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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 October 2007

Volume 110, Issue 8

Pages 1641–1875

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
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    2. You have free access to this content
      Differences between a drug regimen employed in early phase 1 trials and the subsequent use of the agent in routine oncologic practice : A note of caution (pages 1644–1647)

      Maurie Markman

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22967

      It is reasonable to assume that a decision to permit wider access to new anticancer agents after the completion of only phase 1 trials will almost certainly result in the administration of such therapy to a substantial population of individuals who would not have been eligible for such “registration-type” testing. However, the optimal use of antineoplastic agents in routine clinical practice may differ substantially from the doses and schedules examined in phase 1 clinical trials.

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
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      Upper tract transitional cell carcinoma: Finding a way forward (pages 1648–1649)

      Peter E. Clark

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22969

      The author discusses an article in this issue of Cancer by Novara and colleagues, who presented the results from a multicenter, international, retrospective study that adds to the body of literature divining predictors of disease-specific survival for patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract who undergo radical prostatectomy.

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      18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–positron emission tomography (PET)/PET-computed tomography in carcinoma of the cervix (pages 1650–1653)

      Rakesh Kumar and Simin Dadparvar

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22968

      18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/PET-computed tomography diagnostic studies may play a potential role in the staging and restaging of patients with cervical cancer. Recent work has demonstrated another important aspect of FDG-PET in predicting the prognosis for patients with cervical cancer according to their maximal standard uptake value at baseline; thus, it may be possible to develop more aggressive treatment strategies for high-risk patients based on pretreatment PET studies.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
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      Predictive and prognostic value of FDG-PET in nonsmall-cell lung cancer : A systematic review (pages 1654–1664)

      Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Henricus F.M. van der Heijden, Frans H.M. Corstens and Wim J.G. Oyen

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22979

      The literature on the value of the evolving applications of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a marker for prediction (ie, therapy response monitoring) and prognosis in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is addressed.

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      Psychiatric disorders in advanced cancer (pages 1665–1676)

      Michael Miovic and Susan Block

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22980

      This article reviews the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in patients with advanced cancer, including adjustment disorders, major depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress, personality disorders, substance abuse, and major mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Psychiatric conditions are common in patients with advanced disease, and treating them improves quality of life; also, effective communication skills are key to dealing with end-of-life issues.

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      Breast cancer vaccines : Promise for the future or pipe dream? (pages 1677–1686)

      Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, George E. Peoples and S. Eva Singletary

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22978

      A review of approaches now being used to create a therapeutic breast cancer vaccine, as well as strategies for a preventive vaccine targeting either an infectious agent or a tumor-associated antigen. Host factors that mitigate immune response against tumors are also discussed.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Molecular classification system identifies invasive breast carcinoma patients who are most likely and those who are least likely to achieve a complete pathologic response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (pages 1687–1696)

      Neal S. Goldstein, David Decker, Dawn Severson, Scott Schell, Frank Vicini, Jeffrey Margolis and Nayana S. Dekhne

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22981

      An immunohistochemistry-based molecular classification system identifies breast carcinoma patients who are most likely and those who are least likely to sustain a complete pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the current study, the authors evaluated whether response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was correlated with the molecular classification groups.

    2. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Loss of programmed cell death 4 expression marks adenoma-carcinoma transition, correlates inversely with phosphorylated protein kinase B, and is an independent prognostic factor in resected colorectal cancer (pages 1697–1707)

      Giridhar Mudduluru, Fabian Medved, Rainer Grobholz, Camela Jost, Anette Gruber, Joerg H. Leupold, Stefan Post, Aaron Jansen, Nancy H. Colburn and Heike Allgayer

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22983

      To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an independent prognostic impact of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) and its expression pattern in colorectal cancer. Data from this report support the regulation of Pdcd4 localization by phosphorylated protein kinase B in vivo, and Pdcd4 immunohistochemistry may be useful as a diagnostic support for the transition between normal, adenoma, and tumor tissues.

