You have free access to this content

Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 November 2008

Volume 113, Issue 9

Pages 2373–2615

  1. News

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      CancerScope (pages 2373–2375)

      Carrie Printz

      Article first published online: 17 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23706

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Targeted therapy in prostate cancer—Are we our own worst enemy? (pages 2376–2378)

      Nancy A. Dawson

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23865

      Targeted therapies are being assessed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer, but their development is slow, and the correct targets are not always clear. Given the propensity for prostate cancer to metastasize to bone, therapies that target the bone microenvironment are a logical choice.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin: Another step on the path toward improving the outcomes of patients with high-risk, invasive bladder cancer (pages 2379–2381)

      Matthew E. Nielsen

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23849

      Until such time as there are data from prospective randomized trials directly comparing neoadjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine (GC) to neoadjuvant methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin, the data presented in the study by Dash et al in this issue of Cancer provide strong support for the consideration of neoadjuvant GC as an effective and well-tolerated component in the armamentarium against high-risk bladder cancer.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Editorial comment on: Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer (pages 2382–2384)

      Sagar R. Shah and Martha K. Terris

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23696

      Correlation of Agent Orange exposure and prostate cancer risk is difficult due to the myriad of methods utilized to document exposure. Chamie and colleagues employ the Veterans Affairs Agent Orange Registry as confirmation of Agent Orange exposure. Despite the fact that use of registry data introduces several biases that might under-estimate the number of exposed veterans, Chamie and colleagues demonstrate significant findings supporting the theory that Agent Orange exposure plays a role in prostate cancer pathogenesis.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Rational management of endocrine resistance in breast cancer : A comprehensive review of estrogen receptor biology, treatment options, and future directions (pages 2385–2397)

      Sara A. Hurvitz and Richard J. Pietras

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23875

      Resistance to primary endocrine therapy is common among patients with breast cancer; however, there are no clear guidelines specifying the optimal sequence of subsequent endocrine agents. For this report, the authors reviewed the mechanisms of endocrine resistance, considerations for selection of subsequent treatments, and treatment options for these patients.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and the risk of cutaneous melanoma : A systematic review and meta-analysis (pages 2398–2407)

      Simone Mocellin and Donato Nitti

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23867

      The authors of this meta-analysis reviewed the current evidence regarding the role of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in melanoma development. The results indicate that a gene variant of the receptor is associated with increased melanoma risk, indirectly supporting the antimelanoma effect of sun exposure through activation of the vitamin D system

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
      You have free access to this content
      Magnetic resonance imaging identifies multifocal and multicentric disease in breast cancer patients who are eligible for partial breast irradiation (pages 2408–2414)

      Hania A. Al-Hallaq, Loren K. Mell, Julie A. Bradley, Lucy F. Chen, Arif N. Ali, Ralph R. Weichselbaum, Gillian M. Newstead and Steven J. Chmura

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23872

      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identified frequent (10%) secondary invasive or ductal carcinoma in situ cancers that would not be removed routinely by surgery or targeted in the radiation field if treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI). Data from this study suggested that MRI should be considered to assess PBI eligibility to minimize potential local failures.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Histologic associations and long-term cancer risk in columnar cell lesions of the breast : A retrospective cohort and a nested case-control study (pages 2415–2421)

      Fouad I. Boulos, William D. Dupont, Jean F. Simpson, Peggy A. Schuyler, Melinda E. Sanders, Marcia E. Freudenthal and David L. Page

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23873

      Columnar cell lesions of the breast show a mild increase in breast cancer risk, a strong association with atypical hyperplasia, and do not differ in cancer risk whether or not they show columnar cell hyperplasia or atypia.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer : From prognostic stratification to modification of the staging system? (pages 2422–2430)

      Shaheenah Dawood, Kristine Broglio, Vicente Valero, James Reuben, Beverly Handy, Rabiul Islam, Summer Jackson, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi, Herbert Fritsche and Massimo Cristofanilli

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23852

      The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of baseline circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a large cohort of patients with newly diagnosed metastatic breast cancer (MBC). CTCs were found to be a strong independent predictor of survival among women with either de novo or newly recurrent MBC. CTCs should be considered as a new stratification method for women with newly diagnosed MBC.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Short-term effects of treatment-induced hormonal changes on cognitive function in breast cancer patients : Results of a multicenter, prospective, longitudinal study (pages 2431–2439)

      Kerstin Hermelink, Volkmar Henschel, Michael Untch, Ingo Bauerfeind, Michael Patrick Lux and Karin Munzel

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23853

      Therapy-induced hormonal changes did not contribute more than marginally at most to cognitive impairment in patients with breast cancer during their first year after diagnosis. The effects of treatment-induced menopause were more likely to be favorable, and antiestrogen treatment with tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors did not affect cognition.

