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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 April 2008

Volume 112, Issue 8

Pages 1643–1870

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      High-dose chemotherapy for recurrent medulloblastoma : Time for a reappraisal (pages 1643–1645)

      Amar Gajjar

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23352

      A stringently selected group of pediatric patients with recurrent medulloblastoma have been salvaged by high-dose chemotherapy. Based on the pediatric experience, the authors of the current study used a retrospective institutional series to demonstrate that adult patients with recurrent medulloblastoma who are treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue enjoy a longer duration of disease control and overall survival than patients treated with standard-dose chemotherapy at the time of disease recurrence.

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      Barriers to the diffusion of advanced surgical techniques (pages 1646–1649)

      Lee Richstone and Louis R. Kavoussi

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23369

      The diffusion of laparoscopy and nephron-sparing surgery for the management of renal cell carcinoma has occurred at an alarmingly slow pace. Complex physician, economic, and marketing forces are responsible for this significant quality-of-care concern.

  2. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      Active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer : Review of the current literature (pages 1650–1659)

      Marc A. Dall'Era, Matthew R. Cooperberg, June M. Chan, Benjamin J. Davies, Peter C. Albertsen, Laurence H. Klotz, Christopher A. Warlick, Lars Holmberg, Donald E. Bailey Jr, Meredith E. Wallace, Philip W. Kantoff and Peter R. Carroll

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23373

      Active surveillance with delayed intervention appears to be a viable option for carefully selected men with low-risk prostate cancer. Although a significant number of men may ultimately require other forms of therapy, active surveillance offers the opportunity to delay active treatment and its associated morbidities until evidence of clinical progression is found. In the absence of long-term data, results from current studies must be interpreted with caution and any men electing surveillance must be monitored carefully and frequently.

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      Mechanisms of apoptosis resistance and treatment strategies to overcome them in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 1660–1671)

      Robert G. Uzzo, Naomi B. Haas, Paul L. Crispen and Vladimir M. Kolenko

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23318

      Significant advances have been made that increase the understanding of apoptotic pathways and mechanisms of apoptosis resistance observed in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. For this review, the authors focused on established aberrations of apoptosis in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and they have described novel treatment strategies to overcome them.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Distinction between isolated tumor cells and micrometastases in breast cancer : Is it reliable and useful? (pages 1672–1678)

      Isabelle de Mascarel, Gaetan MacGrogan, Marc Debled, Veronique Brouste and Louis Mauriac

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23368

      Differences in classifying a unique lymph node metastasis ≤2 mm according to the AJCC and UICC definitions and the method of measurement were found in 136 (40%) to 151 (45%) of 337 patients with primary operable breast cancer. The distinction between isolated tumor cells and micrometastases is difficult, without any prognostic significance, and seems more useful for staging than for therapy. Complete axillary dissection is usually performed in pN0(i+) and pN1(mi) patients; furthermore, chemotherapy is not indicated or debatable when micrometastases are the only 1 pejorative criterion.

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      Correlates of patient satisfaction and provider trust after breast-conserving surgery (pages 1679–1687)

      Jennifer F. Waljee, Emily S. Hu, Lisa A. Newman and Amy K. Alderman

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23351

      Although many women with breast cancer are dissatisfied with their treatment, the effect of postoperative outcomes on patient satisfaction is unknown. For patients who undergo breast-conserving surgery, breast asymmetry is an important correlate of patient satisfaction with the treatment process beyond the need for additional surgery or the occurrence of postoperative complications.

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Frequent overexpression of Aurora Kinase A in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas correlates with potent antiapoptotic functions (pages 1688–1698)

      Altaf A. Dar, Alexander Zaika, Maria B. Piazuelo, Pelayo Correa, Tatsuki Koyama, Abbes Belkhiri, Kay Washington, Antoni Castells, Manuel Pera and Wael El-Rifai

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23371

      Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is located at 20q13, a region that is frequently amplified in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. This study reports frequent overexpression of AURKA transcript in upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (47%; P = .001). Immunohistochemical analysis of 130 tumors demonstrated moderate-to-strong immunostaining of AURKA in >50% of upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Overexpression of AURKA provided protection against drug-induced apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells (AGS and RKO) (P = .006) and RIE-1 primary intestinal epithelial cells (P = .001). Overexpression of AURKA led to a remarkable reduction in the transcription activity of p53, with subsequent reductions in transcript and protein levels of its downstream proapoptotic transcription.

