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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 September 2008

Volume 113, Issue 6

Pages 1275–1495

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Advanced bladder cancer: So many drugs, so little progress : What's wrong with this picture? (pages 1275–1277)

      Robert Dreicer

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23690

      Accrual to bladder cancer trials in the US has hampered the ability to advance beyond cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced disease. Progress in the management of advanced disease will require new agents and new approaches.

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  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Advanced bladder cancer: Status of first-line chemotherapy and the search for active agents in the second-line setting (pages 1284–1293)

      David J. Gallagher, Matthew I. Milowsky and Dean F. Bajorin

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23692

      The authors reviewed the activity of several single agents and combination regimens in urothelial carcinoma. Emerging strategies for the measurement of response in clinical trials were also outlined.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Serum HER-2/neu and relative resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer (pages 1294–1301)

      Suhail M. Ali, Walter P. Carney, Francisco J. Esteva, Monica Fornier, Lyndsay Harris, Wolfgang. J. Köstler, Jean-Pierre Lotz, Diana Luftner, Marie-France Pichon and Allan Lipton

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23689

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      In a pooled analysis of 307 patients with metastatic breast cancer, the patients who did not achieve a significant decline (≥20% decrease) in serum levels of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 proto-oncogene (HER-2/neu) had a decreased benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy. The results indicated that serum changes in serum HER-2/neu at a median of 1 month after trastuzumab therapy can help to identify patients who may benefit from additional treatment regimens with other HER-2/neu-targeted therapies.

    2. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Influence of induction chemotherapy and class of cytotoxics on pathologic response and survival after preoperative chemoradiation in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus (pages 1302–1308)

      Heta Javeri, Rohan Arora, Arlene M. Correa, Wayne L. Hofstetter, Jeffrey H. Lee, Zhongxing Liao, Mary F. McAleer, Dipen Maru, Manoop S. Bhutani, Stephen G. Swisher, Julie G. Izzo and Jaffer A. Ajani

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23688

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      Patients with localized esophageal cancer have diverse outcomes (post‒therapy pathologic response, disease‒free survival, and overall survival) after preoperative chemoradiation, dictated also by inherent molecular heterogeneity. Whether the type of therapy influences the outcomes remains largely unanswered. It is hypothesized that induction chemotherapy or the type of cytotoxics used would not influence patient outcomes.

    3. Genitourinary Disease
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      Sunitinib-induced macrocytosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1309–1314)

      Brian I. Rini, Toni K. Choueiri, Paul Elson, Mohamad K. Khasawneh, Claudiu Cotta, Jaya Unnithan, Laura Wood, Tarek Mekhail, Jorge Garcia, Robert Dreicer and Ronald M. Bukowski

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23711

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      In the current study, a retrospective review of all patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with sunitinib or sorafenib for at least 3 months was undertaken. Significant increases in mean corpuscular volume were observed with sunitinib, but not with sorafenib treatment.

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      Prostate-specific antigen screening among young men in the United States (pages 1315–1323)

      Charles D. Scales Jr, Jodi Antonelli, Lesley H. Curtis, Kevin A. Schulman and Judd W. Moul

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23667

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      One-fifth of men aged 40 to 49 years report having had a PSA test within the previous year. Young, black, non-Hispanic men are more likely than young, white, non-Hispanic men to report having had a PSA test, although screening in this high-risk group remains suboptimal.

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      Performance status and cytoreductive nephrectomy : Redefining management in patients with poor performance (pages 1324–1331)

      Brian Shuch, Jeff C. La Rochelle, Jon Wu, Tobias Klatte, Stephen B. Riggs, Fairooz Kabbinavar, Arie S. Belldegrun and Allan J. Pantuck

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23708

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      Surgery in patients who have a poor performance may serve a palliative function but should be performed with caution because of poor outcomes. A subset of patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 2 or 3 who are symptomatic specifically from bone metastasis rather than visceral metastases may benefit from a cytoreductive nephrectomy, similar to patients with an ECOG PS of 0/1.

    6. Head and Neck Disease
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      Triplet combination of gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and carboplatin followed by maintenance 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 1332–1337)

      Swan Swan Leong, Joseph Wee, Sandeep Rajan, Chee Keong Toh, Wan Teck Lim, Siew Wan Hee, Miah Hiang Tay, Donald Poon and Eng Huat Tan

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23687

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      The aim of the current trial was to assess the efficacy of a 3-drug combination followed by maintenance treatment in patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The results demonstrated that induction chemotherapy with a 3-drug regimen followed by maintenance treatment is feasible and efficacious.