    5. Endocrine Disease
      You have free access to this content
      Association of PTEN gene methylation with genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway in thyroid tumors (pages 2440–2447)

      Peng Hou, Meiju Ji and Mingzhao Xing

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23869

      Methylation of the PTEN gene promoter was analyzed in various types of thyroid tumors and found to be associated with activating genetic alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The findings suggest a self-enhancement mechanism for genetically activated signaling of the PI3K/AKT pathway through epigenetic silencing of its negative regulator PTEN gene.

    6. Gastrointestinal Disease
      You have free access to this content
      A randomized phase II trial of adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil/tegafur and gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with resected pancreatic cancer (pages 2448–2456)

      Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Akira Togawa, Fumio Kimura, Hiroshi Ito, Hiroaki Shimizu, Hiroyuki Yoshidome, Masayuki Otsuka, Atsushi Kato, Satoshi Nozawa, Katsunori Furukawa, Masaru Miyazaki and Pancreatic Cancer Chemotherapy Program of the Chiba University Department of General Surgery Affiliated Hospital Group

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23863

      The efficacy and feasibility of a gemcitabine (GEM) and uracil/tegafur (UFT) combination versus GEM alone was evaluated in patients with resected pancreatic cancer in a randomized phase II study. Although UFT did not show a survival benefit as adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy using GEM showed favorable results for resected pancreatic cancer.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
      You have free access to this content
      Cancer-specific survival outcomes among patients treated during the cytokine era of kidney cancer (1989-2005) : A benchmark for emerging targeted cancer therapies (pages 2457–2463)

      Arie S. Belldegrun, Tobias Klatte, Brian Shuch, Jeffrey C. LaRochelle, David C. Miller, Jonathan W. Said, Stephen B. Riggs, Nazy Zomorodian, Fairooz F. Kabbinavar, Jean B. deKernion and Allan J. Pantuck

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23851

      The authors have presented long-term, single-institution data to provide a thorough understanding of the results that have been achieved until now using a consistent, aggressive approach for localized and metastatic renal cell carcinoma. These results may serve as a benchmark to compare the results of emerging medical and surgical treatments.

    8. You have free access to this content
      Agent Orange exposure, Vietnam War veterans, and the risk of prostate cancer (pages 2464–2470)

      Karim Chamie, Ralph W. deVere White, Dennis Lee, Joonha Ok and Lars M. Ellison

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23695

      Individuals who have been exposed to Agent Orange have an increased incidence of prostate cancer; they develop the disease at a younger age and as a more aggressive variant than their unexposed counterparts. Consideration should be made to classify these individuals as ‘high risk’ along with men of African-American heritage and men who have a family history of prostate cancer.

    9. You have free access to this content
      A role for neoadjuvant gemcitabine plus cisplatin in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder : A retrospective experience (pages 2471–2477)

      Atreya Dash, Joseph A. Pettus IV, Harry W. Herr, Bernard H. Bochner, Guido Dalbagni, S. Machele Donat, Paul Russo, Mary G. Boyle, Matthew I. Milowsky and Dean F. Bajorin

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23848

      Cisplatin and gemcitabine therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer produces definitive clinical activity in the neoadjuvant setting, with a pathological complete response rate similar to that of the standard methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin regimen and an excellent disease-free survival in responding patients.

    10. You have free access to this content
      Phase 3, randomized, controlled trial of atrasentan in patients with nonmetastatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer (pages 2478–2487)

      Joel B. Nelson, William Love, Joseph L. Chin, Fred Saad, Claude C. Schulman, Darryl J. Sleep, Jiang Qian, Joyce Steinberg, Michael Carducci and for the Atrasentan Phase 3 Study Group

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23864

      Atrasentan is a potent, oral, selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist that has clinical activity in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). In this article, the authors report the results from a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of atrasentan in patients with nonmetastatic HRPC.

