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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 May 2009

Volume 115, Issue 10

Pages 2025–2245

  1. News

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      CancerScope (pages 2025–2027)

      Carrie Printz

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24244

  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      Prognostic models : From the fates to the future (pages 2028–2030)

      Eric Jonasch

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24264

      In this issue of Cancer, Parker et al provide an opportunity to reflect on the current state of prognostication science by introducing the “BioScore,” a metric derived from categorical expression data for B7-H1, survivin, and Ki-67, which have been reported as independent predictors of poor outcome in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Purely prognostic models must give way to predictive models based on mechanistic hypotheses.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
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      The role of macrophage inhibitory factor in tumorigenesis and central nervous system tumors (pages 2031–2040)

      Jan-Philipp Bach, Oliver Deuster, Monika Balzer-Geldsetzer, Bernhard Meyer, Richard Dodel and Michael Bacher

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24245

      A detailed review is presented of the current knowledge regarding the role of macrophage inhibitory factor in tumorigenesis and central nervous system tumor pathophysiology.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorial
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Patterns of treatment for early stage breast cancers at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1997 to 2004 (pages 2041–2051)

      Yu Shen, Wenli Dong, Barry W. Feig, Peter Ravdin, Richard L. Theriault and Sharon H. Giordano

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24271

      The results from this study suggested that key findings in adjuvant therapy and surgical management from large clinical trials often prompt immediate changes in the patient care practices of research hospitals like the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

    2. Endocrine Disease
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      [90Yttrium-DOTA]-TOC response is associated with survival benefit in iodine-refractory thyroid cancer : Long-term results of a phase 2 clinical trial (pages 2052–2062)

      Fabienne Iten, Beat Muller, Christian Schindler, Helmut Rasch, Christoph Rochlitz, Daniel Oertli, Helmut R. Maecke, Jan Muller-Brand and Martin A. Walter

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24272

      In a phase 2 trial, biochemical response, survival and long-term safety profile of systemic [90Yttrium (Y)-DOTA]-TOC treatment was investigated in metastasized iodine-refractory thyroid cancer. Response to treatment was associated with longer survival from time of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.17 [0.03-0.92], P = .04) and from time of first [90Y-DOTA]-TOC therapy (HR: 0.20 [0.04-0.94], P = .04).

    3. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      The intratumoral distribution of nuclear β-catenin is a prognostic marker in colon cancer (pages 2063–2070)

      David Horst, Simone Reu, Lydia Kriegl, Jutta Engel, Thomas Kirchner and Andreas Jung

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24254

      Colon cancers display a heterogenous expression of nuclear β-catenin as this marker is often predominantly found at the tumor's front of invasion but absent in the tumor center. Herein, using immunohistochemistry, the authors demonstrated that the intratumoral distribution of nuclear β-catenin is a strong predictive marker of survival and disease progression in patients with stage IIA colon cancer.

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      Negative Helicobacter pylori status is associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (pages 2071–2080)

      Daniele Marrelli, Corrado Pedrazzani, Anna Berardi, Giovanni Corso, Alessandro Neri, Lorenzo Garosi, Carla Vindigni, Annalisa Santucci, Natale Figura and Franco Roviello

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24253

      The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and clinical outcome was investigated in a large cohort of patients with gastric cancer with a long follow-up period. Statistical analysis identified negative H. pylori status as an indicator of poor prognosis after curative surgery.

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      Cost implications of new treatments for advanced colorectal cancer (pages 2081–2091)

      Yu-Ning Wong, Neal J. Meropol, William Speier, Daniel Sargent, Richard M. Goldberg and J. Robert Beck

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24246

      The objective of the current study was to measure the cost implications of treatment for advanced colorectal cancer with sequential regimens that included chemotherapy and/or monoclonal antibodies. The results indicated that treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with the most effective available agents comes at very high treatment-related costs that exceed most societal accepted thresholds for cost effectiveness.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Development and evaluation of BioScore : A biomarker panel to enhance prognostic algorithms for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (pages 2092–2103)

      Alexander S. Parker, Bradley C. Leibovich, Christine M. Lohse, Yuri Sheinin, Susan M. Kuntz, Jeanette E. Eckel-Passow, Michael L. Blute and Eugene D. Kwon

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24263

      The authors described the creation of BioScore, a prognostic scoring system based on tumor expression levels of 3 biomarkers of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) outcome. As they demonstrated, BioScore can be used in tandem with established prognostic algorithms to enhance ccRCC outcome prediction.