    7. Hematologic Malignancies
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      The effect of interleukin 11 on thrombocytopenia associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (pages 1338–1343)

      Ahmed Aribi, Hagop Kantarjian, Charles Koller, Deborah Thomas, Stefan Faderl, Guillermo Garcia-Manero and Jorge Cortes

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23718

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      The authors investigated the efficacy and the safety of low-dose interleukin 11 (IL-11) for improving thrombocytopenia associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in 14 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The results indicated that IL-11 has a favorable toxicity profile, and it may correct thrombocytopenia associated with TKI therapy in patients with CML.

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      High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for chemoresistant Hodgkin lymphoma : The Seattle experience (pages 1344–1350)

      Ajay K. Gopal, Tracee L. Metcalfe, Ted A. Gooley, John M. Pagel, Stephen H. Petersdorf, William I. Bensinger, Leona Holmberg, David G. Maloney and Oliver W. Press

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23715

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      Sixty-four patients with chemoresistant Hodgkin lymphoma underwent high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation at our center, yielding a 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) of 31% and 17%, respectively. Improved outcomes were observed with more recent transplants, with a 3-year PFS for patients receiving transplant during 1986 to 1989, 1990 to July 1993, August 1993 to 1999, and 2000 to 2005 of 9%, 21%, 33%, and 31%, respectively.

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      Proposal for a new risk model in myelodysplastic syndrome that accounts for events not considered in the original International Prognostic Scoring System (pages 1351–1361)

      Hagop Kantarjian, Susan O'Brien, Farhad Ravandi, Jorge Cortes, Jianqin Shan, John M. Bennett, Alan List, Pierre Fenaux, Guillermo Sanz, Jean-Pierre Issa, Emil J. Freireich and Guillermo Garcia-Manero

      Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23697

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      The investigators analyzed 1915 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and developed, by multivariate analysis, a prognostic model that predicted outcome of patients at any time during the course of their disease, regardless of prior therapy. The model was validated in a test group and added to the prognostic value of the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) model in each IPSS risk group; the reverse (IPSS predicting outcome within each risk group of the new model) was not true. This improves on the existing IPSS which would be also applicable to only newly diagnosed patients with primary MDS (excludes secondary MDS and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia [CMML] with leukocytosis). The IPSS system would have allowed prognostic predictions in only 507 (26%) of patients referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and would not be applicable to patients who have received prior therapies (which will soon become the most common form of referral to tertiary cancer centers and to accruals on investigational programs with the FDA approval and availability of hypomethylating agents for MDS and CMML).

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      Successful management of severe L-asparaginase–associated pancreatitis by continuous regional arterial infusion of protease inhibitor and antibiotic (pages 1362–1369)

      Akira Morimoto, Toshihiko Imamura, Rumiko Ishii, Yoshinobu Nakabayashi, Takuya Nakatani, Junichi Sakagami and Takuji Yamagami

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23716

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      Five patients with severe L-asparaginase–associated pancreatitis (AAP) were treated successfully with early introduction of continuous regional arterial infusion (CRAI) of protease inhibitor and antibiotic, and chemotherapy could be resumed within 4 weeks of the onset of AAP. The current results indicated that the early introduction of CRAI is suitable for treating severe AAP.

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      Myeloid sarcoma is associated with superior event-free survival and overall survival compared with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1370–1378)

      Apostolia-Maria Tsimberidou, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Sijin Wen, Michael J. Keating, Susan O'Brien, Mark Brandt, Sherry Pierce, Emil J Freireich, L. Jeffrey Medeiros and Elihu Estey

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23691

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      The authors retrospectively compared the clinical outcomes of matched patients who received similar treatments for newly diagnosed nonleukemic myeloid sarcoma (MS) or newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The results indicated that anti-AML therapy was highly effective in nonleukemic MS and that event-free survival and overall survival were significantly longer for patients with nonleukemic MS than for patients with AML.

