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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 September 2008

Volume 113, Issue 5

Pages 887–1112

  1. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Cancerscope (pages 887–889)

      Carrie Printz

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23846

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      The power of prediction (pages 890–892)

      Harry B. Burke

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23675

      Medical prediction has the power to chart patients' futures and to change their fate. It is extremely difficult to make predictions explicit, but it is important to do so in order to determine the best treatment for an individual patient. The challenge is to discover, model, and validate biological factors in order to capture the disease process represented by the factors, and to use the power of the disease to predict its outcome. Chen et al added bone mineral density to the Gail model and achieved an ROC of 0.62. Their research highlights how difficult it is to create clinically useful risk models.

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      Genetic stratification of Wilms tumor : Is WT1 gene analysis ready for prime time? (pages 893–896)

      James I. Geller

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23673

      Subsequent to the initial indentification of the Wilms tumor-supressor gene (WT1) two decades ago, novel insights pertaining to the molecular and genetic heterogenous nature of Wilms tumor have reshaped our understanding of this cancer. Additional genotype-phenotype correlations are beginning to emerge, raising new questions about how to best evaluate and treat affected children.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Clinical and therapeutic implications of the mutational status of IgVH in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (pages 897–906)

      Mohamed A. Kharfan-Dabaja, Julio C. Chavez, Khadija A. Khorfan and Javier Pinilla-Ibarz

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23671

      Novel biologic and genetic prognostic markers are providing tools for better prediction of responses, disease progression and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The presence of unmutated IgVH is clearly an independent predictor of outcome in patients with CLL.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Hip bone density predicts breast cancer risk independently of Gail score : Results From the Women's Health Initiative (pages 907–915)

      Zhao Chen, Leslie Arendell, Mikel Aickin, Jane Cauley, Cora E. Lewis and Rowan Chlebowski

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23674

      Higher bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with increased breast cancer risk independent of the Gail score in postmenopausal women. Using both BMD and Gail score may improve prediction rates for incident breast cancer.

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      Intracystic papillary carcinoma : A review of 917 cases (pages 916–920)

      Julia Grabowski, Sidney L. Salzstein, Georgia Robins Sadler and Sarah Blair

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23723

      Intracystic papillary carcinoma (IPC) is a rare breast malignancy with an excellent prognosis. There is no significant difference in outcome between in situ and invasive tumors. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be a prudent way to evaluate axillary involvement in patients with IPC.

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Radioembolization with selective internal radiation microspheres for neuroendocrine liver metastases (pages 921–929)

      Julie King, Richard Quinn, Derek M. Glenn, Julia Janssen, Denise Tong, Winston Liaw and David L. Morris

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23685

      This open study of 34 patients demonstrated that radioembolization with yttrium 90 microspheres could achieve relatively long-term responses in some patients with nonresectable neuroendocrine liver metastases.

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      Does the 3-gene diagnostic assay accurately distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms? (pages 930–935)

      Daniel Shibru, Jimmy Hwang, Elham Khanafshar, Quan-Yang Duh, Orlo H. Clark and Electron Kebebew

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23703

      The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of 3 genes was analyzed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction in 261 frozen thyroid tissue samples (138 benign and 123 malignant), and prospectively, in 144 clinical thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples. PCSK2 and CCND2 mRNA expression levels were found to be significantly different between benign and malignant thyroid tissue and FNA samples, but the PLAB mRNA expression level was not.

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      Increased expression of transketolase-like-1 in papillary thyroid carcinomas smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter is associated with lymph-node metastases (pages 936–944)

      Monica Zerilli, Marco C. Amato, Anna Martorana, Daniela Cabibi, Johannes F. Coy, Francesco Cappello, Giancarlo Pompei, Antonio Russo, Carla Giordano and Vito Rodolico

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23683

      A series of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) ≤1.5 cm were analyzed for transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) mRNA and protein expression. The findings suggest that the expression levels of TKTL1 may be indicative of a more aggressive behavior of small PTCs ≤1.5 cm and may play a role in tumor progression.

    6. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Optimizing docetaxel chemotherapy in patients with cancer of the gastric and gastroesophageal junction : Evolution of the docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil regimen (pages 945–955)

      Jaffer A. Ajani

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23661

      In the current study, the author focused on a review of the published reports of modifications to the original docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-flurouracil regimen in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer to determine whether the modifications improve the tolerability profile.

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      Randomized trial of a decision aid for individuals considering genetic testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer risk (pages 956–965)

      Claire E. Wakefield, Bettina Meiser, Judi Homewood, Robyn Ward, Sheridan O'Donnell, Judy Kirk and and the Australian GENetic testing Decision Aid Collaborative Group

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23681

      The study used a randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that a decision aid for individuals considering genetic testing for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an effective intervention with which to reduce uncertainty and assist individuals in making an informed choice regarding genetic testing for HNPCC after genetic counseling.