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      Patient selection for hemiablative focal therapy of prostate cancer : Variables predictive of tumor unilaterality based upon radical prostatectomy (pages 2104–2110)

      Thomas J. Polascik, Janice M. Mayes, Florian R. Schroeck, Leon Sun, John F. Madden, Judd W. Moul and Vladimir Mouraviev

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24258

      Negative family history of prostate cancer and prostate biopsy unilaterality were predictive of unilateral cancer and could aid the selection of men with low- to low-moderate-risk for hemiablation. To improve predictability, false-negative and false-positive rates need further research.

    8. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Involution of latent endometrial precancers by hormonal and nonhormonal mechanisms (pages 2111–2118)

      Ming-Chieh Lin, Kyla A. Burkholder, Akila N. Viswanathan, Donna Neuberg and George L. Mutter

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24218

      An early step of endometrial carcinogenesis has been shown to be inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in individual glands of normal-appearing endometrium. Hormonal (oral contraceptive) and nonhormonal (inert intrauterine device use) treatments that reduce endometrial cancer risk were shown to be associated with a proportionate decline in the prevalence of these preclinical “latent precancers.”

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      Platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy favorably impacts survival outcomes in stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma (pages 2119–2127)

      Amanda Nickles Fader, Richard D. Drake, David M. O'Malley, Heidi E. Gibbons, Warner K. Huh, Laura J. Havrilesky, Paola A. Gehrig, Erin Tuller, Allison E. Axtell, Kristine M. Zanotti and for the Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma (UPSC) Consortium

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24247

      Stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma patients have a significant risk for extrapelvic recurrences and poor survival outcomes. However, recurrence and survival outcomes are improved in well-staged patients treated with platinum/taxane–based chemotherapy.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Clinical and pathologic prognostic features in acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland (pages 2128–2137)

      Daniel R. Gomez, Nora Katabi, Joanne Zhung, Suzanne L. Wolden, Michael J. Zelefsky, Dennis H. Kraus, Jatin P. Shah, Richard J. Wong, Ronald A. Ghossein and Nancy Y. Lee

      Article first published online: 23 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24259

      This single-institution review included a retrospective reanalysis of multiple histologic features that portend treatment failure. Multiple prognostic clinical variables were identified, and a novel grading system was devised to select those patients who would most benefit from adjuvant treatment.

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      Neoadjuvant chemotherapy/gefitinib followed by concurrent chemotherapy/radiation therapy/gefitinib for patients with locally advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 2138–2146)

      John D. Hainsworth, David R. Spigel, Howard A. Burris III, Tiffanie M. Markus, Dianna Shipley, Michel Kuzur, Scott Lunin and F. Anthony Greco

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24265

      The authors evaluated the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of gefitinib added to first-line, combined-modality therapy for patients with locally advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck. The addition of gefitinib produced a moderate increase in toxicity, particularly during induction chemotherapy, and produced efficacy results that were similar those produced in many combined-modality trials with chemoradiation alone.

    12. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and translocation (1;19) abnormality have a favorable outcome with hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine chemotherapy (pages 2147–2154)

      Ravin Garg, Hagop Kantarjian, Deborah Thomas, Stefan Faderl, Farhad Ravandi, Denise Lovshe, Sherry Pierce and Susan O'Brien

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24266

      The authors of this report reviewed the outcome of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 19 (t[1;19]) who received hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine (hyper-CVAD) chemotherapy. The results indicated that adults with ALL who had the t(1;19) had an excellent prognosis when they received the hyper-CVAD regimen.

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      The treatment of multiple myeloma using vincristine, carmustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (VBMCP) alternating with high-dose cyclophosphamide and α2β interferon versus VBMCP : Results of a phase III Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E5A93 (pages 2155–2164)

      Robert A. Kyle, Susanna Jacobus, William R. Friedenberg, Coenraad Frederik Slabber, S. Vincent Rajkumar and Philip R. Greipp

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24221

      It was found that vincristine, carmustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (VBMCP) high-dose cyclophosphamide and α2β interferon was not significantly more effective than VBMCP alone in the treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    14. Lung Disease
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      Genistein enhances the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and inhibits nuclear factor kappa B in nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines (pages 2165–2176)

      Shirish M. Gadgeel, Shadan Ali, Philip A. Philip, Antoinette Wozniak and Fazlul H. Sarkar

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24250

      Genistein was found to enhance the antitumor effects of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in 3 separate nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines. This enhanced activity was in part because of greater reduction in the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B when EGFR-TKIs were combined with genistein.

