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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 March 2009

Volume 115, Issue 5

Pages 911–1133

  1. News

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
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  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
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      Reducing bladder cancer deaths : The preemptive cystectomy approach (pages 914–917)

      Badrinath R. Konety

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24137

      In patients with bladder cancer, earlier cystectomy or other aggressive therapy can save the lives of some patients with nonmuscle-invasive disease. It is imperative to develop criteria for performing preemptive cystectomy in patients with nonmuscle-invasive disease who have failed intravesical therapies.

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      Sugar fuels cancer (pages 918–921)

      Richard T. Penson

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24125

      Pre-op plasma glucose is a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer, and may reflect important metabolic and oncogenic pathways that link obesity and cancer.

  3. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
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      Targeted therapies in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 922–935)

      Kathryn A. Gold, Ho-Young Lee and Edward S. Kim

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24123

      To improve the clinical outcome of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, novel compounds directed toward molecules or pathways involved in carcinogenesis are being investigated. The authors reviewed these agents and included agents directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathways as well as inhibitors of the insulin growth factor type-1 receptor and the Src family kinases.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Postmenopausal hormone use and breast cancer associations differ by hormone regimen and histologic subtype (pages 936–945)

      Eugenia E. Calle, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Janet S. Hildebrand, Lauren R. Teras, Michael J. Thun and Carmen Rodriguez

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24101

      Estrogen plus progesterone (E + P) is far more detrimental to the breast than estrogen only, in terms of both ductal and lobular breast cancer. The current study findings suggest a window of 2 to 3 years for the risks of E + P both to become apparent after initial use and to attenuate after cessation.

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      Locoregional recurrence of triple-negative breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery and radiation (pages 946–951)

      Gary M. Freedman, Penny R. Anderson, Tianyu Li and Nicos Nicolaou

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24094

      The effect of radiation on the local control of triple receptor-negative breast cancer (negative estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/neu receptors) was studied. Patients with triple receptor-negative breast cancer are not at a significantly increased risk for isolated locoregional recurrence at 5 years, and therefore remain appropriate candidates for breast conservation.

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      Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10 and CYP2C19*2,*3 are not associated with prognosis, endometrial thickness, or bone mineral density in Japanese breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen (pages 952–961)

      Masatsugu Okishiro, Tetsuya Taguchi, Seung Jin Kim, Kenzo Shimazu, Yasuhiro Tamaki and Shinzaburo Noguchi

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24111

      The impact of the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6*10 and CYP2C19*2,*3 on disease recurrence, endometrial thickness, bone mineral density, and total cholesterol levels was studied in Japanese breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen. No significant association was observed between these genetic polymorphisms and any of the abovementioned parameters.

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      Predictors of contralateral breast cancer in patients with unilateral breast cancer undergoing contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (pages 962–971)

      Min Yi, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Lavinia P. Middleton, Banu K. Arun, Isabelle Bedrosian, Gildy V. Babiera, Rosa F. Hwang, Henry M. Kuerer, Wei Yang and Kelly K. Hunt

      Article first published online: 26 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24129

      Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy may be a rational choice for breast cancer patients who have a 5-year Gail risk ≥1.67%, an additional ipsilateral moderate-risk to high-risk pathology, an ipsilateral multicentric tumor, or an ipsilateral tumor of invasive lobular histology.

    5. Endocrine Disease
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      High prevalence of BRAF mutation in a Brazilian cohort of patients with sporadic papillary thyroid carcinomas : Correlation with more aggressive phenotype and decreased expression of iodide-metabolizing genes (pages 972–980)

      Gisele Oler and Janete M. Cerutti

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24118

      A high prevalence of BRAF V600E was found in a large Brazilian cohort, which was found to be correlated with expression of iodide-metabolizing genes (NIS and TSHR) and clinical pathologic features. The search for BRAF mutation in the population studied demonstrated that BRAF was a potential prognostic marker and that not only the extension of the first surgery should be planned according to BRAF mutational status but also patient management.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Time to prostate-specific antigen nadir independently predicts overall survival in patients who have metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with androgen-deprivation therapy (pages 981–987)

      Toni K. Choueiri, Wanling Xie, Anthony V. D'Amico, Robert W. Ross, Jim C. Hu, Mark Pomerantz, Meredith M. Regan, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Philip W. Kantoff, Oliver Sartor and William K. Oh

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24064

      This study was an evaluation of the relation between the kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after the initiation of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and overall survival (OS) in men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). The results indicated that PSA kinetics at the initiation of ADT predicted OS in men with metastatic HSPC, with a faster time to PSA nadir being associated with shorter OS.

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      Mortality increases when radical cystectomy is delayed more than 12 weeks : Results From a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare Analysis (pages 988–996)

      John L. Gore, Julie Lai, Claude M. Setodji, Mark S. Litwin and Christopher S. Saigal

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24052

      Among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, disease-specific and overall survival were compromised when radical cystectomy was delayed 12 or more weeks after diagnosis.