    3. Genitourinary Disease
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      Preventing pain during office biopsy of the prostate : A single center, prospective, double-blind, 3-arm, parallel group, randomized clinical trial (pages 1708–1714)

      Richard A. Ashley, Brant A. Inman, Jonathan C. Routh, Amy E. Krambeck, Sameer A. Siddiqui, Lance A. Mynderse, Matthew T. Gettman and Michael L. Blute

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22973

      A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare 3 anesthetic techniques for preventing pain during office biopsy of the prostate. It was found that biopsy-associated pain is directly related to the zone of sampling and that it can be prevented by intraprostatic and apical-rectal anesthetic blockades.

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      Independent predictors of cancer-specific survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract : Multi-institutional dataset from 3 European centers (pages 1715–1722)

      Giacomo Novara, Vincenzo De Marco, Fedra Gottardo, Orietta Dalpiaz, Vianney Bouygues, Antonio Galfano, Guido Martignoni, Jean Jacques Patard, Walter Artibani and Vincenzo Ficarra

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22970

      In a multi-institutional dataset of patients who had undergone nephroureterectomy for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the upper urinary tract (UUT), the authors demonstrated that pathologic stage of the primary tumor and lymph nodes, a history of prior bladder TCC, the presence of synchronous muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and tumor multifocality within the UUT were independent predictors of the probability of cancer-specific survival.

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      Duration of testosterone suppression and the risk of death from prostate cancer in men treated using radiation and 6 months of hormone therapy (pages 1723–1728)

      Anthony V. D'Amico, Andrew A. Renshaw, Brittany Loffredo and Ming-Hui Chen

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22972

      The duration of testosterone suppression was useful for identifying men who had prostate cancer with Gleason scores from 8 to 10. In those men, 6 months of hormone therapy (HT) produced long-term testosterone suppression, which may provide the cancer-specific survival benefit observed with long-term HT.

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      Treatment outcomes of small cell carcinoma of the prostate : A single-center study (pages 1729–1737)

      Philippe E. Spiess, Curtis A. Pettaway, Funda Vakar-Lopez, Wassim Kassouf, Xuemei Wang, Joseph E. Busby, Kim-Anh Do, Rajayogesh Davuluri and Nizar M. Tannir

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22971

      Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate represents an aggressive tumor histology that is associated with high disease-specific mortality. Patients with metastatic disease who present with a low serum albumin level and a high serum lactate dehydrogenase level at the time of diagnosis with SCC of the prostate have a dismal prognosis and should be considered for alternative therapies soon after symptom control is achieved. In patients with nonmetastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, there may be a benefit to incorporating local therapies with systemic therapy, although further studies are needed.

    7. Disease Site

      Gynecologic Disease
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      The standardized uptake value for F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose is a sensitive predictive biomarker for cervical cancer treatment response and survival (pages 1738–1744)

      Elizabeth A. Kidd, Barry A. Siegel, Farrokh Dehdashti and Perry W. Grigsby

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22974

      The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the cervical tumor at diagnosis is a sensitive biomarker of treatment response and prognosis for patients with cervical cancer. In this study of 287 patients with stage IA2 through IVB cervical cancer, increasing SUVmax was associated with persistent, abnormal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the cervix on 3-month FDG-positron emission tomography studies.

    8. Head and Neck
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      Hypermethylation, risk factors, clinical characteristics, and survival in 235 patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers (pages 1745–1751)

      Rajesh P. Dikshit, Anna Gillio-Tos, Paul Brennan, Laura De Marco, Valentina Fiano, Jose Maria Martinez-Peñuela, Paolo Boffetta and Franco Merletti

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22975

      The authors evaluated the role of gene-promoter hypermethylation in the survival of patients with head and neck cancer in a large series of patients who had laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, long follow-up, and information available on clinical and lifestyle factors. The results from the analysis of these patients suggested that hypermethylation is a frequent event in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, but it is not a predictor of mortality or second primary cancer.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Impact of remission induction chemotherapy on survival in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1752–1759)

      Rachid Baz, Cristina Rodriguez, Alex Z. Fu, Rony Abou Jawde, Matt Kalaycio, Anjali Advani, Ronald Sobecks and Mikkael A. Sekeres

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22976

      After adjusting for baseline characteristics, remission induction therapy in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia was associated with a survival advantage compared with nonintensive chemotherapy. Other predictors of poor outcomes included African-American race (compared with Caucasian), increasing leukocyte count at presentation, and poor-risk cytogenetics.

