinical files of 197 patients who died of ovarian carcinoma between 1975 and 2005. The distribution of metastatic sites and metastatic patterns are reported with particular attention to clinical course and therapy.

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      Utility of parametrectomy for early stage cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy (pages 1281–1286)

      Jason D. Wright, Perry W. Grigsby, Rebecca Brooks, Matthew A. Powell, Randall K. Gibb, Feng Gao, Janet S. Rader and David G. Mutch

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22899

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      Removal of the parametrial soft tissue is recommended for patients with cervical cancer undergoing radical hysterectomy. Parametrectomy results in significant morbidity. The objective of the study was to determine factors predictive of parametrial tumor spread and to define a subset of patients at low risk for parametrial disease.

    13. Head and Neck
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      Tumor lymphangiogenesis correlates with lymph node metastasis and clinicopathologic parameters in oral squamous cell carcinoma (pages 1287–1294)

      Mayumi Miyahara, Jun-ichi Tanuma, Kazumasa Sugihara and Ichiro Semba

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22900

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      The results from this study suggested that lymphangiogenesis predominantly influences metastasis-free survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Lymphatic vessel density was a more useful tool than microvessel density or vascular endothelial growth factor C expression for deciding on therapeutic strategies in patients with OSCC.

    14. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Phase 1 study of lonafarnib (SCH 66336) and imatinib mesylate in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who have failed prior single-agent therapy with imatinib (pages 1295–1302)

      Jorge Cortes, Elias Jabbour, George Q. Daley, Susan O'Brien, Srdan Verstovsek, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Charles Koller, Yali Zhu, Paul Statkevich and Hagop Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22901

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      The authors conducted a phase 1 study of lonafarnib in combination with imatinib in 23 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who failed imatinib. The dose-limiting toxicities for patients with chronic phase and advanced stage disease were observed at the 400 + 125-mg and 600 + 125-mg dose levels, respectively. Eight patients achieved a response. Pharmacokinetics data suggest no apparent increase in exposure or changes in the pharmacokinetics of either lonafarnib or imatinib when they are coadministered.

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      Increased bone marrow iron stores is an independent risk factor for invasive aspergillosis in patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies and recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (pages 1303–1306)

      Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Georgios Chamilos, Russell E. Lewis, Sergio Giralt, Jorge Cortes, Issam I. Raad, John T. Manning and Xin Han

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22909

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      The authors retrospectively evaluated the bone marrow iron stores (BMIS) in 33 patients with hematologic malignancies and invasive aspergillosis (IA) compared with 33 contemporaneous, high-risk patients without fungal infections. The majority of patients with IA (70%) had increased BMIS compared with controls (16%), and increased BMIS was found to be an independent risk factor for IA using multivariate analysis (P < .0001).

    16. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer (pages 1307–1312)

      Rachel P. Riechelmann, Carol A. Townsley, Sheray N. Chin, Gregory R. Pond and Jennifer J. Knox

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22902

      An expanded phase 2 trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine in 75 patients with advanced biliary cancer led to an objective response in 29% of patients, with a median duration of 9.7 months and a median survival of 12.7 months. Patients with gallbladder cancer had shorter progression-free and overall survivals compared with patients with cholangiocarcinoma.

    17. Lung Disease
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      Parathyroid hormone-related protein varies with sex and androgen status in nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1313–1320)

      Philippe R. Montgrain, Rick Quintana, Yvette Rascon, Douglas W. Burton, Leonard J. Deftos, Andrea Casillas and Randolph H. Hastings

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22922

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      Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was associated with prolonged survival in women, but not men, with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Androgen-mediated decreases in PTHrP may be responsible for this sex dependence.

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      Epidermal growth factor ligand/receptor loop and downstream signaling activation pattern in completely resected nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1321–1328)

      Marco Volante, Silvia Saviozzi, Ida Rapa, Paolo Ceppi, Susanna Cappia, Raffaele Calogero, Silvia Novello, Piero Borasio, Mauro Papotti and Giorgio V. Scagliotti

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22903

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      Nearly 30% of nonsmall cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) in the current study demonstrated coexpression of both transforming growth factor α and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and this coexpression had a statistically significant association with phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase overexpression and an inverse correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase expression. The existence of this subgroup of NSCLCs with an activated EGFR autocrine loop may help to explain the mechanisms that lead to the relative ineffectiveness of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and may support new clinical trials targeted to the simultaneous inhibition of EGFR downstream signaling molecules.

    19. Melanoma
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      Biochemotherapy of metastatic melanoma in patients with or without recently diagnosed brain metastases (pages 1329–1337)

      Martin Majer, Randy L. Jensen, Dennis C. Shrieve, Gordon A. Watson, Michael Wang, Sancy A. Leachman, Kenneth M. Boucher and Wolfram E. Samlowski

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22905

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      Brain metastases are a frequent and adverse complication in patients with advanced melanoma. If brain metastases are controlled using a multidisciplinary approach including stereotactic radiosurgery, the response rate and survival after subsequent biochemotherapy is comparable to that in patients with and without brain metastases.

