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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 October 2008

Volume 113, Issue 8

Pages 1995–2214

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Clofarabine : In search of combinations for the treatment of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1995–1998)

      Pellegrino Musto and Felicetto Ferrara

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23804

      Although relapse still represents the most relevant obstacle to achieving a cure in acute myeloid leukemia, it offers an opportunity to investigate new therapeutic strategies, mainly in patients who are expected to gain negligible advantage from conventional salvage chemotherapy. In this setting, clofarabine represents 1 of the most promising drugs.

  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
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      Patient navigation: State of the art or is it science? (pages 1999–2010)

      Kristen J. Wells, Tracy A. Battaglia, Donald J. Dudley, Roland Garcia, Amanda Greene, Elizabeth Calhoun, Jeanne S. Mandelblatt, Electra D. Paskett, Peter C. Raich and the Patient Navigation Research Program

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23815

      A qualitative synthesis was conducted to evaluate cancer patient navigation in which patient navigation services were defined and differentiated from other outreach services. Overall, there was evidence for some degree of efficacy for patient navigation in increasing participation in cancer screening and adherence to diagnostic follow-up care after the detection of an abnormality.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Surgical resection of the primary tumor, chest wall control, and survival in women with metastatic breast cancer (pages 2011–2019)

      Hannah W. Hazard, Seema R. Gorla, Denise Scholtens, Krystyna Kiel, William J. Gradishar and Seema A. Khan

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23870

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      Among women who present with stage IV breast cancer and an intact primary tumor, the impact of surgical therapy on chest wall control has not been examined so far. The authors performed a retrospective, single-institution study of this question and found that 1) surgical resection is significantly protective against symptomatic chest wall disease, and 2) women with controlled chest walls live longer than those with uncontrolled local disease.

    2. Endocrine Disease
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      Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine : Recommendation From a 22-Year Follow-up of 18 Patients (pages 2020–2028)

      Hui Huang, Jame Abraham, Elizabeth Hung, Steven Averbuch, Maria Merino, Seth M. Steinberg, Karel Pacak and Tito Fojo

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23812

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      In a long-term follow-up of 18 patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, a combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine (CVD) produced objective tumor responses. CVD therapy is not indicated in every patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, but should be considered in the management of patients with symptoms and where tumor shrinkage might be beneficial.

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Receipt of guideline-recommended follow-up in older colorectal cancer survivors : A Population-based Analysis (pages 2029–2037)

      Gregory S. Cooper, Tzuyung Doug Kou and Harry L. Reynolds Jr

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23823

      Professional society guidelines specify routine follow-up after curative resection of colorectal cancer. In this population-based study of older patients with local or regional stage cancer, the authors found adherence to guidelines in only 40% of patients.

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      Chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and a platinum compound improves outcomes in metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma (pages 2038–2045)

      Michael J. Overman, Scott Kopetz, Sijin Wen, Paulo M. Hoff, David Fogelman, Jeffrey Morris, James L. Abbruzzese, Jaffer A. Ajani and Robert A. Wolff

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23822

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      Outcomes after treatment with systemic chemotherapy in 80 patients who had metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) were analyzed. The combination of 5-fluorouracil and a platinum agent appeared to be superior to other chemotherapy treatments, and this combination is recommended for the frontline treatment of patients with metastatic SBA.

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      Phase 2 trial of oxaliplatin plus capecitabine (XELOX) as second-line therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (pages 2046–2052)

      Henry Q. Xiong, Gauri R. Varadhachary, Joan C. Blais, Kenneth R. Hess, James L. Abbruzzese and Robert A. Wolff

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23810

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      The combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) was studied in 39 evaluable patients with gemcitabine-pretreated, advanced pancreatic cancer. This combination is active and well-tolerated as a second-line regimen in patients with a good performance status.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Prostate-specific antigen levels in relation to consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen : Results from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (pages 2053–2057)

      Eric A. Singer, Ganesh S. Palapattu and Edwin van Wijngaarden

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23806

      Analysis of the 2001 through 2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicates that regular consumption of nonsteroidal anti–inflammatory drugs may reduce serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Whether this is indicative of a protective effect on prostate cancer risk, or masks possible prostate injury resulting in reduced detection of prostate cancer, is unclear.