    11. Head and Neck Disease
      You have free access to this content
      Genetic variations in cell-cycle pathway and the risk of oral premalignant lesions (pages 2488–2495)

      Yuanqing Ye, Scott M. Lippman, J. Jack Lee, Meng Chen, Marsha L. Frazier, Margaret R. Spitz and Xifeng Wu

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23854

      The authors used a pathway-based approach and a multifaceted approach to analyze high-order gene-gene and gene-smoking interactions. The results revealed that the alteration of risk of oral premalignant lesion by single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the cell-cycle control pathway can be attributed to smoking status. This pathway-based approach has the advantage of identifying the complex relationship between genetic polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility involving multiple factors.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
      You have free access to this content
      Pretransplantation positron emission tomography scan is the main predictor of autologous stem cell transplantation outcome in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2496–2503)

      Enrico Derenzini, Gerardo Musuraca, Stefano Fanti, Vittorio Stefoni, Monica Tani, Lapo Alinari, Filippo Venturini, Letizia Gandolfi, Michele Baccarani and Pier Luigi Zinzani

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23861

      The results from this study confirmed the leading role of pretransplantation positron emission tomography as prognostic factor in a homogeneous population of patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    13. You have free access to this content
      Arsenic trioxide and low-dose cytarabine in older patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia (pages 2504–2511)

      Gail J. Roboz, Ellen K. Ritchie, Tania Curcio, Juliette Provenzano, Rebecca Carlin, Michael Samuel, Beth Wittenberg, Madhu Mazumdar, Paul J. Christos, Susan Mathew, Sandra Allen-Bard and Eric J. Feldman

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23855

      The authors hypothesized that arsenic trioxide may augment the clinical activity of low-dose cytarabine in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and they conducted a phase 1/2 study to determine the safety and efficacy of the combination. The results indicated that arsenic trioxide combined with low-dose cytarabine appeared to improve responses in elderly patients who had AML compared with either agent alone.

    14. Lung Disease
      You have free access to this content
      Cetuximab in combination with carboplatin and docetaxel for patients with metastatic or advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer : A multicenter phase 2 study (pages 2512–2517)

      Chandra P. Belani, Marshall T. Schreeder, Ronald G. Steis, Richard A. Guidice, Thomas A. Marsland, Elizabeth H. Butler and Suresh S. Ramalingam

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23902

      Cetuximab has demonstrated evidence of activity in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). When administered in combination with carboplatin and docetaxel, cetuximab has been reported to exhibit synergistic interaction in preclinical studies. Therefore, a phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of cetuximab, carboplatin, and docetaxel for the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.

    15. You have free access to this content
      Performance status and sensitivity to first-line chemotherapy are significant prognostic factors in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer receiving second-line chemotherapy (pages 2518–2523)

      Young Hak Kim, Koichi Goto, Kiyotaka Yoh, Seiji Niho, Hironobu Ohmatsu, Kaoru Kubota, Nagahiro Saijo and Yutaka Nishiwaki

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23871

      The authors conducted a retrospective investigation of the prognostic factors in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer receiving second-line chemotherapy, and identified performance status and sensitivity to first-line chemotherapy as significant prognostic factors. These should be used as stratification factors in future clinical trials of second-line chemotherapy.

    16. Neuro-Oncology
      You have free access to this content
      Phase 2 trial of temozolomide using protracted low-dose and whole-brain radiotherapy for nonsmall cell lung cancer and breast cancer patients with brain metastases (pages 2524–2531)

      Raffaele Addeo, Carmine De Rosa, Vincenzo Faiola, Luigi Leo, Gregorio Cennamo, Liliana Montella, Rosario Guarrasi, Bruno Vincenzi, Michele Caraglia and Salvatore Del Prete

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23859

      Temozolomide, an oral methylating imidazotetrazinone, has antitumor activity against gliomas, malignant melanomas, and brain metastasis and is presently administered as a 5-day oral schedule every 4 weeks.

    17. You have free access to this content
      A phase 2 trial of whole-brain radiotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer (pages 2532–2538)

      Philippe A. Cassier, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Marie-Pierre Sunyach, Laurence Lancry, Jean-Paul Guastalla, Céline Ferlay, Frédéric Gomez, Hervé Curé, Alain Lortholary, Line Claude, Jean-Yves Blay and Thomas Bachelot

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23858

      Chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine combined with concurrent external-beam radiotherapy was found to induce a high response rate in patients with brain metastases from breast cancer, with an acceptable toxicity profile. This combination be of interest for patients with both cerebral and extracerebral disease progression.

    18. You have free access to this content
      Multidisciplinary treatment of brain metastases derived from clear cell renal cancer incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery (pages 2539–2548)

      Wolfram E. Samlowski, Martin Majer, Kenneth M. Boucher, Annabelle F. Shrieve, Christopher Dechet, Randy L. Jensen and Dennis C. Shrieve

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23857

      Brain metastases are a frequent and adverse complication in metastatic clear cell renal cancer. The aggressive treatment of patients with renal cancer brain metastases incorporating stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and subsequent systemic therapy resulted in prolonged survival in 16% of patients. The best outcome was obtained in ‘good-risk’ patients treated with interleukin-2-based immunotherapy after SRS.

