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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

March 2008

Volume 112, Issue 5

Pages 955–1187

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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      Cancer vaccines: Clinical development challenges and proposed regulatory approaches for patient access to promising treatments (pages 955–961)

      Justin Stebbing, Christopher Wood, Michael Atkins, Ronald Bukowski, Stephen Litwin, Mark Bower, Andrew Parsa and Hyam Levitsky

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23273

      The authors discuss 3 potential regulatory solutions to better enable the development and commercialization of therapeutic cancer vaccines: a proposed cost recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. The objective of each solution is to balance a complex equation of biologic rationale, weight of evidence of efficacy and safety, regulatory expectations, and cost and timeline of clinical development.

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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      Kaposi sarcoma : Appraisal of therapeutic agents (pages 962–965)

      Liron Pantanowitz

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23263

      Despite major advancements, the optimal treatment for Kaposi sarcoma has yet to be defined. Comparable standards employing existing therapies to satisfactorily manage all epidemiologic forms of Kaposi sarcoma, and the utilization of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies with innovative surrogate endpoints to appraise their efficacy, are required.

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      “Limited” prostate cancer on biopsy : A note of caution (pages 966–967)

      Peter N. Schlegel

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23274

      The excellent meta-analysis in this issue of Cancer by Harnden and colleagues confirms that prostate biopsy provides an incomplete evaluation of prostate cancer volume. Even at its earliest defined state of detection, prostate cancer may be an advanced process. These observations suggest concern with the process of active surveillance for “early” or “minimal” prostate cancers.

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      Moving beyond the “1 size fits all” paradigm (pages 968–970)

      John T. Wei

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23288

      Mismatches between pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and actual treatment received for prostate cancer are common. Given the important influence of pretreatment HRQOL on post-treatment outcomes, the counseling processes used by physicians should be tailored to include pretreatment HRQOL.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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      The clinical management of patients with a small volume of prostatic cancer on biopsy: What are the risks of progression? : A systematic review and meta-analysis (pages 971–981)

      Patricia Harnden, Brian Naylor, Michael D. Shelley, Hayley Clements, Bernadette Coles and Malcolm D. Mason

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23277

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      The authors conducted a systematic evaluation of the literature regarding the outcomes of men who were diagnosed on the basis of a small volume of cancer in prostatic biopsies. The results indicated that, despite differences in study design and reporting, a significant proportion of patients with microfocal cancer, regardless of how it was defined, had adverse pathologic findings and a significant risk of prostate-specific antigen recurrence after undergoing radical prostatectomy.

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      Practical guidelines for the management of interferon-α-2b side effects in patients receiving adjuvant treatment for melanoma : Expert opinion (pages 982–994)

      Axel Hauschild, Helen Gogas, Ahmad Tarhini, Mark R. Middleton, Alessandro Testori, Brigitte Dréno and John M. Kirkwood

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23251

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      Interferon (IFN)-α-2b is the only effective adjuvant therapy for melanoma at high risk of recurrence that is approved by regulatory authorities worldwide. Because IFN toxicities increase the risk of poor treatment compliance and the potential for impaired benefit, practical guidelines have been developed to assist clinicians in the management of IFN-associated toxicity.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Comparison of triple-negative and estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast carcinoma using quantitative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography imaging parameters : A potentially useful method for disease characterization (pages 995–1000)

      Sandip Basu, Wengen Chen, Julia Tchou, Ayse Mavi, Tevfik Cermik, Brian Czerniecki, Mitchell Schnall and Abass Alavi

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23226

      In this prospective research study, the authors were able to demonstrate that “triple-negative” breast carcinomas were more active metabolically than cancers with estrogen receptor-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative receptor patterns, as demonstrated by quantitative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging parameters. Breast lesions with triple-negative cancer cells were detected with 100% sensitivity using technique. This observation provides an explanation for the aggressive behavior of these malignancies; thus, FDG-PET can be used to further characterized breast cancer lesions and to predict prognosis in this population.

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      Effective inhibition of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss by zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole : ZO-FAST study results (pages 1001–1010)

      Nigel J. Bundred, Ian D. Campbell, Neville Davidson, Richard H. DeBoer, Holger Eidtmann, Alain Monnier, Patrick Neven, Gunter von Minckwitz, Joel C. Miller, Nora L. Schenk and Robert E. Coleman

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23259

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      Aromatase inhibitors may be associated with bone loss and higher incidence of fracture; this 5-year study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of immediate versus delayed bone protection therapy with zoledronic acid. After 1 year, results from the ZO-FAST trial indicated that immediate 4 mg zoledronic acid therapy administered on a 6-month schedule prevented bone loss in postmenopausal women who were receiving adjuvant letrozole for early stage breast cancer.

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      Is mode of breast cancer detection associated with cancer treatment in the United States? (pages 1011–1019)

      K. Robin Yabroff, Linda C. Harlan, Limin X. Clegg, Rachel Ballard-Barbash, Jennifer Stevens and Donald L. Weaver

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23260

      Women who had breast cancer detected by methods other than mammography were slightly more likely to receive guideline-consistent therapy than women who had breast cancer detected by mammography. Future research exploring mode of detection, guideline-consistent treatment, and survival among women with recently diagnosed breast cancer may enhance clinicians' understanding of the factors associated with breast cancer prognosis.

    4. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Lymphovascular invasion as a tool to further subclassify T1b esophageal adenocarcinoma (pages 1020–1027)

      Putao Cen, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Arlene M. Correa, Tsung-Teh Wu, Jeffery H. Lee, William A. Ross, Marta Davilla, Stephen G. Swisher, Norio Fukami, Asif Rashid, Dipen Maru and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23265

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      Although endoscopic therapy may be adequate for patients with T1a esophageal adenocarcinoma, patients with T1b disease require esophagectomy/lymphadenectomy. In this study, the authors hypothesized that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) status would subclassify T1b cancers and facilitate new therapeutic strategies. The results demonstrated that LVI distinguishes the biologic behavior of early esophageal cancer, and patients who have T1b esophageal adenocarcinoma without LVI have a clinical biology similar to that of patients who have T1a tumors.

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      JC virus T-antigen expression in sporadic adenomatous polyps of the colon (pages 1028–1036)

      Woon-Tae Jung, Mei-Shu Li, Ajay Goel and C. Richard Boland

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23266

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      JC virus (JCV) T-antigen (T-Ag) DNA sequences are frequently present in adenomatous polyps of the colon, and T-Ag expression can also be detected in the neoplastic nuclei of these premalignant lesions. The study suggests that JCV T-Ag is involved in the earlier stages of multistep colorectal carcinogenesis.

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      Myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of developing pancreatic adenocarcinoma (pages 1037–1042)

      Paul Wheatley-Price, Kofi Asomaning, Amy Reid, Rihong Zhai, Li Su, Wei Zhou, Andrew Zhu, David P. Ryan, David C. Christiani and Geoffrey Liu

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23267

      Myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase are genes involved with regulation of inflammation. In this case–control study, the authors demonstrated that polymorphisms of these genes are associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      Is there an optimal comorbidity index for prostate cancer? (pages 1043–1050)

      Shabbir M. H. Alibhai, Marc Leach, George A. Tomlinson, Murray D. Krahn, Neil E. Fleshner and Gary Naglie

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23269

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      Comorbidity is an important predictor of both receipt of curative treatment and overall survival in men with prostate cancer. However, the optimal comorbidity index for use in prostate cancer research remains unclear, and may depend on both the specific patient population and the outcome of interest.

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      Delayed intervention of sporadic renal masses undergoing active surveillance (pages 1051–1057)

      Paul L. Crispen, Rosalia Viterbo, Eric B. Fox, Richard E. Greenberg, David Y. T. Chen and Robert G. Uzzo

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23268

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      The effect of delayed intervention on surgical approaches and subsequent pathologic findings in renal cancer are unknown. In the current series, a period of active surveillance followed by delayed intervention of renal cancer was not associated with pathologic upstaging and did not limit treatment options for localized disease.

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      Cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer chemoprevention : A quality of life-years analysis (pages 1058–1065)

      Robert S. Svatek, J. Jack Lee, Claus G. Roehrborn, Scott M. Lippman and Yair Lotan

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23276

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      Using a Markov model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the authors found that finasteride is unlikely to be cost-effective in preventing prostate cancer when only considering the impact on survival differences among treated versus untreated groups. However, chemoprevention with finasteride may be cost-effective in high-risk populations when taking into consideration adjustments for the impact on quality of life.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Neck treatment of patients with early stage oral tongue cancer : Comparison between observation, supraomohyoid dissection, and extended dissection (pages 1066–1075)

      Shiang-Fu Huang, Chung-Jan Kang, Chen-Yu Lin, Kang-Hsing Fan, Tzu-Chen Yen, Hung-Ming Wang, I-How Chen, Chun-Ta Liao, Ann-Joy Cheng and Joseph Tung-Chieh Chang

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23278

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      Elective neck treatment may improve tumor control and overall survival rates in patients with early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Supraomohyoid neck dissection is sufficient to remove the majority of lymph node metastasis in this clinical entity. Skip metastasis to level IV lymph nodes is rare.

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      Lymph node-positive head and neck cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy : Can treatment response determine the extent of neck dissection? (pages 1076–1082)

      Anamaria R. Yeung, Stanley L. Liauw, Robert J. Amdur, Anthony A. Mancuso, Russell W. Hinerman, Christopher G. Morris, Douglas B. Villaret, John W. Werning and William M. Mendenhall

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23279

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      Postradiotherapy (RT) neck dissection can be limited to the neck levels of residual adenopathy on post-RT computed tomography.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Phase 1/2 trial of BMS-275291 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi sarcoma : A multicenter trial of the AIDS Malignancy Consortium (pages 1083–1088)

      Brett T. Brinker, Susan E. Krown, Jeannette Y. Lee, Ethel Cesarman, Amy Chadburn, Lawrence D. Kaplan, David H. Henry and Jamie H. Von Roenn

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23108

      The safety and efficacy of a novel, orally bioavailable matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, BMS-275291, was evaluated in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated Kaposi sarcoma and the relation between changes in the percentage of apoptotic cells in tumor biopsies and response was investigated. Unacceptable toxicity and inadequate efficacy precluded further development of this agent, and an attempt to use apoptosis as a surrogate for response was unsuccessful.

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      Red blood cell transfusions and iron overload in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (pages 1089–1095)

      Elias Jabbour, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Charles Koller and Ali Taher

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23280

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      Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who are transfused chronically with red blood cells can become iron overloaded after 10 to 20 transfusions. Iron overload can cause severe clinical consequences and can have a negative impact on overall patient survival and leukemia-free survival.

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      In-hospital complications of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies : Clinical and economic outcomes from the nationwide inpatient sample (pages 1096–1105)

      Jeffrey A. Jones, Muzaffar H. Qazilbash, Ya-Chen T. Shih, Scott B. Cantor, Catherine D. Cooksley and Linda S. Elting

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23281

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      Adverse events complicate >50% of hospitalizations for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Frequently encountered complications increase not only the cost of the procedure but also the risk for in-hospital mortality.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Pneumonectomy after chemoradiation : The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital experience (pages 1106–1113)

      Aaron M. Allen, Steven J. Mentzer, Beow Y. Yeap, Ricardo Soto, Elizabeth H. Baldini, Michael S. Rabin, David J. Sugarbaker and Raphael Bueno

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23283

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      Recent evidence from a phase 3 randomized trial has called into question the use of chemoradiation prior to pneumonectomy in nonsmall cell lung cancer. In this single-institutional retrospective series, the mortality of a pneumonectomy after chemoradiation was low at 6%.

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      Epidermal growth factor receptor immunohistochemistry : Comparison of antibodies and cutoff points to predict benefit from gefitinib in a phase 3 placebo-controlled study in advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (pages 1114–1121)

      Fred R. Hirsch, Rafal Dziadziuszko, Nick Thatcher, Helen Mann, Claire Watkins, Dinah V. Parums, Georgina Speake, Brian Holloway, Paul A. Bunn Jr and Wilbur A. Franklin

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23282

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      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunostaining with the Dako PharmDx kit according to percent of cells with positive staining appears to predict for survival outcome with gefitinib better than Zymed antibody according to staining index. If EGFR immunohistochemistry is to be applied for patient selection, low cutoff levels to define protein positivity should be used.

    17. Disease

      Lung Disease
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      Methylation status of breast cancer resistance protein detected by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis is correlated inversely with its expression in drug-resistant lung cancer cells (pages 1122–1130)

      Hirofumi Nakano, Yoichi Nakamura, Hiroshi Soda, Megumi Kamikatahira, Kanako Uchida, Mineyo Takasu, Takeshi Kitazaki, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Katsumi Nakatomi, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shigeru Kohno and Kazuhiro Tsukamoto

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23285

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      The results from this study indicated that there was an inverse correlation between promoter methylation of the breast cancer resistance protein gene (BCRP) and BCRP expression at the messenger RNA level and at the protein level in both small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancer cells. Promoter demethylation of BCRP may be one of the mechanisms of BCRP expression in lung cancer cells.

    18. Disease Site

      Melanoma
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      Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma (pages 1131–1138)

      Ahmad A. Tarhini, John M. Kirkwood, Hussein Tawbi, William E. Gooding, Mohammed F. Islam and Sanjiv S. Agarwala

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23284

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      A second-line, phase 2, single-arm study of arsenic trioxide was conducted in patients with inoperable American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV melanoma. As tested in this trial, arsenic trioxide was well tolerated and found to have limited activity in patients with metastatic melanoma.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 119, Issue 4, 924, Version of Record online: 28 AUG 2012

    19. Neuro-Oncology
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      Multi-institutional phase II study of temozolomide administered twice daily in the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (pages 1139–1146)

      Casilda Balmaceda, David Peereboom, Susan Pannullo, Ying Kuen K. Cheung, Paul G. Fisher, Jane Alavi, Michael Sisti, Johnson Chen and Robert L. Fine

      Version of Record online: 1 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23167

      This multicenter study investigated the safety and efficacy of twice-daily dosing of temozolomide (90 mg/m2) in patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas at their first, second, or third recurrence. This regimen was well tolerated and demonstrated activity that compared favorably with other dosing schedules of temozolomide reported in the literature.

    20. Sarcoma
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      Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as second-line therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced classic Kaposi sarcoma : A retrospective study (pages 1147–1152)

      Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Rossella Di Trolio, Vincenzo Montesarchio, Giovanna Palmieri, Paola Nappa, Mario Delfino, Sabino De Placido and Bruce J. Dezube

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23264

      Classic Kaposi sarcoma (CKS) is a rare neoplasm that occurs predominantly in elderly subjects and has a variable clinical evolution. The clinical course is usually indolent, but the neoplasm occasionally progresses rapidly and spreads to internal organs, necessitating systemic chemotherapy. To the authors' knowledge, few data exist regarding the use of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) as first-line and second-line treatment in patients with advanced CKS. The current retrospective study was conducted to investigate the activity and toxicity of PLD in pretreated patients with aggressive, nonvisceral CKS.

    21. Discipline

      Cancer Disparities
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      Determinants of breast cancer knowledge among newly diagnosed, low-income, medically underserved women with breast cancer (pages 1153–1161)

      Judy Y. Chen, Allison L. Diamant, Amardeep Thind and Rose C. Maly

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23262

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      Among women with breast cancer, greater breast cancer (BC) knowledge has been associated with greater participation in treatment decision-making, patient satisfaction, and survival; low-income, medically underserved women may be at particular risk for less knowledge. In this study, significant associations of patient self-efficacy and physician emotional support with BC knowledge were observed, and further research is needed to investigate whether interventions that target these 2 domains may be effective in increasing BC knowledge in disadvantaged populations.

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      Racial and ethnic differences in treatment and survival among adults with primary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma (pages 1162–1168)

      Steve R. Martinez, Anthony S. Robbins, Frederick J. Meyers, Richard J. Bold, Vijay P. Khatri and James E. Goodnight Jr

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23261

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      The results from this study indicated that there are significant racial/ethnic differences in treatment and survival among adults with extremity soft tissue sarcoma. Compared with whites, survival was poorer for blacks but better for Asians.

    23. Epidemiology
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      Caffeine, alcohol, smoking, and the risk of incident epithelial ovarian cancer (pages 1169–1177)

      Shelley S. Tworoger, Dorota M. Gertig, Margaret A. Gates, Jonathan L. Hecht and Susan E. Hankinson

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23275

      The modifiable risk factors for ovarian cancer were examined and it was found that cigarette smoking increased the risk only for mucinous ovarian tumors, whereas alcohol intake was not associated with risk. However, an inverse association was observed between caffeine intake and ovarian cancer risk, particularly in women not using hormones. This finding merits further study.

    24. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Surviving recurrence: Psychological and quality-of-life recovery (pages 1178–1187)

      Hae-Chung Yang, Lisa M. Thornton, Charles L. Shapiro and Barbara L. Andersen

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23272

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      Physical, psychological, and quality-of-life trajectories during the year after a diagnosis of breast cancer recurrence were investigated. Despite substantial physical burden, patients experienced improvements in psychological adjustment and quality of life, underscoring their resilience.

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