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      Predictors of patient preferences and treatment choices for localized prostate cancer (pages 2058–2067)

      Benjamin D. Sommers, Clair J. Beard, Anthony V. D'Amico, Irving Kaplan, Jerome P. Richie and Richard J. Zeckhauser

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23807

      Patient preferences for different treatment outcomes related to prostate cancer are shaped by reasonable behavioral influences. However, actual treatment choices appear to bear little relation to these patient preferences, and instead demonstrate a strong association with clinician specialty.

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      Currently used criteria for active surveillance in men with low-risk prostate cancer : An analysis of pathologic features (pages 2068–2072)

      Nazareno Suardi, Umberto Capitanio, Felix K. H. Chun, Markus Graefen, Paul Perrotte, Thorsten Schlomm, Alexander Haese, Hartwig Huland, Andreas Erbersdobler, Francesco Montorsi and Pierre I. Karakiewicz

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23827

      The currently available active surveillance criteria for low-risk prostate cancer are limited by a high rate of misclassification. The use of more selective criteria may reduce the rate of misclassification but also may reduce significantly the percentage of patients who may be considered for active surveillance.

    9. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Risk of subsequent endometrial carcinoma associated with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia classification of endometrial biopsies (pages 2073–2081)

      James V. Lacey Jr, George L. Mutter, Marisa R. Nucci, Brigitte M. Ronnett, Olga B. Ioffe, Brenda B. Rush, Andrew G. Glass, Douglas A. Richesson, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Bryan Langholz and Mark E. Sherman

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23808

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      Despite its suboptimal reproducibility, the widely used World Health Organization system for classifying endometrial hyperplasia includes 1 subtype, atypical hyperplasia (AH), that has a high risk of progression to endometrial carcinoma. The authors evaluated whether an alternative classification system, called Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN), applied to endometrial biopsy specimens and was associated with progression risk and found similarly increased progression risks for both AH and EIN.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Treatment and survival outcomes based on histologic grading in patients with head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma (pages 2082–2089)

      Melonie A. Nance, Raja R. Seethala, Yun Wang, Simion I. Chiosea, Eugene N. Myers, Jonas T. Johnson and Stephen Y. Lai

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23825

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      The authors analyzed survival and treatment outcomes of 50 patients with mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck. They focused on histologic grading to determine outcomes and establish treatment protocol.

    11. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Clofarabine combinations as acute myeloid leukemia salvage therapy (pages 2090–2096)

      Stefan Faderl, Alessandra Ferrajoli, William Wierda, Xuelin Huang, Srdan Verstovsek, Farhad Ravandi, Zeev Estrov, Gautam Borthakur, Monica Kwari and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23816

      The authors determined the maximum tolerated doses and dose-limiting toxicities of clofarabine salvage combinations with idarubicin and cytarabine in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

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      Results of the hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone regimen in elderly patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (pages 2097–2101)

      Susan O'Brien, Deborah A. Thomas, Farhad Ravandi, Stefan Faderl, Sherry Pierce and Hagop Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23819

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      Causes of death were investigated in older patients (aged ≥60 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during induction and consolidation-maintenance chemotherapy. The results suggested that intensified chemotherapy in older patients with ALL reduced the incidence of leukemia resistance but increased the incidence of death in complete remission from myelosuppression-associated infections.