    8. Genitourinary Disease
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      Assessing outcomes in prostate cancer clinical trials : A twenty-first century Tower of Babel (pages 966–974)

      Gretchen A. Gignac, Michael J. Morris, Glenn Heller, Lawrence H. Schwartz and Howard I. Scher

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23719

      Progression-free survival (PFS) is an increasingly used clinical trial endpoint in prostate cancer studies. PFS is inherently vulnerable to inter-study design variability. The authors assessed this variability in contemporary prostate cancer clinical trials, and designed a model that demonstrates its impact on PFS.

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      Phase 1/2 dose-escalation study of a GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic, cellular immunotherapy for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 975–984)

      Celestia S. Higano, John M. Corman, David C. Smith, Arthur S. Centeno, Christopher P. Steidle, Marc Gittleman, Jonathan W. Simons, Natalie Sacks, Junko Aimi and Eric J. Small

      Article first published online: 21 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23669

      This open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study evaluated a GM-CSF-secreting, cellular immunotherapy in 80 patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Treatment was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity and clinical activity. Phase 3 trials are underway.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Kinase domain point mutations in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia emerge after therapy with BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors (pages 985–994)

      Dan Jones, Deborah Thomas, C. Cameron Yin, Susan O'Brien, Jorge E. Cortes, Elias Jabbour, Megan Breeden, Francis J. Giles, Weiqiang Zhao and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23666

      A restricted set of cross-resistant ABL kinase domain mutations occur with high frequency at the time of disease recurrence in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are treated with the inhibitors imatinib and dasatinib. The current findings suggested that these mutations mediate resistance in the majority of patients and that maintenance therapy with such inhibitors may be altering the patterns of recurrent leukemia.

    11. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Pilot clinical trial of localized concurrent chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein thrombosis (pages 995–1003)

      Kwang-Hyub Han, Jinsil Seong, Ja Kyung Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Do Yun Lee and Chae Yoon Chon

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23684

      Localized concurrent intra-arterial chemoradiation therapy followed by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy was administered to patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and good reserve liver function. The substantial response rate as well as median survival time encourages the use of this new approach in patients with locally advanced HCC with PVT.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Heparanase is overexpressed in lung cancer and correlates inversely with patient survival (pages 1004–1011)

      Esti Cohen, Ilana Doweck, Inna Naroditsky, Ofer Ben-Izhak, Ran Kremer, Lael A. Best, Israel Vlodavsky and Neta Ilan

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23680

      The authors report that heparanase was overexpressed in 75% of lung cancer patients, correlating with lymph node status and metastasis classification (P = .04 and P = .01, respectively) and correlating inversely with patient survival (P = .007). The findings suggest that heparanase expression is decisive in the prognosis for patients with lung cancer, most likely because of heparanase-mediated tumor cell dissemination by blood and lymph vessels.

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      Never-smoking nonsmall cell lung cancer as a separate entity : Clinicopathologic features and survival (pages 1012–1018)

      Tokujiro Yano, Naoko Miura, Tomoyoshi Takenaka, Akira Haro, Hiroshi Okazaki, Taro Ohba, Hidenori Kouso, Takuro Kometani, Fumihiro Shoji and Yoshihiko Maehara

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23679

      In the current study, the authors investigated the clinicopathologic differences between never-smoking nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and smoking NSCLC patients, and their findings suggest that NSCLC in never-smokers should be considered a separate disease entity. Precise information regarding the smoking status is therefore a prerequisite for making an accurate diagnosis of ‘never-smoking NSCLC.’

    14. Neuro-Oncology
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      Temozolomide for recurrent low-grade spinal cord gliomas in adults (pages 1019–1024)

      Marc C. Chamberlain

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23677

      A retrospective study was performed to determine the efficacy and toxicity of temozolomide in the treatment of adults with surgery- and radiation-refractory, recurrent, low-grade intramedullary spinal cord gliomas. Temozolomide demonstrated modest efficacy with acceptable toxicity.

    15. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Primary central nervous system lymphoma: The role of consolidation treatment after a complete response to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy (pages 1025–1031)

      Meltem Ekenel, Fabio M. Iwamoto, Leah S. Ben-Porat, Katherine S. Panageas, Joachim Yahalom, Lisa M. DeAngelis and Lauren E. Abrey

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23670

      A total of 122 patients who achieved a complete response after initial high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed regarding the benefit of consolidation whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), high-dose cytarabine (HDAC), or both. Although the group that received WBRT plus HDAC had a longer median failure-free survival on univariate analysis, age and performance status appeared to be stronger prognostic factors.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Hypoxia-regulated protein expression, patient characteristics, and preoperative imaging as predictors of survival in adults with glioblastoma multiforme (pages 1032–1042)

      Jeannette R. Flynn, Libo Wang, David L. Gillespie, Gregory J. Stoddard, Jason K. Reid, Jason Owens, Grant B. Ellsworth, Karen L. Salzman, Anita Y. Kinney and Randy L. Jensen

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23678

      Four markers of hypoxia, proliferation and microvascular density (MVD) indices, extent of surgical resection, and preoperative imaging characteristics were compared with overall survival in adults with glioblastoma multiforme. Tumor grade was differentiated with hypoxia-regulated molecules, MVD, and proliferation, but glucose transporter 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were the only markers that predicted survival.