    19. Skin
      You have free access to this content
      Merkel cell carcinoma : Histologic features and prognosis (pages 2549–2558)

      Aleodor A. Andea, Daniel G. Coit, Bijal Amin and Klaus J. Busam

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23874

      In this study, the authors performed a retrospective review of histologic parameters and clinical outcome data in a series of 156 patients with a diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. The results revealed that, in a multivariate analysis, in addition to the known prognostic value of tumor stage, 3 histologic features were independent predictors of survival: tumor thickness, the presence of lymphatic tumor emboli, and tumor growth pattern.

    20. Discipline

      Disparities Research
      You have free access to this content
      Substantial family history of prostate cancer in black men recruited for prostate cancer screening : Results from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (pages 2559–2564)

      Kathleen Mastalski, Elliot J. Coups, Karen Ruth, Susan Raysor and Veda N. Giri

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23862

      Black men seeking prostate cancer screening have a substantial burden of family history of prostate cancer. Targeted education and enhancing discussion in black families should increase prostate cancer screening and adherence.

    21. You have free access to this content
      Long-term outcomes and clinicopathologic differences of African-American versus white patients treated with breast conservation therapy for early-stage breast cancer (pages 2565–2574)

      Meena S. Moran, Qifeng Yang, Lyndsay N. Harris, Beth Jones, David P. Tuck and Bruce G. Haffty

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23881

      In a large group of uniformly treated African–American (AA) and white patients, although the expected clinicopathologic differences were found between the 2 cohorts, race was not found to be an independent predictor of local recurrence for AA patients when other confounding variables were taken into account in the multivariate model. This suggests that breast conservation therapy is a reasonable option for appropriately selected AA patients.

    22. Epidemiology
      You have free access to this content
      Childhood and adolescent cancer survival in the US by race and ethnicity for the diagnostic period 1975-1999 (pages 2575–2596)

      Amy M. Linabery and Julie A. Ross

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23866

      Substantial increases in 5-year and 10-year childhood and adolescent cancer survival rates were noted over the 25-year period for all histologic types combined and for nearly all cancers examined. Observed trends reinforce a need for resources devoted to advancing treatment modalities, reducing disparities among racial/ethnic groups and adolescents, and providing long-term care of survivors.

    23. Pediatric Oncology
      You have free access to this content
      Second solid malignancies among children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with malignant bone tumors after 1976 : Follow-up of a children's oncology group cohort (pages 2597–2604)

      Robert Goldsby, Cynthia Burke, Rajaram Nagarajan, Tianni Zhou, Zhengjia Chen, Neyssa Marina, Debra Friedman, Joseph Neglia, Paul Chuba and Smita Bhatia

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23860

      The cumulative incidence of solid organ second malignant neoplasms in 1686 patients with osteosarcoma and 1156 patients with Ewing Sarcoma treated on legacy Children's Cancer Group/Pediatric Oncology Group protocols from 1980 to 2005 was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.6%-2%) at 10 years. Overall, the cohort was at a 3.7-fold increased risk of second solid tumors compared with the general population.

    24. Radiation Oncology
      You have free access to this content
      Randomized trial to assess the efficacy of intraoperative steroid use in decreasing acute urinary retention after transperineal radioactive iodine-125 implantation for prostate cancer (pages 2605–2609)

      Michelle L. Mierzwa, William L. Barrett, Kevin Redmond, Reza Shirazi, Ali Kastl, Nitin Kumar and Ralph Buncher

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23905

      A prospective trial was conducted randomizing patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy to a single intraoperative dose of dexamethasone versus no steroid use to determine the effect of steroids on the rate of catheterization within 48 hours. The overall rate of postimplantation catheterization in the study was 1.5%, with no statistical difference noted between treatment arms, demonstrating that dexamethasone did not decrease the rate of catheterization.

    25. You have free access to this content
      Management of brain metastases from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma with stereotactic radiosurgery (pages 2610–2614)

      Edward Monaco III, Douglas Kondziolka, Sanjay Mongia, Ajay Niranjan, John C. Flickinger and L. Dade Lunsford

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23868

      Metastases to the brain from ovarian and endometrial carcinoma are uncommon and consensus regarding their optimal management is lacking. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has proven useful for the treatment of many benign and malignant brain tumors. In the current study, the authors reviewed their experience with 27 patients who underwent gamma–knife SRS for brain metastases from endometrial or ovarian carcinoma.

  5. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    6. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 2615)

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.23876

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION