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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 November 2007

Volume 110, Issue 9

Pages 1877–2118

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
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      The hazards of intermediate endpoints (pages 1877–1879)

      Tomasz M. Beer and Christopher W. Ryan

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22995

      Progression-free survival in men with advanced prostate cancer is a composite endpoint that has been neither standardized nor validated as a measure of clinical benefit in advanced prostate cancer. The absence of a progression-free survival benefit in this randomized trial of atrasentan leaves the authors uncertain with regard to the potential value of this agent in prostate cancer.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
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      Racial disparities in breast cancer outcome : Insights into host-tumor interactions (pages 1880–1888)

      Romano Demicheli, Michael W. Retsky, William J. M. Hrushesky, Michael Baum, Isaac D. Gukas and Ismail Jatoi

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22998

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      Because the disparity in breast cancer mortality between African American and Caucasian American women is not fully explainable based on socioeconomic reasons, the epidemiologic and clinical perspectives regarding suspected biologic factors involved in this phenomenon are reviewed. They suggest that the biologic component of the disparity question is a particular case of the more general issue of host-tumor interaction and that epidemiologic and clinical views are complementary; each is observing biologic parameters, which are not completely captured by the other. A ‘unifying hypothesis’ incorporating findings from genetics, epidemiology, and clinical studies should be aggressively pursued.

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      Prostate cancer prevention : Past, present, and future (pages 1889–1899)

      Neil Fleshner and Alexandre R. Zlotta

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23009

      As prostate cancer continues to be the most frequently detected malignancy in the Western world, preventive measures are finally being recognized as a priority. Several prevention strategies, including the use of pharmacological agents such as 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, as well as dietary supplementation with several vitamins and antioxidants, show potential in reducing the number of men treated unnecessarily for this disease.

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      Progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1900–1910)

      Farhad Ravandi, Alan K. Burnett, Edward D. Agura and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23000

      With the exception of a number of subsets with well-defined molecular abnormalities, the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia remains guarded. The current study summarizes some of the advances in the biology and therapy of these patients and examines current avenues of research.

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      Interleukin-6 and its receptor in cancer : Implications for Translational Therapeutics (pages 1911–1928)

      David S. Hong, Laura S. Angelo and Razelle Kurzrock

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22999

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      The field of cytokine research has yielded a deep understanding of the fundamental role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its receptor in health and disease. Therapeutic targeting of IL-6 and its receptor in cancer has strong biologic rationale, and preliminary evidence suggests that targeting the IL-6 system may be beneficial in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Pathobiology of small invasive breast cancers without metastases (T1a/b, N0, M0) : National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) protocol B-21 (pages 1929–1936)

      Edwin R. Fisher, Joseph P. Costantino, Marino E. Leon, Hanna Bandos, Alka S. Palekar, Bernard Fisher and Norman Wolmark

      Version of Record online: 26 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23011

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      The pathobiology of small (T1a/b, N0, M0) invasive breast carcinomas indicates the need for local breast irradiation and adjuvant treatment. Evidence indicates that cancers may arise in radial scars.

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      Health professional and consumer views on involving breast cancer patients in the multidisciplinary discussion of their disease and treatment plan (pages 1937–1944)

      Phyllis Butow, James D. Harrison, Ellis T. Choy, Jane M. Young, Andrew Spillane and Alison Evans

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23007

      The study obtained the views of health professionals and patients about the concept of involving breast cancer patients in the multidisciplinary treatment planning meeting.

    3. Gastrointestinal Tract

      Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Severe enteropathy among patients with stage II/III colon cancer treated on a randomized trial of bolus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus or minus oxaliplatin : A prospective analysis (pages 1945–1950)

      J. Philip Kuebler, Linda Colangelo, Michael J. O'Connell, Roy E. Smith, Greg Yothers, Mirsada Begovic, Bridget Robinson, Thomas E. Seay and Norman Wolmark

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23013

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      Colon cancer patients treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin should be closely monitored for diarrhea and aggressively managed, especially if oxaliplatin has been added to the regimen.