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      Serum interleukin-6 predicts the development of multiple symptoms at nadir of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (pages 2102–2109)

      Xin Shelley Wang, Qiuling Shi, Lori A. Williams, Charles S. Cleeland, Gary M. Mobley, James M. Reuben, Bang-Ning Lee and Sergio A. Giralt

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23820

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      Cancer patients suffer from multiple treatment-related symptoms at the time of lowest white blood cell count (nadir) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The results of this study suggest that the release of systemic inflammatory cytokines in response to transplantation corresponds to the development of severe symptom burden at nadir.

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      Early treatment of high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia with alemtuzumab and rituximab (pages 2110–2118)

      Clive S. Zent, Timothy G. Call, Tait D. Shanafelt, Renee C. Tschumper, Diane F. Jelinek, Deborah A. Bowen, Charla R. Secreto, Betsy R. LaPlant, Brian F. Kabat and Neil E. Kay

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23824

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      Early treatment of patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia, as defined by fluorescence in situ hybridization abnormalities (17p13− or 11q22−) or by the presence of the unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene IgVH together with the expression of either CD38 or the zeta chain-associated protein kinase ZAP-70, resulted in high response rates with low toxicity. Responses were most durable in patients who had a complete response and a negative test for minimal residual disease.

    15. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma using yttrium-90 microspheres : Results from a pilot study (pages 2119–2128)

      Saad M. Ibrahim, Mary F. Mulcahy, Robert J. Lewandowski, Kent T. Sato, Robert K. Ryu, Elizabeth J. Masterson, Steven B. Newman, Al Benson III, Reed A. Omary and Riad Salem

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23818

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      Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolization was found to be safe in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. 90Y radioembolization may have a role in the management of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Immunohistochemical markers associated with brain metastases in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (pages 2129–2138)

      Ali G. Saad, Beow Y. Yeap, Frederik B. J. M. Thunnissen, Geraldine S. Pinkus, Jack L. Pinkus, Massimo Loda, David J. Sugarbaker, Bruce E. Johnson and Lucian R. Chirieac

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23826

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      The authors evaluated patients who had nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with and without brain metastasis in a unique series that included tumor material from primary lung tumors and matched metachronous brain metastases obtained from a single institution. This provided an opportunity to study the expression of Ki-67, caspase-3, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, E-cadherin, and EGFR in primary lung tumors using immunohistochemistry and investigate the risk of developing brain metastases and death in patients with NSCLC.

    17. Melanoma
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      Temozolomide, thalidomide, and whole brain radiation therapy for patients with brain metastasis from metastatic melanoma : A phase II Cytokine Working Group study (pages 2139–2145)

      Michael B. Atkins, Jeffrey A. Sosman, Sanjiv Agarwala, Theodore Logan, Joseph I. Clark, Marc S. Ernstoff, David Lawson, Janice P. Dutcher, Geoffrey Weiss, Brendan Curti and Kim A. Margolin

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23805

      The combination of temozolomide, thalidomide, and whole brain irradiation has minimal efficacy and considerable toxicity in patients with melanoma brain metastases. Other treatment approaches are clearly necessary for this patient population.

    18. Neuro-Oncology
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      Interferon-α for recurrent World Health Organization grade 1 intracranial meningiomas (pages 2146–2151)

      Marc C. Chamberlain and Michael J. Glantz

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23803

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      This was a prospective phase 2 study of interferon-α in patients with surgery and radiotherapy refractory recurrent World Health Organization grade 1 meningioma. Thirty-five patients were entered on the study, and a 6-month progression-free survival rate of 54% was observed.

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      Temozolomide rechallenge in recurrent malignant glioma by using a continuous temozolomide schedule : The “rescue” approach (pages 2152–2157)

      James R. Perry, Philippe Rizek, Rosemary Cashman, Meredith Morrison and Tara Morrison

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23813

      Continuous temozolomide has promising activity in recurrent glioma despite prior temozolomide use.

    20. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting residual disease in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma with chemoradiation therapy : Correlation of Radiologic Findings With Surgicopathologic Results (pages 2158–2165)

      Etienne Vincens, Corinne Balleyguier, Annie Rey, Catherine Uzan, Elise Zareski, Sebastien Gouy, Patricia Pautier, Pierre Duvillard, Christine Haie-Meder and Philippe Morice

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23817

      The evaluation of residual disease after chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma conventionally is based on a clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies 3 to 8 weeks after the end of treatment. The results from this retrospective review indicated that MRI is not the optimal technique for predicting response after CRT because of the risk of false-positive results, and new procedures or a combination of techniques should be evaluated.

    21. Disparities Research
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      Racial segregation and disparities in breast cancer care and mortality (pages 2166–2172)

      Jennifer S. Haas, Craig C. Earle, John E. Orav, Phyllis Brawarsky, Marie Keohane, Bridget A. Neville and David R. Williams

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23828

      Among seniors, segregation mediates some of the black-white disparity in breast cancer care. Individuals who live in more segregated areas are less likely to receive adequate breast cancer care.

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      Decreasing disparity in liver transplantation among white and Asian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma : California, 1998-2005 (pages 2173–2179)

      Anthony S. Robbins, Michael F. Daily, Christopher A. Aoki, Moon S. Chen Jr., Christoph Troppmann and Richard V. Perez

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23766

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      In California, there was a large and significant disparity in liver transplantation rates among white and Asian/Pacific Islander patients with hepatocellular carcinoma from 1998 through 2003 but not from 2004 through 2005. Changes in liver transplantation policy during 2002 through 2004 may have played a role in decreasing this difference.

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      Perceived family history risk and symptomatic diagnosis of prostate cancer : The North Carolina Prostate Cancer Outcomes study (pages 2180–2187)

      Pamela Spain, William R. Carpenter, James A. Talcott, Jack A. Clark, Young Kyung Do, Robert J. Hamilton, Joseph A. Galanko, Anne Jackman and Paul A. Godley

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23801

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      This study found that, in men with prostate cancer, the perception of prostate cancer risk had not predicted screening behavior. Men who had perceived themselves to be at higher risk for prostate cancer than other men were not more likely than other men to have had prostate-specific antigen screening tests. Conversely, access to and trust in a regular physician did predict screening behaviors. Future efforts designed to reduce the racial disparity in prostate cancer outcomes should continue to educate men of their prostate cancer risk while at the same time encouraging further action and preventive behaviors.

    24. Pediatric Oncology
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      Reliability and validity of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Neurocognitive Questionnaire (pages 2188–2197)

      Kevin R. Krull, Gerard Gioia, Kirsten K. Ness, Leah Ellenberg, Christopher Recklitis, Wendy Leisenring, Sujuan Huang, Marilyn Stovall, Leslie L. Robison and Lonnie Zeltzer

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23809

      Regular monitoring of neurocognitive functioning is recommended for pediatric cancer survivors exposed to cranial irradiation and/or antimetabolite chemotherapy. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Neurocognitive Questionnaire appears to be a practical and efficient tool for such monitoring.

    25. Radiation Oncology
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      Salvage stereotactic radiosurgery effectively treats recurrences from whole-brain radiation therapy (pages 2198–2204)

      Samuel T. Chao, Gene H. Barnett, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Lilyana Angelov, Robert J. Weil, Gennady Neyman, Alwyn M. Reuther and John H. Suh

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23821

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      Salvage stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was found to result in a median survival of 9.9 months after SRS. Longer time to failure after whole-brain radiation therapy appears to be predictive of longer survival after SRS.

    26. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Patient-physician disagreement regarding performance status is associated with worse survivorship in patients with advanced cancer (pages 2205–2214)

      Ian D. Schnadig, Erik K. Fromme, Charles L. Loprinzi, Jeff A. Sloan, Motomi Mori, Hong Li and Tomasz M. Beer

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23856

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      Physicians and patients frequently disagree about performance and nutrition status. Disagreement between the physician and the patient in the assessment of the patient's performance and nutritional status is an independent adverse prognostic factor for survivial.

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