    10. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      The impact of hepatitis B viral load on recurrence after complete necrosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who receive transarterial chemolipiodolization : Implications for viral suppression to reduce the risk of cancer recurrence (pages 1760–1767)

      Jeong Won Jang, Jong Young Choi, Si Hyun Bae, Seung Kew Yoon, Hyun Young Woo, U Im Chang, Chang Wook Kim, Soon Woo Nam, Se Hyun Cho, Jin Mo Yang and Chang Don Lee

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22984

      In individuals undergoing transarterial chemolipiodolization, high hepatitis B virus (HBV) viral load at the time complete necrosis is among the most important risk factors for posttreatment recurrence. Results from the current study provided an equitable basis upon which to conduct future prospective studies that test the applicability of antiviral therapy to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence in the setting of transarterial treatment for HBV-related HCC.

    11. Lung Disease
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      Hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk in Chinese (pages 1768–1775)

      Kuan-Yu Chen, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Gee-Chen Chang, Yin-Huang Tsai, Wu-Chou Su, Reury-Perng Perng, Ming-Shyan Huang, Chao A. Hsiung, Chien-Jen Chen, Pan-Chyr Yang and the GEFLAC Study Group

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22987

      Previous studies have suggested an association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and reduced lung cancer risk. The authors confirmed this hypothesis among women in Taiwan by using a case-control study design and found that HRT was associated with a 30% reduction in lung cancer risk.

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      Prognostic significance of synaptophysin in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung (pages 1776–1781)

      Federico González-Aragoneses, Nicolás Moreno-Mata, María Cebollero-Presmanes, Mariano García-Yuste, Miguel Ángel Cañizares-Carretero, Laureano Molins-López-Rodó, Santiago Quevedo-Losada, Juan Torres-Lanzas, Emilio Álvarez-Fernández and and the Spanish Multicenter Study of Neuroendocrine Tumours of the Lung of the Spanish Society of Pneumonology, ThoracicSurgery (EMETNE-SEPAR)

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22985

      The prognostic significance of the presence of a neuroendocrine marker (synaptophysin, SY) was analyzed in stage I of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung.

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      Quality of integrated care for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer : Variations and Determinants of Care (pages 1782–1790)

      Mariëlle M. M. T. J. Ouwens, Rosella R. P. M. G. Hermens, René A. R. Termeer, Saskia Y. Vonk-Okhuijsen, Vivianne C. G. Tjan-Heijnen, Ad F. T. M. Verhagen, Marlies M. E. J. L. Hulscher, Henri A. M. Marres, Hub C. H. Wollersheim and Richard P. T. M. Grol

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22986

      The quality of integrated care for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer can be improved in 3 dimensions of quality of care, especially patient-oriented quality. Patient characteristics appear to influence performance more than professional or hospital characteristics.

    14. Melanoma
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      A higher radiotherapy dose is associated with more durable palliation and longer survival in patients with metastatic melanoma (pages 1791–1795)

      Kenneth R. Olivier, Steven E. Schild, Christopher G. Morris, Paul D. Brown and Svetomir N. Markovic

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22988

      The efficacy of palliative radiotherapy (RT) was examined in 84 patients with melanoma that was not metastatic to the central nervous system. The response rate to RT was 84% and a higher RT dose was found to provide longer freedom from disease progression and greater overall survival.

    15. Neuro-Oncology
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      Cyberknife radiosurgery for breast cancer spine metastases : A matched-pair analysis (pages 1796–1802)

      Gregory J. Gagnon, Fraser C. Henderson, Edmund A. Gehan, Donna Sanford, Brian T. Collins, Jefferson C. Moulds and Anatoly Dritschilo

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22977

      The outcomes were compared between 18 patients with spinal metastases from breast cancer treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery, 17 of which had prior radiotherapy to the involved spinal region and were progressing, and 18 matched patients who received conventional external beam radiotherapy up-front for spinal metastases.