    12. Lung Disease
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      ERCC1 expression as a prognostic marker in N2(+) nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients treated with platinum-based neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (pages 1379–1386)

      In Gyu Hwang, Myung Ju Ahn, Byeong Bae Park, Yong Chan Ahn, Joungho Han, Seungkoo Lee, Jhingook Kim, Young Mog Shim, Jin Seok Ahn and Keunchil Park

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23693

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      NSCLC patients with ERCC1-negative tumors showed a survival benefit from neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a platinum-containing regimen.

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      Predominant infiltration of macrophages and CD8+ T Cells in cancer nests is a significant predictor of survival in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1387–1395)

      Osamu Kawai, Genichiro Ishii, Kaoru Kubota, Yukinori Murata, Yoichi Naito, Tetsuya Mizuno, Keiju Aokage, Nagahiro Saijo, Yutaka Nishiwaki, Akihiko Gemma, Syoji Kudoh and Atsushi Ochiai

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23712

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      The authors investigated whether tumor-infiltrating immune cells in biopsy specimens can be used to predict the clinical outcome of stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was found that evaluation of the numbers of macrophages and CD8+ T cells in cancer nests and stroma are useful biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of stage IV NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy, but could fail to predict chemotherapy response.

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      Clinical significance of aberrant methylation of prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) in nonsmall cell lung cancer : Association with prognosis, PTGER2 expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (pages 1396–1403)

      Lei Tian, Makoto Suzuki, Takahiro Nakajima, Rieko Kubo, Yasuo Sekine, Kiyoshi Shibuya, Kenzo Hiroshima, Yukio Nakatani, Takehiko Fujisawa and Ichiro Yoshino

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23694

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      Aberrant methylation of the prostaglandin E receptor 2 gene frequently has reverse concordance with its messenger RNA expression in nonsmall cell lung cancer tissue and has been associated with the incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung adenocarcinomas and a better prognosis.

    15. Melanoma
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      Combined treatment with pegylated interferon–α-2a and dacarbazine in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma : A phase 2 study (pages 1404–1411)

      Axel Hauschild, Reinhard Dummer, Selma Ugurel, Katharina C. Kaehler, Friederike Egberts, Wolfram Fink, Jeannine Both-Skalsky, Barbara Laetsch and Dirk Schadendorf

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23722

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      To the authors' knowledge, the current study is the first report on a combined treatment with pegylated interferon–α-2a and dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. The regimen was found to be well tolerated, with an encouraging disease remission rate of 24%.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Identification of low intratumoral gene expression heterogeneity in neuroblastic tumors by genome-wide expression analysis and game theory (pages 1412–1422)

      Domenico Albino, Paola Scaruffi, Stefano Moretti, Simona Coco, Mauro Truini, Claudio Di Cristofano, Andrea Cavazzana, Sara Stigliani, Stefano Bonassi and Gian Paolo Tonini

      Version of Record online: 31 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23720

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      The authors found a set of genes driving the separation between stroma-poor and stroma-rich neuroblastic tumors by using the Significance Analysis of Microarrays and Game Theory approaches. Low intratumoral heterogeneity at the mRNA level was observed among different areas within the same tumor.

    17. Discipline

      Disparities Research
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      Cancer health disparities among Indian and Pakistani immigrants in the United States : A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-based study from 1988 to 2003 (pages 1423–1430)

      Akm Hossain, Aasim Sehbai, Rachel Abraham and Jame Abraham

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23686

      Prostate and breast cancers are most common in males and females in US-based Indian and Pakistani populations. It is important to note that immigrants from India and Pakistan living in the US change their demographics regarding the incidence of different cancers and follow the US population trend.

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      Racial disparities in recurrence among patients with early-stage endometrial cancer : Is recurrence increased in black patients who receive estrogen replacement therapy? (pages 1431–1437)

      G. Larry Maxwell, Chunqiao Tian, John I. Risinger, Chad A. Hamilton and Richard R. Barakat

      Version of Record online: 12 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23717

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      Recurrence-free survival may be shorter among black women with stage I endometrial cancer compared with white women, particularly among those who use estrogen replacement therapy postoperatively.

    19. Medical Oncology
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      Zoledronic acid and skeletal complications in patients with solid tumors and bone metastases : Analysis of a National Medical claims database (pages 1438–1445)

      Hind T. Hatoum, Swu-Jane Lin, Mathew R. Smith, Victoria Barghout and Allan Lipton

      Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23775

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      The results from this retrospective claims analysis indicated that zoledronic acid reduced the skeletal morbidity rate and delayed the time to skeletal complications. Compared with no treatment, the follow-up period for patients who received zoledronic acid was 3 months longer, and zoledronic acid use was associated with a 33% reduction in the monthly rate of skeletal complications.