    15. Melanoma
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      Stage migration after minor changes in histologic estimation of tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes : The protocol trap (pages 2177–2187)

      Rikke Riber-Hansen, Jens R. Nyengaard, Stephen J. Hamilton-Dutoit and Torben Steiniche

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24268

      Semiquantitative estimates of tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes are highly dependent on the histologic protocol used. Adding extra steps to pathology protocols when assessing these parameters leads to a systematic bias with unidirectional stage migration (“the protocol trap”).

    16. Neuro-Oncology
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      Phase I pharmacokinetic study of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor vatalanib (PTK787) plus imatinib and hydroxyurea for malignant glioma (pages 2188–2198)

      David A. Reardon, Merrill J. Egorin, Annick Desjardins, James J. Vredenburgh, Jan H. Beumer, Theodore F. Lagattuta, Sridharan Gururangan, James E. Herndon II, August J. Salvado and Henry S. Friedman

      Article first published online: 26 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24213

      Administration of vatalanib, imatinib, and hydroxyurea to patients with recurrent malignant gliomas was safe and not limited by detrimental pharmacokinetic interactions. Concurrent targeting of tumor blood vessel endothelial cells and pericytes by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitors, respectively, represented an antitumor strategy that may further limit tumor angiogenesis.

    17. Discipline

      Disparities Research
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      Racial disparities and treatment trends in a large cohort of elderly black and white patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 2199–2211)

      Dale Hardy, Chih-Chin Liu, Rui Xia, Janice N. Cormier, Wenyaw Chan, Arica White, Keith Burau and Xianglin L. Du

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24248

      There were substantial disparities in receiving recommended treatments between blacks and whites, and these disparities were relatively stable without a significant trend of narrowing during the past 12 years. Efforts must focus on the appropriate quality treatment and the education of blacks on the value of having these treatments.

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      Breast and prostate cancer survival in Michigan : Can Geographic Analyses Assist in Understanding Racial Disparities? (pages 2212–2221)

      Jaymie R. Meliker, Pierre Goovaerts, Geoffrey M. Jacquez, Gillian A. AvRuskin and Glenn Copeland

      Article first published online: 13 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24251

      The authors introduce a strategy for spatial analysis of racial disparities in cancer survival that they developed through a public health practice-research partnership with the Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program. This novel approach takes advantage of inconsistencies across geographic scales to evaluate the relative importance of innate and societal-level factors in explaining racial disparities in survival from breast and prostate cancer.

    19. Epidemiology
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      BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women of different ethnicities undergoing testing for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer (pages 2222–2233)

      Michael J. Hall, Julia E. Reid, Lynn A. Burbidge, Dmitry Pruss, Amie M. Deffenbaugh, Cynthia Frye, Richard J. Wenstrup, Brian E. Ward, Thomas A. Scholl and Walter W. Noll

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24200

      Mutations in breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA2 were common among women of diverse ancestries who underwent genetic testing. Genetic testing is integral to breast and ovarian cancer risk assessment in all high-risk women.

      Corrected by:

      Erratum: Erratum

      Vol. 115, Issue 12, 2804, Article first published online: 20 APR 2009

    20. Outcomes Research
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      Educational outcomes among survivors of childhood cancer in British Columbia, Canada : Report of the Childhood/Adolescent/Young Adult Cancer Survivors (CAYACS) Program (pages 2234–2245)

      Maria Lorenzi, Amy J. McMillan, Linda S. Siegel, Bruno D. Zumbo, Victor Glickman, John J. Spinelli, Karen J. Goddard, Sheila L. Pritchard, Paul C. Rogers and Mary L. McBride

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24267

      In this study, survivors of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors appeared to be at risk for poor educational outcomes; other childhood cancer survivors appeared to achieve educational outcomes similar to those in the general population but had increased use of special education programs. The results indicated that it is important to identify high-risk groups within the education system and to develop and use interventions to maximize the potential for successful educational experiences.

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