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      Growth rates of metastatic brain tumors in nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1043–1047)

      Heon Yoo, Byung-Ho Nam, Hee-Seok Yang, Sang Hoon Shin, Jin Soo Lee and Seung Hoon Lee

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23676

      This study evaluates kinetics of metastatic brain tumor growth during chemotherapy and analyzes growth rates and volumetric doubling time of metastatic brain tumors in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer and tumor regrowth.

    18. Discipline

      Complementary Medicine
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      A population-based study of prevalence of complementary methods use by cancer survivors : A report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors (pages 1048–1057)

      Ted Gansler, Chiewkwei Kaw, Corinne Crammer and Tenbroeck Smith

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23659

      A large population-based survey of adult cancer survivors identified significant demographic and clinical associations with likelihood of complementary method use.

    19. Disparities Research
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      Racial/ethnic differences in adequacy of information and support for women with breast cancer (pages 1058–1067)

      Nancy K. Janz, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Sarah T. Hawley, Jennifer J. Griggs, Ann S. Hamilton and Steven J. Katz

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23660

      Continued efforts to provide culturally appropriate information and support needs to women with breast cancer are necessary to achieve quality care. According to the results from this investigation, Latinas with low acculturation reported more unmet information and care support needs than other racial/ethnic groups.

    20. Pathology
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      Application of cryobiopsy to morphological and immunohistochemical analyses of xenografted human lung cancer tissues and functional blood vessels (pages 1068–1079)

      Nobuhiko Ohno, Nobuo Terada, Yuqin Bai, Sei Saitoh, Tadao Nakazawa, Nobuki Nakamura, Ichiro Naito, Yasuhisa Fujii, Ryohei Katoh and Shinichi Ohno

      Article first published online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23701

      The precise histopathological evaluation of tumor tissues has been hindered by technical artifacts of conventional tissue preparation methods. Cryobiopsy, where target organs are directly cryofixed in vivo, preserves the native morphology of human tumors and also allows observation of functional blood vessels that leads to evaluation of the close association between blood circulation and the tumor microenvironment.

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      Clinical relevance of mutations in the Wilms tumor suppressor 1 gene WT1 and the cadherin-associated protein β1 gene CTNNB1 for patients with Wilms tumors : Results of long-term surveillance of 71 patients from International Society of Pediatric Oncology Study 9/Society for Pediatric Oncology (pages 1080–1089)

      Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Angela Weirich, Valerie Schumacher, Constanze Uschkereit, Manfred Beier, Ivo Leuschner, Norbert Graf, Frank Autschbach, Dominique Schneider and Melissa von Harrach

      Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23672

      The authors studied the volumetric chemotherapy response in patients who had Wilms tumors (WT) with or without WT suppressor 1 gene (WT1) and with or without mutations in the cadherin-associated protein β1 gene (CTNNB1) and also examined long-term survival and second tumor events. The results indicated that patients with WT1 germline mutations have an increased risk for bilateral disease and second tumor events; therefore, tumor surveillance into adulthood should be considered.

    22. Radiation Oncology
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      Prognostic factors for functional outcome and survival after reirradiation for in-field recurrences of metastatic spinal cord compression (pages 1090–1096)

      Dirk Rades, Volker Rudat, Theo Veninga, Lukas J. A. Stalpers, Peter J. Hoskin and Steven E. Schild

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23702

      Potential prognostic factors and radiation schedules were compared for their effect on motor function and survival in 124 patients who received reirradiation in the same spinal area for an in-field recurrence of metastatic spinal cord compression. Outcomes were associated with effect of first irradiation, time to development of motor deficits, performance and ambulatory status, and visceral metastases. Spinal reirradiation was effective and appeared safe when the cumulative biologically effective dose was ≤120 Gy2.

    23. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Cognitive effects of hormone therapy in men with prostate cancer : A Review (pages 1097–1106)

      Christian J. Nelson, Jennifer S. Lee, Maria C. Gamboa and Andrew J. Roth

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23658

      The research outlining possible mechanisms between testosterone and cognition, the data from animal studies, and the results from studies researching cognition in older men support a rationale to investigate the association between androgen-deprivation therapy and cognitive functioning. The growing literature that has explored this question in men with prostate cancer also generally supports the connection between androgen deprivation and cognitive decline.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
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      Is There an Optimal Comorbidity Index for Prostate Cancer? (page 1109)

      Tommaso Cai and Riccardo Bartoletti

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23664

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      Reply to Is There an Optimal Comorbidity Index for Prostate Cancer? (pages 1109–1110)

      Shabbir M. H. Alibhai, Neil E. Fleshner and Gary Naglie

      Article first published online: 9 JUN 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23665

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