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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 May 2008

Volume 112, Issue 10

Pages 2103–2330

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Information Item
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      Metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer (pages 2103–2105)

      L. Michael Glode

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23511

      The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was first proposed as a clinical entity in 1988 and has been popularized by numerous health organizations as a way of identifying patients at increased risk for coronary heart disease or type II diabetes. The numerous definitions for MetS has made it somewhat difficult for practicing physicians to adopt a standard and then apply it to behavioral modification and/or pharmacologic therapy for their patients. In this issue of Cancer, Smith et al. performed a prospective analysis of some components of MetS in 26 men with locally advanced or recurrent prostate cancer who were treated with 1 year of leuprolide in addition to 1 month of bicalutamide at the time of the initiation of gonadotropin‒releasing hormone agonist therapy. Some differences between classic MetS and the androgen deprivation syndrome were demonstrated.

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      Is the increase in orchiectomy for prostate cancer patients appropriate? (pages 2106–2107)

      Gerald W. Chodak

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23417

      An increase in the use of bilateral orchiectomy has been observed coinciding with a decrease in the use of lutenizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy for men who require castration for their prostate cancer. This finding has raised 2 questions: 1) is this good or bad for patients? and 2) are economic factors driving this decision? Currently, it is not possible to conclude that patient care is being compromised without knowing more regarding the clinical factors resulting in this change; however, compromised care is 1 possibility. The other question also cannot be answered; however, changes in reimbursement may contribute partially to this change. Regardless of the reason, the author believes that optimal care of patients dictates an honest and open discussion of the pros and cons for the various options available for castration.

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      Editorial (pages 2108–2111)

      Michael L. Cibull and Rouzan G. Karabakhtsian

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23439

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Information Item
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      Molecular monitoring in chronic myeloid leukemia : Response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and prognostic implications (pages 2112–2118)

      Elias Jabbour, Jorge E. Cortes and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23427

      Molecular monitoring has an important role in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, particularly in assessing residual disease, and molecular responses have prognostic significance. However, the importance of achieving complete cytogenetic disease remission should not be ignored.

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      Platelet-derived growth factor receptor as a prognostic marker and a therapeutic target for imatinib mesylate therapy in osteosarcoma (pages 2119–2129)

      Tadahiko Kubo, Sajida Piperdi, Jeremy Rosenblum, Cristina R. Antonescu, Wen Chen, Han-Soo Kim, Andrew G. Huvos, Rebecca Sowers, Paul A. Meyers, John H. Healey and Richard Gorlick

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23437

      To determine the role of imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec) in the treatment of osteosarcoma, the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor and its ligand was examined in osteosarcoma patient specimens and related to prognosis. The effects of imatinib mesylate on growth and molecular events in osteosarcoma primary cultures were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated frequent expression of PDGF receptor and its ligand and their correlation with inferior event-free survival (P < .05). In vitro studies demonstrated that imatinib mesylate had a variable cytotoxic effect on various osteosarcoma primary cultures and blocked the PDGF-induced intracellular signal transduction as well as the inhibition of downstream Akt phosphorylation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was constitutively activated despite PDGF stimulation.

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      The molecular journey from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive breast cancer (pages 2130–2142)

      Lisa Wiechmann and Henry M. Kuerer

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23430

      The authors reviewed molecular markers that have been identified as prominent in the transition from ductal carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer and their clinical significance.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Information Item
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Significance of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplifications in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors : Associations with radiation exposure and histologic grade (pages 2143–2151)

      Shiro Miura, Masahiro Nakashima, Masahiro Ito, Hisayoshi Kondo, Serik Meirmanov, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Midori Soda, Takeshi Matsuo and Ichiro Sekine

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23414

      The objective of this study was to clarify the association of oncogene amplification in breast cancers among atomic bomb survivors with radiation exposure and histologic grade. The results indicated that atomic bomb radiation may affect the development of oncogene amplification by inducing a higher level of genomic instability and may be associated with a higher histologic grade in breast cancers in survivors.

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      Lobular neoplasia on core needle biopsy does not require excision (pages 2152–2158)

      Chandandeep S. Nagi, James E. O'Donnell, Mikhail Tismenetsky, Ira J. Bleiweiss and Shabnam M. Jaffer

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23415

      Lobular neoplasia (LN) is often an incidental finding on core needle biopsies (CNBs) performed for radiologic densities and/or calcifications. Because LN generally is considered to be a risk factor for breast carcinoma, the utility of subsequent excision is controversial. In the current study, the authors examined cases from their practice in which all CNBs were carefully correlated with the corresponding radiologic findings.

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      Breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy dosing in obese patients : Dissemination of information from clinical trials to clinical practice (pages 2159–2165)

      Christopher G. Greenman, Christina H. Jagielski and Jennifer J. Griggs

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23416

      A study of 44 cooperative group, breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy trials demonstrated variation in chemotherapy-dose determinations in obese patients. Because published reports of trials rarely provide information on dosing in obese patients, variations in dosing and lack of information may contribute to documented variation in chemotherapy doses in obese women.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Long-term outcome of esophageal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma without lymphovascular involvement after endoscopic resection (pages 2166–2172)

      Ryu Ishihara, Hideo Tanaka, Hiroyasu Iishi, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Noriya Uedo, Masaharu Tatsuta, Masahiko Yano and Shingo Ishiguro

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23418

      Overall mortality in patients with esophageal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma after endoscopic resection (ER) was higher than that in the general population, mainly due to second primary cancer. In the subgroup analysis (patients without second primary cancer diagnosed within 1 year before ER), overall mortality after ER was similar to that in the general population, which indicates the efficiency of ER as a curative treatment for esophageal mucosal squamous cell carcinoma without lymphovascular involvement.

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      Telomere length and telomerase subunits as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in Barrett carcinoma (pages 2173–2180)

      Ralf Gertler, Dietrich Doll, Matthias Maak, Marcus Feith and Robert Rosenberg

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23419

      This is the first report on the diagnostic and prognostic potential of telomere length and the telomerase subunits hTERT and hTR in Barrett carcinoma. Genetic alterations in telomere-length maintenance that were found in adjacent noncancerous mucosa suggest a “field effect” in Barrett carcinoma.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Treatment options for muscle-invasive urothelial cancer for patients who were not eligible for cystectomy or neoadjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin : Report of Southwest Oncology Group Trial 8733 (pages 2181–2187)

      Celestia S. Higano, Catherine M. Tangen, Wael A. Sakr, James Faulkner, Saul E. Rivkin, Frederick J. Meyers, Maha Hussain, Laurence H. Baker, Kenneth J. Russell and E. David Crawford

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23420

      The combination of 5-fluorouracil and radiation was tolerated well by patients who had numerous comorbidities and could not tolerate cisplatin-based therapy or cystectomy.

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      Metabolic changes during gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer : Differences from the classic metabolic syndrome (pages 2188–2194)

      Matthew R. Smith, Hang Lee, Francis McGovern, Mary Anne Fallon, Melissa Goode, Anthony L. Zietman and Joel S. Finkelstein

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23440

      In men with prostate cancer, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are associated with some features of the metabolic syndrome, including increased fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, and elevated triglycerides. In contrast to the metabolic syndrome, however, GnRH agonists increase subcutaneous fat mass, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and adiponectin, and do not alterwaist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, or C-reactive protein. These findings suggest that the term metabolic syndrome does not adequately describe the effects of GnRH agonists and may have important clinical implications for prostate cancer survivors.

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      Androgen deprivation falls as orchiectomy rates rise after changes in reimbursement in the U.S. Medicare population (pages 2195–2201)

      Christopher J. Weight, Eric A. Klein and J. Stephen Jones

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23421

      The use of medical castration in the U.S. Medicare population appears to be tied closely to reimbursement.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Prognostic factors for high-risk early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer : A Gynecologic Oncology Group study (pages 2202–2210)

      John K. Chan, Chunqiao Tian, Bradley J. Monk, Thomas Herzog, Daniel S. Kapp, Jeffrey Bell and Robert C. Young

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23390

      Age, stage, grade, and cytology are important prognostic factors in high-risk early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. This information may be used in the design of future clinical trials.

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      Endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer : 20 Years of prospectively collected data from a single center (pages 2211–2220)

      Dawn J. Storey, Robert Rush, Moira Stewart, Tzyvia Rye, Awatif Al-Nafussi, Alistair R. Williams, John F. Smyth and Hani Gabra

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23438

      Despite similar response rates to platinum-based chemotherapy, patients with pure endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancers have better overall survival than patients with pure serous ovarian cancers even when these patients have stage III disease or poorly differentiated tumors.

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      Indicators of survival duration in ovarian cancer and implications for aggressiveness of care (pages 2221–2227)

      Vivian von Gruenigen, Barbara Daly, Heidi Gibbons, Jessica Hutchins and Andrew Green

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23391

      In the current study, ovarian cancer patients who received aggressive care near the end of life did not have improved survival. Short disease remissions and increasing hospitalizations with significant clinical events should be indicators of the appropriateness of reducing cure-oriented therapies and increasing palliative interventions.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide (PEP-C) oral combination chemotherapy regimen for recurring/refractory lymphoma: Low-dose metronomic, multidrug therapy (pages 2228–2232)

      Morton Coleman, Peter Martin, Jia Ruan, Richard Furman, Ruben Niesvizky, Rebecca Elstrom, Patricia George, Thomas P. Kaufman and John P. Leonard

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23422

      Less toxic, effective chemotherapy regimens are needed for patients with recurring lymphoma. The low-dose, daily oral chemotherapy regimen PEP-C was well tolerated and very effective in 75 patients with heavily pretreated disease.

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      Survival and predictors of outcome in patients with acute leukemia admitted to the intensive care unit (pages 2233–2240)

      Snehal G. Thakkar, Alex Z. Fu, John W. Sweetenham, Zachariah A. Mciver, Sanjay R. Mohan, Giridharan Ramsingh, Anjali S. Advani, Ronald Sobecks, Lisa Rybicki, Matt Kalaycio and Mikkael A. Sekeres

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23394

      Twenty-five percent of patients with acute leukemia admitted to the ICU were alive 2 months after hospital discharge. A diagnosis of acute leukemia should not disqualify patients from an ICU admission.

    14. Lung Disease
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      Dietary flavonoid intake and lung cancer—A population-based case-control study (pages 2241–2248)

      Yan Cui, Hal Morgenstern, Sander Greenland, Donald P. Tashkin, Jenny T. Mao, Lin Cai, Wendy Cozen, Thomas M. Mack, Qing-Yi Lu and Zuo-Feng Zhang

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23398

      In this population-based case–control study, flavonoid compounds, including epicatechin, catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol, were associated inversely with lung cancer among tobacco smokers. However, similar associations among smokers were not observed among nonsmokers.

    15. Melanoma
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      Prospective assessment of the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the functional assessment of cancer Therapy-Melanoma questionnaire (pages 2249–2257)

      Janice N. Cormier, Merrick I. Ross, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Jeffrey E. Lee, Paul F. Mansfield, Luis H. Camacho, Kevin Kim, Kimberly Webster, David Cella and J. Lynn Palmer

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23424

      The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Melanoma questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for patients with melanoma that can be used for the assessment of quality of life in clinical trials.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Nuclear factor-κB activation and differential expression of survivin and Bcl-2 in human grade 2–4 astrocytomas (pages 2258–2266)

      Filippo F. Angileri, M'Hammed Aguennouz, Alfredo Conti, Domenico La Torre, Salvatore Cardali, Rosalia Crupi, Chiara Tomasello, Antonino Germanò, Giuseppe Vita and Francesco Tomasello

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23407

      NF-κB and factors involved in its intracellular process of activation were studied and were up-regulated in gliomas. Antiapoptotic genes whose expression depends on the transcriptional activity of NF-κB were hyperactivated as well, but differentially expressed in tumors with different grades of malignancy.

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      Treatment with bevacizumab and irinotecan for recurrent high-grade glial tumors (pages 2267–2273)

      Felix Bokstein, Shulim Shpigel and Deborah T. Blumenthal

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23401

      Twenty patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas were treated with bevacizumab 5 mg/kg and irinotecan 125 mg/m2 every 2 weeks. This regimen was associated with minimal toxicity and achieved a high response rate (CR + PR = 47.3%).

    18. Sarcoma
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      Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver in adults (pages 2274–2282)

      Frank Lenze, Traute Birkfellner, Philipp Lenz, Kais Hussein, Florian Länger, Hans Kreipe and Wolfram Domschke

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23431

      Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is a rare tumor that predominantly affects children but also affects adults. For this study, the authors analyzed the clinical course of 67 published patients and presented their own experience in the treatment of UESL. After diagnosis, the median survival of all patients was 29 months, and patients had significantly better survival when they received adjuvant chemotherapy after undergoing a complete surgical tumor resection.

    19. Discipline

      Medical Oncology
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      Partial splenic embolization for cancer patients with thrombocytopenia requiring systemic chemotherapy (pages 2283–2288)

      Christopher R. Kauffman, Armeen Mahvash, Scott Kopetz, Robert A. Wolff, Joe Ensor and Michael J. Wallace

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23432

      Partial splenic embolization (PSE) has been used to improve hematologic parameters related to hypersplenism. PSE for cancer patients with thrombocytopenia can be performed safely and effectively to increase platelet counts to allow for the initiation of systemic chemotherapy.

    20. Outcomes
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      Improved survival time: What can survival cure models tell us about population-based survival improvements in late-stage colorectal, ovarian, and testicular cancer? (pages 2289–2300)

      Lan Huang, Kathleen A Cronin, Karen A. Johnson, Angela B. Mariotto and Eric J. Feuer

      Article first published online: 7 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23425

      The results from this study suggested that treatment benefits for testicular and colorectal cancer in men with late-stage disease are primarily a result of increases in cure fraction, whereas survival gains for ovarian cancer occur despite persisting disease. Cure models, in combination with population-level data, provide insight into how treatment advances are changing survival and ultimately impacting mortality.

    21. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Toward population-based indicators of quality end-of-life care : Testing stakeholder agreement (pages 2301–2308)

      Eva Grunfeld, Robin Urquhart, Eric Mykhalovskiy, Amy Folkes, Grace Johnston, Frederick I. Burge, Craig C. Earle and Susan Dent

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23428

      The authors studied quality indicators (QIs) of end-of-life (EOL) care that potentially were measurable from population-based health databases. Of 19 QIs, 10 were identified by cancer care health professionals as acceptable. When professionals did not agree, the principal reasons were patient preferences, variation in local resources, and benchmarking. Patients and family caregivers also highlighted the need to consider preferences and local resources when assessing quality EOL care.

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      Changes in causes of death over time after treatment for invasive aspergillosis (pages 2309–2312)

      John R. Wingard, Patricia Ribaud, Haran T. Schlamm and Raoul Herbrecht

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23441

      The causes of death over 12 weeks were examined prospectively by a blinded data review committee using a priori defined criteria in patients treated for invasive aspergillosis (IA). Of 98 deaths, 73 occurred during the first 6 weeks and 25 during the second 6 weeks, with deaths being attributed to IA in 68% and 24% of cases in the 2 intervals, respectively.

    23. Translational Research
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      Dual focal adhesion kinase/Pyk2 inhibitor has positive effects on bone tumors : Implications for bone metastases (pages 2313–2321)

      Cedo M. Bagi, Gregory W. Roberts and Catharine J. Andresen

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23429

      The results of the current study demonstrate that the oral administration of the dual focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Pyk2 inhibitor PF-562,271 at a dose of 5 mg/kg suppressed the growth and local spread of intratibial tumors and also restored tumor-induced bone loss. This class of drugs has the potential to be effectively used alone or in combination with other anticancer therapies as well as with bisphosphonates to prevent and treat bone metastases.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Information Item
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      Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Myeloid Malignancies (pages 2324–2325)

      Payal Shah, Anthony Mato and Selina M. Luger

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23433

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      Reply to Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Myeloid Malignancies (page 2325)

      Andrea Kuendgen, Norbert Gattermann and Otto Krieger

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23434

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  5. Information Item

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    6. Information Item
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