    4. Disease Site

      Genitourinary Disease
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      Evolution of robotic radical prostatectomy : Assessment after 2766 procedures (pages 1951–1958)

      Ketan K. Badani, Sanjeev Kaul and Mani Menon

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23027

      A report is presented on the 5-year outcome of men undergoing robotic prostatectomy, demonstrating that is a procedure that can be performed with favorable oncologic and functional outcomes with a minimal complication rate. With continued experience, further improvements in clinicopathologic and functional parameters may be achieved.

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      A phase 3 randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of atrasentan in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 1959–1966)

      Michael A. Carducci, Fred Saad, Per-Anders Abrahamsson, David P. Dearnaley, Claude C. Schulman, Scott A. North, Darryl J. Sleep, Jeffrey D. Isaacson, Joel B. Nelson and for the Atrasentan Phase III Study Group Institutions.

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22996

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      Despite evidence of the biologic effect of atrasentan on prostate-specific antigen and bone alkaline phosphatase as markers of disease burden, in a large, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 3 trial, atrasentan did not delay disease progression in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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      Percentage of Gleason pattern 4 and 5 predicts survival after radical prostatectomy (pages 1967–1972)

      Liang Cheng, Darrell D. Davidson, Haiqun Lin and Michael O. Koch

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23004

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      Quantification of high-grade prostate cancer provides additional prognostic information beyond the conventional Gleason score and can be readily performed in routine pathology practice. It is recommended that the percentage of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 routinely be reported for radical prostatectomy specimens.

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      Prostate-specific antigen velocity and the detection of gleason score 7 to 10 prostate cancer (pages 1973–1978)

      Rinaa S. Punglia, Jennifer Cullen, David G. McLeod, Yongmei Chen and Anthony V. D'Amico

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23014

      For this report, the authors used data from the Center for Prostate Disease Research multicenter national database. The results indicated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity may be a better predictor of high-grade prostate cancer than PSA alone in men with a PSA level >4 ng/mL. These findings, together with life expectancy, may be used when deciding which men should not be recommended for prostate biopsy despite an elevated PSA level.

    8. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Biologic significance of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis in human uterine cancer (pages 1979–1990)

      Kenzo Sonoda, Shingo Miyamoto, Ayano Yamazaki, Hiroaki Kobayashi, Manabu Nakashima, Eisuke Mekada and Norio Wake

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23015

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      Receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) may be a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis. Acquisition of data concerning RCAS1 function may help with exploring novel therapeutic strategies for uterine cancer.

    9. Head and Neck
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      Increased risk of oral cancer in relation to common Indian mitochondrial polymorphisms and Autosomal GSTP1 locus (pages 1991–1999)

      Sayantan Datta, Mousumi Majumder, Nidhan K. Biswas, Nilabja Sikdar and Bidyut Roy

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23016

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      The major allele, A, at 12,308 nucleotide pairs on mitochondrial tRNALeu (CUN) increased the risk of oral cancer independently and also in combination with the risk genotype at GSTP1. Indian haplogroup M (ie, 10400T allele) also increased the risk of oral cancer in smokers.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Phase 1 study of tipifarnib in combination with imatinib for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase after imatinib failure (pages 2000–2006)

      Jorge Cortes, Alfonso Quintás-Cardama, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Susan O'Brien, Dan Jones, Stefan Faderl, Theresa Ebarb, Francis Giles, Deborah Thomas and Hagop Kantarjian

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23006

      Therapy with imatinib mesylate induces complete cytogenetic response in the majority of patients with newly diagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients develop resistance to imatinib therapy, mainly through mutations in the kinase domain of BCR-ABL, and most harbor detectable levels of molecular residual disease. A potential strategy to overcome these limitations of imatinib therapy is to interfere with BCR-ABL downstream pathways such as the Ras pathways. Tipifarnib is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor that has shown in vitro synergism with imatinib. In the current phase 1 study, the combination of imatinib and tipifarnib is shown to be safe and active in patients with CML in chronic phase who had previously failed imatinib therapy. Furthermore, this combination demonstrated promising activity against the imatinib-insensitive mutation T315I.