    20. Neuro-Oncology
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      Patterns of treatment in older adults with primary central nervous system lymphoma (pages 1338–1344)

      Katherine S. Panageas, Elena B. Elkin, Leah Ben-Porat, Lisa M. DeAngelis and Lauren E. Abrey

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22907

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      Older patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma have poor survival and no improvement has been observed over the past decade. The majority of these patients do not receive optimal treatment.

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      Dose escalation beyond 30 grays in 10 fractions for patients with multiple brain metastases (pages 1345–1350)

      Dirk Rades, Tiina Haatanen, Steven E. Schild and Juergen Dunst

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22906

      Survival of and intracerebral control of disease in 257 patients who were treated with whole-brain radiotherapy at 10 fractions of 3 grays (Gy) each for 2 weeks were compared with 159 patients treated with 45 Gy in 15 fractions for 3 weeks or 40 Gy in 20 fractions for 4 weeks. Dose escalation beyond 30 Gy in 10 fractions does not appear to improve survival or local control but does increase the amount of treatment time and the cost of therapy.

    22. Sarcoma
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      Prognostic significance of p16INK4a alteration for Ewing sarcoma : A meta-analysis (pages 1351–1360)

      Kanya Honoki, Elizabeth Stojanovski, Mark McEvoy, Hiromasa Fujii, Toshifumi Tsujiuchi, Akira Kido, Yoshinori Takakura and John Attia

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22908

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      The findings from this study indicated that the presence of p16INK4a alteration is a significant and independent predictor of poorer outcome in patients with Ewing sarcoma, and the p16INK4a alteration may be one of the key candidates for stratifying patients according to risk. The authors believe that future treatment for patients with Ewing sarcoma should consider risk-adapted strategies to improve the prognosis for subpopulations that have poorer outcomes along with multivariate prognostic factors, including p16INK4a alterations.

    23. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      The impact of pre- and post-transplantation positron emission tomography using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose on poor-prognosis lymphoma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (pages 1361–1369)

      Jean-Emmanuel Filmont, Christian Gisselbrecht, Xavier Cuenca, Laure Deville, Marjan Ertault, Pauline Brice, Eric De Kerviler, Josette Briere, Jérome Larghero, Jean-Luc Moretti and Nicolas Mounier

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22911

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      In patients with lymphoma who had a poor prognosis, a positive positron emission tomography (PET) image before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) indicated a high risk of ASCT failure, which was increased by a positive post-ASCT PET image. For patients who had negative pre-ASCT PET images, obtaining post-ASCT PET images did not seem mandatory.

    24. Epidemiology
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      Cambodian cancer incidence rates in California and Washington, 1998–2002 (pages 1370–1375)

      Ravie Kem and Kenneth C. Chu

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22914

      Cancer incidence rates for Cambodians are determined using cancer cases from the California and Puget Sound, Washington cancer registries and the 2000 Census data for these populations. The top 5 cancers in Cambodian males are lung, liver, prostate, colorectum, and stomach; in females they are breast, lung, colorectum, cervix, and thyroid.

    25. Medical Oncology
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      Prevalence of Renal Insufficiency in cancer patients and implications for anticancer drug management : The renal insufficiency and anticancer medications (IRMA) study (pages 1376–1384)

      Vincent Launay-Vacher, Stéphane Oudard, Nicolas Janus, Joseph Gligorov, Xavier Pourrat, Olivier Rixe, Jean-François Morere, Philippe Beuzeboc, Gilbert Deray and On behalf of the Renal Insufficiency and Cancer Medications (IRMA) Study Group

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22904

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      This study of nearly 5000 cancer patients demonstrated the high prevalence of renal impairment in a population of patients who had solid tumors. Moreover, anticancer drugs were studied with regard to their potential renal toxicity and dosage adjustment. The results emphasized that, in those patients who are at high risk for drug toxicity, the dosage of anticancer drugs should be adapted to renal function, and the use of nephrotoxic therapies should be avoided whenever possible.

    26. Psychosocial Oncology
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      A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief, behaviorally oriented intervention for cancer-related fatigue (pages 1385–1395)

      Jo Armes, Trudie Chalder, Julia Addington-Hall, Alison Richardson and Matthew Hotopf

      Version of Record online: 27 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22923

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      In this study, a brief, behaviorally oriented intervention for cancer-related fatigue brought about significant improvements in physical functioning, demonstrated a trend toward improved cancer-related fatigue, but detected no effect for fatigue-related distress. However, the sample size was small, and a larger, randomized controlled trial will be required to determine the precise effect of the intervention.

    27. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      A placebo-controlled double blind trial of etanercept for the cancer anorexia/weight loss syndrome : Results from N00C1 from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (pages 1396–1403)

      Aminah Jatoi, Shaker R. Dakhil, Phuong L. Nguyen, Jeff A. Sloan, John W. Kugler, Kendrith M. Rowland Jr, Gamini S. Soori, Donald B. Wender, Tom R. Fitch, Paul J. Novotny and Charles L. Loprinzi

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22944

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      This randomized placebo-controlled study assessed the effects of etanercept in patients with advanced cancer with loss of appetite and/or weight.

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