    20. Outcomes Research
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      Evaluating the supportive care costs of severe radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis and pharyngitis : Results from a Northwestern University Costs of Cancer Program pilot study with head and neck and nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who received care at a county hospital, a Veterans Administration hospital, or a comprehensive cancer care center (pages 1446–1452)

      Narissa J. Nonzee, Neal A. Dandade, Talar Markossian, Mark Agulnik, Athanassios Argiris, Jyoti D. Patel, Robert C. Kern, Hidayatullah G. Munshi, Elizabeth A. Calhoun and Charles L. Bennett

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23714

      Although it is known that mucositis/pharyngitis has a substantial negative impact on clinical and quality-of-life variables, little is known about the economic cost of this complication. In this study, the authors observed that the presence of severe mucositis/pharyngitis was associated withincreased medical costs in patients with head and neck cancer and nonsmall cell lung cancer who received radiochemotherapy.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 115, Issue 12, 2805, Version of Record online: 7 APR 2009

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      Copy number gains in EGFR and copy number losses in PTEN are common events in osteosarcoma tumors (pages 1453–1461)

      Serena S. Freeman, Steven W. Allen, Ramapriya Ganti, Jianrong Wu, Jing Ma, Xiaoping Su, Geoff Neale, Jeffrey S. Dome, Najat C. Daw and Joseph D. Khoury

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23782

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      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and genomic gains at the EGFR locus are prevalent in osteosarcoma tumors, which also commonly harbor deletions at the PTEN locus. Data from this study using osteosarcoma tumor samples support a role for the EGFR/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway in osteosarcoma.

    22. Psychosocial Oncology
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      A randomized study assessing the efficacy of communication skill training on patients' psychologic distress and coping : Nurses' communication with patients just after being diagnosed with cancer (pages 1462–1470)

      Sakiko Fukui, Keiko Ogawa, Masao Ohtsuka and Naoshi Fukui

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23710

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      This study assessed the efficacy of communication skill training for nurses on improving psychologic distress and coping among patients after being informed of a cancer diagnosis. Patients were randomly assigned and supported by nurses. Intervention consisted of 3 1-on-1 nurses' interviews (on the day of, 1 week after, and 1 month after diagnosis), and the efficacy was assessed through patients' psychologic distress and coping 3 times (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after diagnosis). Eighty-nine patients participated, and significant improvements in patients' psychologic distress and coping were demonstrated.

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      Perceptions of cancer-related information among cancer survivors: A report from the American Cancer Society's Studies of Cancer Survivors (pages 1471–1479)

      D. Keith McInnes, Paul D. Cleary, Kevin D. Stein, Lin Ding, C. Christina Mehta and John Z. Ayanian

      Version of Record online: 29 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23713

      Although most cancer survivors expressed satisfaction with the quality of cancer information that they received, a substantial minority rated cancer information as fair or poor. Lower income and black race were associated with more problems obtaining needed information; worse physical and mental functioning were associated with greater need for information, worse ratings of information quality, and more problems obtaining information.

    24. Translational Research
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      Development of a fatigue and functional impact scale in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy (pages 1480–1488)

      David Cella, Hema N. Viswanathan, Ron D. Hays, Tito R. Mendoza, Kevin D. Stein, David J. Pasta, Aimee J. Foreman, Saroj Vadhan-Raj and Joel D. Kallich

      Version of Record online: 18 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23698

      The objective of the current study was to develop the Fatigue and Functional Impact Scale (FFIS)—a reliable, brief, and practical tool that is potentially suitable for use in the clinical practice setting to identify fatigue and functional impairment in cancer patients.

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      The phosphorylated membrane estrogen receptor and cytoplasmic signaling and apoptosis proteins in human breast cancer (pages 1489–1495)

      Paul J. Mintz, Nagy A. Habib, Louise J. Jones, Georgios Giamas, Jacqueline S. Lewis, Rebecca L. Bowen, R. Charles Coombes and Justin Stebbing

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23699

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      A phosphorylated form of the membrane estrogen receptor (ER) was found to characterize the invasive cancer state, implicating the membrane ERα as the in vivo receptor responsible for transcription-independent cellular responses to estrogens in breast cancer.

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