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      Routine perioperative chemotherapy instillation with initial bladder tumor resection : A reconsideration of economic benefits (pages 997–1004)

      Pravin K. Rao and J. Stephen Jones

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24104

      Perioperative instillation (PI) of chemotherapy immediately after transurethral resection reduces bladder cancer recurrence but not disease progression or mortality; some authors have used a presumed economic benefit to justify PI. In the current analysis, the authors calculated that approximately 8.5 to 9.6 patients needed to receive PI to prevent 1 recurrence and its subsequent treatment costs; and, based on Medicare reimbursements, the treatment of a recurrence in most outpatient settings was comparable to or less costly than treating 8.5 to 9.6 patients with PI.

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      Preoperative and postoperative nomograms incorporating surgeon experience for clinically localized prostate cancer (pages 1005–1010)

      Michael W. Kattan, Andrew J. Vickers, Changhong Yu, Fernando J. Bianco, Angel M. Cronin, James A. Eastham, Eric A. Klein, Alwyn M. Reuther, Jose Edson Pontes and Peter T. Scardino

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24083

      It has been suggested that the experience of the surgeon may affect the risk of prostate cancer recurrence. This study developed nomograms that predicted cancer recurrence and that also considered surgeon experience. The nomograms appeared to predict reasonably well but were little improved with the addition of surgeon experience as a predictor variable.

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      Understanding bladder cancer death : Tumor biology versus physician practice (pages 1011–1020)

      David S. Morris, Alon Z. Weizer, Zaojun Ye, Rodney L. Dunn, James E. Montie and Brent K. Hollenbeck

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24136

      On the basis of administrative and clinical data, the authors of this study estimated that between 31.2% and 46.8% of bladder cancer deaths potentially were avoidable if aggressive definitive therapy was used early in the clinical course. Furthermore, 48.7% of patients who remained alive for at least 180 days with bladder cancer received no definitive therapy and ultimately died of their disease.

    11. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Glucose as a prognostic factor in ovarian carcinoma (pages 1021–1027)

      Donald M. Lamkin, Douglas R. Spitz, Mian M. K. Shahzad, Bridget Zimmerman, Daniel J. Lenihan, Koen DeGeest, David M. Lubaroff, Eileen H. Shinn, Anil K. Sood and Susan K. Lutgendorf

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24126

      Nonfasting plasma glucose levels were determined for 74 patients with ovarian cancer at the time of their presurgical consultation and for 125 ovarian cancer patients in an independent validation set. Higher glucose levels were associated with significantly shorter survival time and shorter time to recurrence.

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      The prognostic value of pretreatment CA 125 in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma : A Gynecologic Oncology Group study (pages 1028–1035)

      Kristin K. Zorn, Chunqiao Tian, William P. McGuire, William J. Hoskins, Maurie Markman, Franco M. Muggia, Peter G. Rose, Robert F. Ozols, David Spriggs and Deborah K. Armstrong

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24084

      The objective of the current study was to determine the prognostic significance of a pretreatment serum CA 125 level in a large cohort of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer who received a standard chemotherapy regimen. The results showed a normal pretreatment CA 125 in only 7.6% of the patients and suggested that pretreatment CA 125 may be considered a prognostic marker for disease progression in this patient population.

    13. Head and Neck Disease
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      Low positive predictive value of the oral brush biopsy in detecting dysplastic oral lesions (pages 1036–1040)

      Vinodh Bhoopathi, Sadru Kabani and Ana Karina Mascarenhas

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24089

      The oral brush biopsy technique had a low positive predictive value, overestimated dysplastic lesions, and produced a high number of false-positive results. The authors recommend conducting an independent, multisite study that includes both positive and negative lesions from these biopsies to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the brush biopsy technique, along with a cost-effectiveness analysis, before any type of universal recommendations can be made regarding their use.

    14. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Proliferation predicts failure-free survival in mantle cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with rituximab plus high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine (pages 1041–1048)

      Mar Garcia, Jorge E. Romaguera, Kedar V. Inamdar, George Z. Rassidakis and L. Jeffrey Medeiros

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24141

      The authors assessed the prognostic value of the proliferation index, as assessed by Ki-67 immunohistochemical analysis, in a group of patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who uniformly received rituximab plus hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with rituximab plus high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine (R-hyper-CVAD). The results demonstrated that the proliferation index had prognostic value in patients who uniformly received the aggressive R-hyper-CVAD chemotherapy regimen.

    15. Lung Disease
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      Modulation of lung molecular biomarkers by β-carotene in the Physicians' Health Study (pages 1049–1058)

      Chun Liu, Xiang-Dong Wang, Lorelei Mucci, J. Michael Gaziano and Shumin M. Zhang

      Article first published online: 13 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24061

      A 50-mg β-carotene supplementation on alternate days had no significant influence on molecular markers of lung carcinogenesis that were evaluated in the Physicians' Health Study (PHS). This finding provides mechanistic support for the main PHS trial results of β-carotene, which demonstrated no benefit or harm with regard to the risk of lung cancer.