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      Association of interindividual differences in p14ARF promoter methylation with single nucleotide polymorphism in primary colorectal cancer (pages 1699–1707)

      Mi Yeon Kang, Bo Bin Lee, Yong Ick Ji, Eun Hyun Jung, Ho-Kyung Chun, Sang Yong Song, Seong-Eun Park, Joobae Park and Duk-Hwan Kim

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23335

      CpG island hypermethylation has been reported at the promoter region of many tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancers. However, there are significant interindividual differences in the degree of DNA methylation in colorectal cancers. The results from this study suggested that a single nucleotide polymorphism around the promoter region of a gene may be involved in the interindividual differences in susceptibility to promoter methylation among individuals with colorectal cancer.

    5. Genitourinary Disease
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      Diffusion of surgical innovation among patients with kidney cancer (pages 1708–1717)

      David C. Miller, Christopher S. Saigal, Mousumi Banerjee, Jan Hanley and Mark S. Litwin

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23372

      Partial nephrectomy and laparoscopy have been used relatively infrequently among Medicare beneficiaries with kidney cancer in the United States, and most of the variance in their use has been attributable to surgeon-specific factors rather than patient- or tumor-specific factors. Consequently, dismantling residual barriers to surgeons' adoption of partial nephrectomy and laparoscopy is an important step toward improving the quality of care provided to patients with kidney cancer.

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      Negative influence of changing biopsy practice patterns on the predictive value of prostate-specific antigen for cancer detection on prostate biopsy (pages 1718–1725)

      Michael J. Schwartz, David H. Hwang, Andrew J. Hung, Jullet Han, Justin W. McClain, M. Mendel Shemtov, Alexis E. Te, R. Ernest Sosa, E. Darracott Vaughan Jr and Douglas S. Scherr

      Article first published online: 10 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23353

      A correlation between prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and positive prostate biopsy rate was established in an era when biopsy practice patterns were much different from what they are today. Increasing the number of biopsy cores and the proportion of tumors diagnosed in men with a PSA between 2.0 ng/mL and 4.0 ng/mL has negatively influenced the predictive value of PSA for cancer detection.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Lack of reliability of CA125 response criteria with anti-VEGF molecularly targeted therapy (pages 1726–1732)

      Nilofer S. Azad, Christina M. Annunziata, Seth M. Steinberg, Lori Minasian, Ahalya Premkumar, Catherine Chow, Herbert L. Kotz and Elise C. Kohn

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23374

      CA125 is widely used for response assessment in ovarian cancer patients who have been treated with cytotoxic therapy, but CA125 has never been validated in molecularly targeted therapy. In this phase I study of sorafenib and bevacizumab, CA125 concentrations were not reliable in predicting response to therapy in 15 ovarian cancer patients.

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      Expression of the nuclear export protein chromosomal region maintenance/exportin 1/Xpo1 is a prognostic factor in human ovarian cancer (pages 1733–1743)

      Aurelia Noske, Wilko Weichert, Silvia Niesporek, Annika Röske, Ann-Christin Buckendahl, Ines Koch, Jalid Sehouli, Manfred Dietel and Carsten Denkert

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23354

      The nuclear export protein chromosomal region maintenance/exportin 1/Xpo1 (CRM1) is expressed in a subpopulation of ovarian carcinomas with an aggressive behavior and is related to poor patient outcome as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with the CMR1-inhibitor leptomycin B revealed a reduction of COX-2 expression. The authors suggest that CRM1 may be an interesting biomarker for the assessment of patient prognosis and as a molecular target for anticancer treatment.

    9. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Molecular basis explanation for imatinib resistance of BCR-ABL due to T315I and P-loop mutations from molecular dynamics simulations (pages 1744–1753)

      Tai-Sung Lee, Steven J. Potts, Hagop Kantarjian, Jorge Cortes, Francis Giles and Maher Albitar

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23355

      Molecular dynamics simulations on 11 ABL mutants demonstrated that large-scale computational simulations could offer insight that simple homology modeling methods cannot provide into the problem of BCR-ABL imatinib resistance. Contrary to previous reports, in the current study, simulations suggested that imatinib resistance of the theronine 315-to-isoleucine mutation is caused mainly by the breakdown of interactions between imatinib and both E286 and M290.