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      AKT/NF-κB inhibitor xanthohumol targets cell growth and angiogenesis in hematologic malignancies (pages 2007–2011)

      Raffaella Dell'Eva, Claudia Ambrosini, Nicola Vannini, Giovanna Piaggio, Adriana Albini and Nicoletta Ferrari

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23017

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      Leukemias are dependent on Akt/NF-κB activation and angiogenesis. The Akt/NF-κB inhibitor xanthohumol shows direct and indirect antiangiogenic properties and sensitizes leukemia cells, suggesting that a treatment strategy with an antiangiogenic molecule endowed of direct toxicity against leukemia cells could potently improve therapeutic efficacy.

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      PEG-IFN-α-2b therapy in BCR-ABL–negative myeloproliferative disorders : Final Result of a Phase 2 Study (pages 2012–2018)

      Elias Jabbour, Hagop Kantarjian, Jorge Cortes, Deborah Thomas, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Stefan Faderl, Mary Ann Richie, Miloslav Beran, Francis Giles and Srdan Verstovsek

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23018

      PEG-IFN-α-2b is an effective therapy for patients with BCR-ABL–negative myeloproliferative disorders. However, toxicities encountered remained significant and limit the duration of therapy.

    13. Lung Disease
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      Characterization of a multiple epigenetic marker panel for lung cancer detection and risk assessment in plasma (pages 2019–2026)

      Han-Shui Hsu, Tsz-Pei Chen, Chein-Hui Hung, Chiao-Kai Wen, Rou-Kai Lin, Hui-Chen Lee and Yi-Ching Wang

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23001

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      In this case-control study, the authors defined a biomarker panel that included multiple epigenetic alterations to detect cancer cells in plasma with high specificity and sensitivity and possibly for risk assessment in lung cancer. In 87% of plasma samples that were obtained before surgery, at least 1 of 6 selected genes was methylated. One gene with the highest odds ratio was examined in another patient group, and the data validated its use as a cancer-detection biomarker in plasma. The rate of gene promoter methylation detected in the plasma from patients with lung cancer in the current study was highest in the reported studies.

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      Weekly docetaxel versus docetaxel/gemcitabine in the treatment of elderly or poor performance status patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer : A randomized phase 3 trial of the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network (pages 2027–2034)

      John D. Hainsworth, David R. Spigel, Cindy Farley, Dianna L. Shipley, James D. Bearden, Jitendra Gandhi, Gerry Ann Houston and F. Anthony Greco

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23019

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      Three hundred and fifty elderly (>65) or poor performance status patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer were randomized to receive either weekly docetaxel or docetaxel/gemcitabine as first-line treatment. In this patient population, there was no difference in the efficacy of these regimens; toxicity was reduced with single-agent therapy.

    15. Neuro-Oncology
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      Long-term results of a prospective study on the treatment of medulloblastoma in adults (pages 2035–2041)

      Alba A. Brandes, Enrico Franceschi, Alicia Tosoni, Valeria Blatt and Mario Ermani

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23003

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      The authors used a risk-assessment method to study the long-term results from a prospective trial of radiotherapy with and without chemotherapy in adult patients with medulloblastoma (MB). No significant difference was observed in progression-free survival or overall survival between low-risk patients who received radiotherapy alone and high-risk patients who received both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In adult patients with MB, long-term follow-up is crucial to evaluating the real impact of treatment.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Development of a model with which to predict the life expectancy of patients with spinal epidural metastasis (pages 2042–2049)

      Ronald H. M. A. Bartels, Ton Feuth, Richard van der Maazen, André L. M. Verbeek, Arnoud C. Kappelle, J. André Grotenhuis and Jan Willem Leer

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23002

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      A reliable and simple model with which to predict the survival of a patient with spinal epidural metastasis is presented. Without the need for extensive investigations, survival can be predicted and only 5 easily obtainable parameters are required.

    17. Sarcoma
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      Perioperative chemotherapy in patients undergoing pulmonary resection for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity : A retrospective analysis (pages 2050–2060)

      Robert J. Canter, Li-Xuan Qin, Robert J. Downey, Murray F. Brennan, Samuel Singer and Robert G. Maki

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23023

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      Outcomes were examined in a select cohort of 138 patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for metastatic soft-tissue sarcoma of the extremity between 1990 and 2005. Although it is difficult to completely control for the effects of bias in a retrospective analysis, the authors found no association between perioperative chemotherapy and pulmonary progression-free, disease-specific, or overall survival.

    18. Discipline

      Pediatric Oncology
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      Extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumors in childhood : The Childrens Hospital Los Angeles experience (pages 2061–2066)

      Catherine E. Madigan, Saro H. Armenian, Marcio H. Malogolowkin and Leo Mascarenhas

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23020

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      Patients with localized extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumors in childhood who underwent complete surgical resection were most likely to be long-term survivors. Consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy followed by hematopoietic stem cell rescue may benefit selected patients with advanced disease stage.

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      Reproductive history, infertility treatment, and the risk of acute leukemia in children with down syndrome : A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (pages 2067–2074)

      Susan E. Puumala, Julie A. Ross, Andrew F. Olshan, Leslie L. Robison, Franklin O. Smith and Logan G. Spector

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23025

      The authors observed that there was an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among children with Down syndrome (DS) whose parents had ever tried for ≥1 year to become pregnant. This finding may indicate an increased risk of AML caused by parental infertility in children with DS.

    20. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Surviving colorectal cancer : Patient-Reported Symptoms 4 Years After Diagnosis (pages 2075–2082)

      Eric C. Schneider, Jennifer L. Malin, Katherine L. Kahn, Clifford Y. Ko, John Adams and Arnold M. Epstein

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23021

      The long-term symptoms of cancer survivors have not been well studied. It was found that the prevalence of symptoms 4 years after a colorectal cancer diagnosis was low and relatively similar to estimates from the general population.

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      A randomized controlled trial of the impact of targeted and tailored interventions on colorectal cancer screening (pages 2083–2091)

      Ronald E. Myers, Randa Sifri, Terry Hyslop, Michael Rosenthal, Sally W. Vernon, James Cocroft, Thomas Wolf, Jocelyn Andrel and Richard Wender

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23022

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      The objective of the current study was to determine whether targeted and tailored intervention methods can increase the use of screening for colorectal cancer. Both intervention approaches were found to increase screening use significantly.

    22. Radiation Oncology
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      Descriptive nomograms of adjuvant radiotherapy use and patterns of care analysis for stage I and II endometrial adenocarcinoma: A surveillance, epidemiology, and end results population study (pages 2092–2100)

      Christopher M. Lee, Aniko Szabo, Dennis C. Shrieve, O. Kenneth Macdonald, Jonathan D. Tward, Thomas B. Skidmore and David K. Gaffney

      Version of Record online: 11 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.22997

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      The authors conducted a large patterns of care analysis of the use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with stage I and II endometrial adenocarcinoma. The study revealed that there is significant diversity in the use of adjuvant RT for the treatment of these patients across the United States, and the results reflected the absence of a national consensus on adjuvant treatment for early-stage disease.

    23. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Quality of life in survivors of multiple primary cancers compared with cancer survivor controls (pages 2101–2109)

      Carolyn C. Gotay, Sean Ransom and Ian S. Pagano

      Version of Record online: 6 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23005

      The current study explored quality of life (QOL) and its correlates in 487 patients who survived >1 primary cancer, compared with 589 matched single cancer survivor controls. Multivariate analyses indicated significantly lower QOL, vitality, and existential well-being in survivors of multiple primary tumors.

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      Efficacy of gabapentin in the management of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy : A phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (N00C3) (pages 2110–2118)

      Ravi D. Rao, John C. Michalak, Jeff A. Sloan, Charles L. Loprinzi, Gamini S. Soori, Daniel A. Nikcevich, David O. Warner, Paul Novotny, Leila A. Kutteh, Gilbert Y. Wong and and the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23008

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      A randomized, multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover, clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the role of gabapentin in patients with symptomatic chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). This study did not find any benefit to using gabapentin to treat symptoms of CIPN.

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