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      Increasing incidence and continued dismal outcome of primary central nervous system lymphoma in Norway 1989–2003 : Time trends in a 15-year national survey (pages 1803–1814)

      Ingfrid S. Haldorsen, Bård K. Krossnes, Jan H. Aarseth, David Scheie, Tom B. Johannesen, Olav Mella and Ansgar Espeland

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22989

      The incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma is increasing in Norway. Despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances in the last decades, the overall survival for these patients has not improved.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Spinal metastases from myxoid liposarcoma warrant screening with magnetic resonance imaging (pages 1815–1822)

      Joseph H. Schwab, Patrick J. Boland, Cristina Antonescu, Mark H. Bilsky and John H. Healey

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22992

      Myxoid liposarcoma (MLS) has an unusual tendency for extrapulmonary metastasis, particularly to the spine and soft tissues. In this study, the authors observed that bone scans and positron emission tomographic scans lack sufficient sensitivity to detect spinal metastasis from MLS and that screening with whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging may lead to the earlier detection of spinal metastasis.

    18. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      Trends in childhood leukemia mortality in Brazil and correlation with social inequalities (pages 1823–1831)

      Karina B. Ribeiro, Luiz F. Lopes and Beatriz de Camargo

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22982

      This study was designed to describe mortality trends in childhood leukemia and the impact of social inequalities on these trends in Brazil from 1980 to 2002. Consistent decreases in childhood leukemia mortality rates were noted in Brazil, particularly in more developed states, possibly reflecting better health care.

    19. Pediatric Oncology
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      Features at presentation predict children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at low risk for tumor lysis syndrome (pages 1832–1839)

      Tony H. Truong, Joseph Beyene, Johann Hitzler, Oussama Abla, Anne Marie Maloney, Sheila Weitzman and Lillian Sung

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22990

      Clinical and laboratory features at the time of presentation with acute lymphoblastic leukemia identified a group of children at low risk for tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). These patients may benefit from a risk-stratified approach directed at reduced TLS monitoring and prophylaxis.

    20. Radiation Oncology
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      Prospective assessment of radiotherapy-associated cardiac toxicity in breast cancer patients: Analysis of data 3 to 6 years after treatment (pages 1840–1850)

      Robert G. Prosnitz, Jessica L. Hubbs, Elizabeth S. Evans, Su-Min Zhou, Xiaoli Yu, Michael A. Blazing, Donna R. Hollis, Andrea Tisch, Terence Z. Wong, Salvador Borges-Neto, Patricia H. Hardenbergh and Lawrence B. Marks

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22965

      It is not known whether modern radiotherapy (RT) methods of irradiating the breast and chest wall are associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. To study this question, the authors conducted a prospective trial in which patients underwent serial cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography scans before and after RT. Herein, they have reported on 44 patients with 3 to 6 year follow-up data. Perfusion defects were observed in 52% to 71% of patients. However, these defects were not associated with wall motion abnormalities or changes in ejection fraction. The findings indicated that RT-induced perfusion defects may persist or may appear initially from 3 to 6 years post-RT in a high percentage of patients and that further study of these women is warranted.

    21. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Fatigue after treatment for early stage breast cancer : A controlled comparison (pages 1851–1859)

      Paul B. Jacobsen, Kristine A. Donovan, Brent J. Small, Heather S. Jim, Pamela N. Munster and Michael A. Andrykowski

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22993

      A study was conducted assessing fatigue in women treated for early-stage breast cancer and an age-and geographically matched comparison group of women with no history of cancer. The results show that breast cancer survivors who received chemotherapy reported significantly more days of fatigue at assessments conducted 2, 4, and 6 months after treatment relative to comparison subjects.

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      Pathologic fractures correlate with reduced survival in patients with malignant bone disease (pages 1860–1867)

      Fred Saad, Allan Lipton, Richard Cook, Yin-Miao Chen, Matthew Smith and Robert Coleman

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22991

      Data from 3 randomized, double-blind, controlled phase 3 trials of zoledronic acid were retrospectively analyzed to assess the association between the occurrence of pathologic fractures and survival in patients with bone metastases secondary to breast cancer, multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, or nonsmall-cell lung cancer or other solid tumors. The results suggest that an increased risk of death is associated with the occurrence of fractures in patients with malignant bone disease.

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      A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction as a treatment for breast cancer-related lymphedema (pages 1868–1874)

      Clare Shaw, Peter Mortimer and Patricia A. Judd

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22994

      An intervention study of weight reduction in breast cancer‒related lymphedema demonstrated a significant reduction in excess arm volume.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 1875)

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23041

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