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      High-dose melphalan-based autotransplants for multiple myeloma : The Arkansas experience since 1989 in 3077 patients (pages 1754–1764)

      Mauricio Pineda-Roman, Bart Barlogie, Elias Anaissie, Maurizio Zangari, Vanessa Bolejack, Frits van Rhee, Guido Tricot and John Crowley

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23327

      Reviewing the Arkansas experience with >3000 successive patients who underwent autotransplantation for multiple myeloma, the post-transplantation outcomes (median overall survival, event-free survival, and complete remission duration) were superior in 1078 patients who were enrolled in Total Therapy front-line regimens (92 months, 52 months, and 73 months, respectively) compared with 1104 patients who received salvage protocol therapy (44 months, 24 months, and 33 months, respectively) and with 895 patients who were treated off protocol (37 months, 17 months, and 24 months, respectively). Independently adverse variables that affected all 3 endpoints included the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities of the hypodiploidy/deletion 13 variety, platelet count >100,000/μL, albumin <3.0 g/dL, β-2-microglobulin ≥3 mg/L, and C-reactive protein ≥6 mg/L, whereas both complete response and second transplantation favored prolonged overall and event-free survival.

    11. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Pilot study of combination chemotherapy of S-1, a novel oral DPD inhibitor, and interferon-α for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis (pages 1765–1771)

      Masato Nakamura, Hiroaki Nagano, Shigeru Marubashi, Atsushi Miyamoto, Yutaka Takeda, Shogo Kobayashi, Hiroshi Wada, Takehiro Noda, Keizo Dono, Koji Umeshita and Morito Monden

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23356

      To the authors' knowledge, there is no effective therapy for extrahepatic metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In a pilot study, the results of combination therapy of S-1, a novel oral DPD inhibitor, and interferon-alpha are reported for HCC patients with extrahepatic metastasis.

    12. Lung Disease
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      A phase 2 study of gemcitabine and epirubicin for the treatment of pleural mesothelioma : A North Central Cancer Treatment Study, N0021 (pages 1772–1779)

      Scott H. Okuno, Robert Delaune, Jeff A. Sloan, Nathan R. Foster, Matthew J. Maurer, Marie-Christine Aubry, Kendrith M. Rowland Jr, Gamini S. Soori, Daniel A. Nikcevich, Carl G. Kardinal, Donald W. Northfelt and Alex A. Adjei

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23313

      The high-dose gemcitabine and epirubicin regimen has activity against malignant pleural mesothelioma but is associated with high hematologic toxicity. The lower dose regimen was found to be better tolerated, but demonstrated minimal activity.

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      Pulmonary resection in patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer treated with gamma-knife radiosurgery for synchronous brain metastases (pages 1780–1786)

      Seung-Yeob Yang, Dong Gyu Kim, Se-Hoon Lee, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sun Ha Paek, Joo Hyun Kim, Hee-Won Jung and Dae Hee Han

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23357

      Pulmonary resection with a gamma-knife radiosurgery protocol could prolong survival in patients with thoracic stage I and/or II nonsmall-cell lung cancer, no extracranial metastases, and a limited number of small synchronous brain metastases.

    14. Melanoma
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      Local environmental influences on uveal melanoma : Vitreous humor promotes uveal melanoma invasion, whereas the aqueous can be inhibitory (pages 1787–1794)

      David Canovas, Ian G. Rennie, Carmel E. Nichols and Karen Sisley

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23358

      Vitreous is a significant stimulator of uveal melanoma invasion, but aqueous can inhibit. The response also reflects how different tumors interact with the humors and TIMP3 and TGF-β2 may regulate the response.

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      Age and gender are significant independent predictors of survival in primary cutaneous melanoma (pages 1795–1804)

      Konstantinos Lasithiotakis, Ulrike Leiter, Friedegund Meier, Thomas Eigentler, Gizela Metzler, Matthias Moehrle, Helmut Breuninger and Claus Garbe

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23359

      Older age and male gender are associated with late-diagnosed primary melanoma that necessitates expansion of current preventive strategies in order to include these subgroups. Age and gender are independent determinants of the outcome of patients with cutaneous melanoma. However, the survival preponderance of women is lost after the age of 65 years and the survival advantage of younger age is more pronounced in women than in men.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in adults with recurrent embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (pages 1805–1811)

      Paula Gill, Mark Litzow, Jan Buckner, Carola Arndt, Timothy Moynihan, Teresa Christianson, Stephen Ansell and Evanthia Galanis

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23362

      Embryonal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) (medulloblastoma, cerebral neuroblastoma, pineoblastoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors) are rare in adults. Patients with recurrent disease have extremely poor outcomes. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has demonstrated promising results in children with recurrent disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate adult patients with embryonal CNS tumors who were treated with HDC with ASCT and compare their outcomes with those of patients who received conventional-dose chemotherapy. HDC with ASCT was associated with increased survival (P = .044) and time to progression (P = .028) in this patient population.

