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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 January 2008

Volume 112, Issue 2

Pages 225–446

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Treatment failure after primary and salvage therapy for prostate cancer (pages 225–227)

      Louis L. Pisters

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23158

      Salvage radical prostatectomy and salvage cryotherapy are greatly underused as potentially curative treatments in patients with recurrent prostate cancer after initial radiation therapy.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Barriers to recruiting underrepresented populations to cancer clinical trials: A systematic review (pages 228–242)

      Jean G. Ford, Mollie W. Howerton, Gabriel Y. Lai, Tiffany L. Gary, Shari Bolen, M. Chris Gibbons, Jon Tilburt, Charles Baffi, Teerath Peter Tanpitukpongse, Renee F. Wilson, Neil R. Powe and Eric B. Bass

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23157

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      Racial and ethnic minorities, older adults, rural residents, and individuals of low socioeconomic status are underrepresented among participants in cancer-related trials. In this systematic review of the literature, the results revealed numerous reported barriers to participation in cancer-related trials. However, few studies reported statistically significant associations between specific barriers and recruitment.

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      Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer : A review (pages 243–249)

      Dan S. Zuckerman and David P. Ryan

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23174

      Pancreatic cancer outcomes remain poor after surgery alone. Adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer can increase long-term survival after surgery. Whether chemotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy provides the greatest benefit is controversial, and different practice patterns have emerged in North America and Europe.

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      Development of sorafenib and other molecularly targeted agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 250–259)

      Andrew X. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23175

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      Unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carries a poor prognosis, and systemic therapy with cytotoxic agents provides marginal benefit. Improved understanding of the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis, coupled with the arrival of many newly developed, molecularly targeted agents, has provided a unique opportunity to study some of these novel agents in HCC. Recently, sorafenib demonstrated improved overall survival in patients with advanced HCC in a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Several other targeted agents that inhibit angiogenesis and epidermal growth factor receptors are in the early stages of clinical development.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Do adjuvant aromatase inhibitors increase the cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer : Meta-analysis of randomized trials (pages 260–267)

      Federica Cuppone, Emilio Bria, Sunil Verma, Kathleen I. Pritchard, Sonal Gandhi, Paolo Carlini, Michele Milella, Cecilia Nisticò, Edmondo Terzoli, Francesco Cognetti and Diana Giannarelli

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23171

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      To clarify the supposed higher risk of cardiac events provided by aromatase inhibitors compared with tamoxifen for early breast cancer, a literature-based meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials was performed. Even if it was significant, the absolute difference was relatively low, and from 160 to 180 patients were required to produce 1 cardiac event.

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      Prospective analysis of carotid artery flow in breast cancer patients treated with supraclavicular irradiation 8 or more years previously : No increase in ipsilateral carotid stenosis after radiation noted (pages 268–273)

      Wendy A. Woodward, Jean B. Durand, Susan L. Tucker, Eric A. Strom, George H. Perkins, Julia Oh, Lisa Arriaga, Delora Domain and Thomas A. Buchholz

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23172

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      In the current study, the authors performed a prospective study to examine the long-term risk of carotid artery stenosis after supraclavicular irradiation for breast cancer. No increase in carotid artery stenosis or altered carotid artery flow was noted ≥8 years after supraclavicular radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      A 35-year retrospective study of carcinoid tumors in Taiwan : Differences in distribution with a high probability of associated second primary malignancies (pages 274–283)

      Anna Fen-Yau Li, Chih-Yi Hsu, Alice Li, Ling-Chen Tai, Wen-Yih Liang, Win-Yin Li, Shyh-Haw Tsay and Jeou-Yuan Chen

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23159

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      The distribution of carcinoid tumors in Taiwanese patients differed from that in patients from the United States. Rectal carcinoids (60.5%) and thymic carcinoids (6.6%) were significantly more common in Taiwanese patients. Associated noncarcinoid malignancies were noted in 14% of patients with carcinoids, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (52.9%), lung, and genitourinary system.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Application of distance matrices to define associations between acute toxicities in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (pages 284–292)

      Giuseppe Aprile, Marco Ramoni, Dorothy Keefe and Stephen Sonis

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23182

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      Distance matrix analysis was applied to define relations between individual toxicities noted in cycle 1 therapy for patients with colorectal cancer. This new technique demonstrated nonrandom relations that suggest common pathogeneses between toxicity clusters.

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      Underuse of colorectal cancer screening in a cohort of medicare beneficiaries (pages 293–299)

      Gregory S. Cooper and Tzuyung Doug Kou

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23176

      In a large cohort of 1998 Medicare beneficiaries, only 25% of patients received guideline-recommended colorectal screening in follow-up. Follow-up screening was more common in patients who received prior screening.