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      Factors associated with local and distant recurrence and survival in patients with resected nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1059–1069)

      John M. Varlotto, Abram Recht, John C. Flickinger, Laura N. Medford-Davis, Ann M. Dyer and Malcolm M. DeCamp

      Article first published online: 17 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24133

      The impact of factors on the risks of local and distant recurrence and overall survival for patients with stages I through IIIA nonsmall cell lung carcinoma who are undergoing definitive resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. Local recurrence was the predominant type of failure in this series. Patients with diabetes or lymphatic vascular invasion may benefit from close surveillance and aggressive therapy of asymptomatic local recurrences, especially when chemotherapy is given in addition to surgery.

    17. Neuro-Oncology
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      O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoexpression in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas : Are progressive tumors potential candidates for temozolomide treatment? (pages 1070–1080)

      Georg Widhalm, Stefan Wolfsberger, Matthias Preusser, Adelheid Woehrer, Mark R. Kotter, Thomas Czech, Christine Marosi and Engelbert Knosp

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24053

      Half of patients with progressive, regrowing, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas exhibited low O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression. Therefore, the current findings provide a rationale for the use of temozolomide as an alternative treatment approach if conventional multimodality therapy fails.

    18. Discipline

      Diagnostic Imaging
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      Computed tomography scan-driven selection of treatment for retroperitoneal liposarcoma histologic subtypes (pages 1081–1090)

      Guy Lahat, John E. Madewell, Daniel A. Anaya, Wei Qiao, Daniel Tuvin, Robert S. Benjamin, Dina C. Lev and Ralphael E. Pollock

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24045

      A treatment algorithm for retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS), computed tomography (CT) scan features, and a CT-guided biopsy in selective cases may be utilized to differentiate between well-differentiated to dedifferentiated RPLS.

    19. Medical Oncology
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      Survival of patients in a Phase 1 clinic : The M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience (pages 1091–1099)

      Jennifer Wheler, Apostolia M. Tsimberidou, David Hong, Aung Naing, Tiffiny Jackson, Suyu Liu, Lei Feng and Razelle Kurzrock

      Article first published online: 22 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24018

      In this analysis of patients who were seen in the Phase 1 Clinic at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, overall survival and risk factors that were predictive of survival were identified. In multivariate analysis, independent factors that predicted shorter survival were a history of thromboembolism, a platelet count ≥440 × 109/L, and the presence of liver metastases. These factors can be used to identify specific risk groups, to compare results among different phase 1 clinical trials, and to improve patient selection for these trials.

    20. Pediatric Oncology
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      Infections and association with different intensity of chemotherapy in children with acute myeloid leukemia (pages 1100–1108)

      Lillian Sung, Alan Gamis, Todd A. Alonzo, Allen Buxton, Kristen Britton, Joetta DeSwarte-Wallace and William G. Woods

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24107

      Intensive timing induction chemotherapy is associated with more bacterial, fungal, and viral infections compared with standard timing induction for children with acute myeloid leukemia. During consolidation, chemotherapy was associated with more bacterial but similar fungal and viral infections compared with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    21. Quality of Life
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      Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors : Differences by adjuvant chemotherapy dose in Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 8541 (pages 1109–1120)

      Electra Paskett, James Herndon II, Kathleen Donohue, Michelle Naughton, Stephen Grubbs, Michael Pavy, Martee Hensley, Nancy Stark, Alice Kornblith and Marisa Bittoni

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24140

      Among breast cancer survivors who had received 3 different dose levels of chemotherapy, differences in physical role functioning from 9.4 to 16.5 years after the original diagnosis were explained by clinical and demographic variables, such as age, fatigue, menopausal symptoms, and comorbidities. Prospective follow-up studies are needed to further assess the role of these factors in understanding current health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of breast cancer.

    22. Symptom Control and Palliative Care
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      Initiation of epoetin-α therapy at a starting dose of 120,000 units once every 3 weeks in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy : An open-label, multicenter study with randomized and nonrandomized treatment arms (pages 1121–1131)

      John A. Glaspy, Veena Charu, Donghan Luo, Victor Moyo, Marc Kamin and Francois E. Wilhelm

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24127

      An initial dose of epoetin-α 120,000 U once every 3 weeks was well tolerated and effective for maintenance of hemoglobin levels in the management of chemotherapy-induced anemia. Early intervention (hemoglobin between 11.0 and 12.0 g/dL) and standard intervention (hemoglobin below 11.0 g/dL) with epoetin-α once every 3 weeks had similar safety and effectiveness.

  5. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
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      Epidemiological association between C-reactive protein and prostate-specific antigen (page 1132)

      Giuseppe Lippi, Martina Montagnana and Gian Cesare Guidi

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24116

  6. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Correspondence
    7. Erratum
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      Erratum (page 1133)

      Article first published online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24195

      This article corrects:

      The impact of positron emission tomography (PET) on expected management during cancer treatment

      Vol. 115, Issue 2, 410–418, Article first published online: 17 NOV 2008

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