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      Primary central nervous system lymphoma : Monocenter, long-term, intent-to-treat analysis (pages 1812–1820)

      Philipp Kiewe, Lars Fischer, Peter Martus, Eckhard Thiel and Agnieszka Korfel

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23377

      The long-term data from a large, single-center, intent-to-treat analysis showed promising survival in immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) treated with relatively mild high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy and effective salvage treatment. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center score proved useful in predicting survival. The results of the current study underscore the importance of treating PCNSL patients at an experienced institution.

    18. Sarcoma
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      Lymphadenectomy for isolated lymph node metastasis from extremity soft-tissue sarcomas (pages 1821–1826)

      Waddah B. Al-Refaie, Robert H.I. Andtbacka, Joe Ensor, Peter W.T. Pisters, Tammy L. Ellis, Anita Shrout, Kelly K. Hunt, Janice N. Cormier, Raphael E. Pollock and Barry W. Feig

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23363

      In patients with isolated nodal involvement from extremity soft-tissue sarcoma, lymphadenectomy in the setting of a multimodality approach appears to offer prolonged survival benefit.

    19. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Detection of brain metastases from small cell lung cancer : Consequences of changing imaging techniques (CT versus MRI) (pages 1827–1834)

      Tatjana Seute, Pieter Leffers, Guul P.M. ten Velde and Albert Twijnstra

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23361

      The estimated prevalence of brain metastases increases when MRI is used instead of CT. Patients with a detected single brain metastasis survive longer than patients with multiple brain metastases. The use of MRI makes fewer patients eligible for prophylactic cranial irradiation.

    20. Pediatric Oncology
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      Subclinical late cardiac toxicity in childhood cancer survivors : Impact on self-reported health (pages 1835–1844)

      Cheryl L. Cox, Shesh N. Rai, David Rosenthal, Sean Phipps and Melissa M. Hudson

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23378

      In this study, cardiac dysfunction secondary to cardiotoxic treatment was linked to self-reported health in survivors of childhood cancer, even in the absence of clinically evident cardiotoxicity. Survivors' health perceptions may be an indicator of unidentified sequelae that should be investigated and monitored.

    21. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Moderators of the effects of exercise training in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy : A randomized controlled trial (pages 1845–1853)

      Kerry S. Courneya, Donald C. McKenzie, John R. Mackey, Karen Gelmon, Robert D. Reid, Christine M. Friedenreich, Aliya B. Ladha, Caroline Proulx, Jeffrey K. Vallance, Kirstin Lane, Yutaka Yasui and Roanne J. Segal

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23379

      Readily available personal and clinical variables, such as patient preference, marital status, age, disease stage, and chemotherapy regimen, predicted objective and patient-rated responses to exercise training in patients with breast cancer who were receiving chemotherapy.

    22. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Proxy perspectives regarding end-of-life care for persons with cancer (pages 1854–1861)

      Marie Bakitas, Tim A. Ahles, Karen Skalla, Frances C. Brokaw, Ira Byock, Brett Hanscom, Kathleen Doyle Lyons and Mark T. Hegel

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23381

      Family proxy perspectives regarding a decedent's end of life care in an early identification palliative care demonstration project were measured. High rates of advance care planning, hospice involvement, and death in the preferred location were tempered by high rates of proxy-reported pain.

    23. Translational Research
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      Systematic review of statistical methods used in molecular marker studies in cancer (pages 1862–1868)

      Andrew J. Vickers, Kwang Jang, Daniel Sargent, Hans Lilja and Michael W. Kattan

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23365

      Although there is wide interest in the use of molecular markers for the early detection of cancer, the prediction of disease outcome, and the selection of patients for chemotherapy, only a small number of molecular markers have been successfully integrated into clinical practice. In a review of 129 articles on molecular markers, it was found that statistical methods focused on testing for statistical associations, rather than assessing a marker's clinical value.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Articles
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. You have free access to this content
      Sentinel lymph node in vulvar cancer (page 1869)

      Niraj N. Mahajan

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23376

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      Reply to Sentinel Lymph Node in Vulvar Cancer (pages 1869–1870)

      Jan Hauspy, Allan Covens, Marlo Beiner, Ian Harley, Lisa Erlich, Golnar Rasty and Jan Hauspy

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23380

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