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      The bone morphogenetic protein pathway is active in human colon adenomas and inactivated in colorectal cancer (pages 300–306)

      Liudmila L. Kodach, Sylvia A. Bleuming, Alex R. Musler, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, Daniel W. Hommes, Gijs R. van den Brink, Carel J. M. van Noesel, G. Johan A. Offerhaus and James C. H. Hardwick

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23160

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      The results from this study indicated that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is active in colon adenomas and is lost in the majority of colon carcinomas. Loss of BMP signaling was found to be correlated significantly with the progression of adenoma to cancer and occurred relatively early during cancer progression.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Treatment failure after primary and salvage therapy for prostate cancer : Likelihood, patterns of care, and outcomes (pages 307–314)

      Piyush K. Agarwal, Natalia Sadetsky, Badrinath R. Konety, Martin I. Resnick and Peter R. Carroll

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23161

      The likelihood of treatment failure, patterns of care, and outcomes after salvage therapy among men with prostate cancer who initially either received radiation therapy or underwent surgery were evaluated. After failing primary therapy, the majority of men received androgen-deprivation therapy, and the response was similar between both groups.

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      Multiple biomarkers improve prediction of bladder cancer recurrence and mortality in patients undergoing cystectomy (pages 315–325)

      Shahrokh F. Shariat, Pierre I. Karakiewicz, Raheela Ashfaq, Seth P. Lerner, Ganesh S. Palapattu, Richard J. Cote, Arthur I. Sagalowsky and Yair Lotan

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23162

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      Assessment of the number of altered biomarkers in the cystectomy specimen improves the prediction of bladder cancer recurrence and survival in patients with pTa-3N0M0 disease. Prospective evaluation of alteration in these biomarkers can help identify patients who would benefit from adjuvant treatment after radical cystectomy.

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      Intermittent chemotherapy in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer : Results from ASCENT, a double-blinded, randomized comparison of high-dose calcitriol plus docetaxel with placebo plus docetaxel (pages 326–330)

      Tomasz M. Beer, Christopher W. Ryan, Peter M. Venner, Daniel P. Petrylak, Gurkamal S. Chatta, J. Dean Ruether, Kim N. Chi, James Young and W. David Henner

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23163

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      Intermittent chemotherapy in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer results in a clinically significant duration of chemotherapy holidays and can be offered to a minority of patients. At the time of retreatment, the majority of patients again respond to treatment or have stabilized prostate-specific antigen values.

    10. Gynecologic Oncology
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      A prospective randomized trial of thalidomide with topotecan compared with topotecan alone in women with recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma (pages 331–339)

      Levi S. Downs Jr., Patricia L. Judson, Peter A. Argenta, Rahel Ghebre, Melissa A. Geller, Robin L. Bliss, Matthew P. Boente, William A. Nahhas, Samir Z. Abu-Ghazaleh, M. Dwight Chen and Linda F. Carson

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23164

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      Based on the array of mechanisms of action offered by thalidomide and topotecan and their antiangiogenic properties, the authors hypothesized that the combination of these 2 drugs would be more effective in the treatment of recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian cancer than topotecan alone. The results indicated that thalidomide improved the response to topotecan therapy in women with recurrent ovarian cancer, and the authors concluded that this apparent improvement in response rates warrants study through larger phase 3 trials.

    11. Head and Neck
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      Late recurrence from salivary gland cancer : When does “cure” mean cure? (pages 340–344)

      Allen M. Chen, Joaquin Garcia, Phillip J. Granchi, Jessica Johnson and David W. Eisele

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23165

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      The natural history of salivary gland cancer remains uncertain. This study demonstrates that a significant proportion of patients who are presumed to be cured of their disease at 5 years after initial treatment for salivary gland cancer will develop late recurrence with additional follow-up.

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      Poor prognosis in patients with stage I and II oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (pages 345–351)

      Kyle Rusthoven, Ari Ballonoff, David Raben and Changhu Chen

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23183

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      The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to evaluate survival in 6791 patients with stage I and II (T1-T2N0M0) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity. Five-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were significantly lower for patients who had SCC of the oral tongue compared with patients who had SCC of other oral cavity subsites (OS: hazard ratio, 1.24; P < .0001; CSS: hazard ratio, 3.04; P < .0001). The CSS for patients who had stage I and II SCC of the oral tongue also was unfavorable compared with the CSS for stage-matched patients who had SCC of other head and neck sites.

    13. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Comparison of 7 staging systems for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (pages 352–361)

      Yun Ku Cho, Jin Wook Chung, Jae Kyun Kim, Yong Sik Ahn, Mi Young Kim, Yoon Ok Park, Wan Tae Kim and Jong Hoon Byun

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23185

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      Many liver staging systems have been proposed for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who are undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. However, in the current study, the Cancer of Liver Italian Program system provided the best prognostic stratification for a cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent transarterial chemoembolization.

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      Colorectal liver metastases contract centripetally with a response to chemotherapy : A histomorphologic study (pages 362–371)

      Jennica K.S. Ng, Stefan J. Urbanski, Naurang Mangat, Andrew McKay, Francis R. Sutherland, Elijah Dixon, Scot Dowden, Scott Ernst and Oliver F. Bathe

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23184

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      Histomorphologic studies of colorectal liver metastases were performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After a partial response to chemotherapy, liver metastases shrank in a generally concentric fashion. This provides a rationale for resection of less liver after a response to chemotherapy.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Increased inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung carcinoma of smokers (pages 372–381)

      George G. Chen, Tak Wai Lee, Hu Xu, Johnson H. Y. Yip, Mingyue Li, Tony S. K. Mok and Anthony P. C. Yim

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23166

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      The study demonstrates that cigarette smoking promotes the level of iNOS/NO but suppresses the activity of caspase-3, which may lead to the proliferation and growth of lung cancer cells.

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      Temporal trends and predictors of perioperative chemotherapy use in elderly patients with resected nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 382–390)

      Jue Wang, Yong Fang Kuo, Jean Freeman, Avi B. Markowitz and James S. Goodwin

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23181

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      The authors demonstrated a trend toward the increasing use of chemotherapy and combined-modality therapy in elderly with resected nonsmall cell lung cancer during the decade from 1992 to 2002. Being younger, married, having advanced-stage tumor or adenocarcinoma histology, having a later diagnosis year, receiving radiation, and seeing an oncologist were predictors for the receipt of chemotherapy.

    17. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      Racial differences in colorectal cancer screening practices and knowledge within a low-income population (pages 391–398)

      Ann Scheck McAlearney, Katherine W. Reeves, Stephanie L. Dickinson, Kimberly M. Kelly, Cathy Tatum, Mira L. Katz and Electra D. Paskett

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23156

      Within a low-income population of medically underserved women, the authors found low rates of colorectal cancer screening across all women. The authors also found that African Americans were less likely than whites to report knowledge of colon cancer tests and were less likely to have had a screening colonoscopy within the past 10 years. White women were more likely to report embarrassment and bother as barriers to screening tests, whereas African American women reported trouble with insurance coverage.

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      Family history of cancer : Is it an accurate indicator of cancer risk in the immigrant population? (pages 399–406)

      Heather Orom, Michele L. Coté, Hector M. González, Willie Underwood III and Ann G. Schwartz

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23173

      Immigrants living in the United States were less likely to report a family history of cancer than nonimmigrants. This has the potential to impact rates of secondary prevention and use of genetic testing among immigrants.

    19. Pediatric Oncology
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      Absolute lymphocyte count is a novel prognostic indicator in ALL and AML : Implications for risk stratification and future studies (pages 407–415)

      Guillermo De Angulo, Carrie Yuen, Shana L. Palla, Peter M. Anderson and Patrick A. Zweidler-McKay

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23168

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      Leukemia is the leading cause of disease-related death in children, despite significant improvement in survival and modern risk stratification. Data demonstrate that ALC is a simple, statistically powerful measurement for patients with de novo AML and ALL.

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      Trends in childhood cancer incidence in the U.S. (1992–2004) (pages 416–432)

      Amy M. Linabery and Julie A. Ross

      Version of Record online: 11 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23169

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      A modest, nonsignificant increase in the incidence rate of all pediatric malignancies was observed in the U.S. between 1992 and 2004 (annual percent change of 0.4%; 95% confidence interval, −0.1%–0.8%); increases were detected in select malignancies and shifting trends in others. These trends reinforce an ongoing need for population-based surveillance and further etiologic studies.

    21. Translational Research
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      VEGF and VEGFR-1 are coexpressed by epithelial and stromal cells of renal cell carcinoma (pages 433–442)

      Jacqueline Rivet, Samia Mourah, Hideyuki Murata, Nicolas Mounier, Helena Pisonero, Pierre Mongiat-Artus, Pierre Teillac, Fabien Calvo, Anne Janin and Christine Dosquet

      Version of Record online: 26 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23186

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      The authors investigated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 and R-2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by laser microdissection combined with QRT-PCR in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The most soluble VEGF isoform, VEGF121 and its receptor VEGFR-1, but not R-2, were more expressed on epithelial and stromal cells of RCC as compared to nontumoral kidney. By immunofluorescent labelling VEGF and VEGFR-1 colocalized on RCC tumor epithelial and stromal cells.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Reply to Effects of Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy on Survival of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized Prospective Trial (page 444)

      David Spiegel, Lisa D. Butler, Janine Giese-Davis, Cheryl Koopman, Elaine Miller, Sue DiMiceli, Catherine Classen, Patricia Fobair and Robert W. Carlson

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23180

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      Characteristics of pediatric chemotherapy medication errors in a national error reporting database (pages 445–446)

      David S. Dickens, Diane Sinsabaugh and James B. Fahner

      Version of Record online: 12 NOV 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23177

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