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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 April 2009

Volume 115, Issue 8

Pages 1589–1803

  1. News

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      CancerScope (pages 1589–1591)

      Carrie Printz

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24202

  2. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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      The changing face of Phase 1 cancer clinical trials : New challenges in study requirements (pages 1592–1597)

      Barbara S. Craft, Razelle Kurzrock, Xiudong Lei, Roy Herbst, Scott Lippman, Siqing Fu and Daniel D. Karp

      Version of Record online: 22 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24171

      Phase 1 and early phase 2 cancer clinical trials now offer greater chances for response and benefit rather than just identification of drug dose and schedule. The authors analyzed a series of 90 early phase M. D. Anderson Cancer Center protocols (49 Phase 1 and 41 Phase 2) to examine the work intensity required for these 2 critical phases of clinical research. The results indicated that both phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials recently have endured increased requirements and workload. Phase 1 studies are significantly more complex due to substantial correlative testing and safety monitoring and therefore necessitate additional resources and infrastructure.

  3. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Perception of screening and risk reduction surgeries in patients tested for a BRCA deleterious mutation (pages 1598–1604)

      Jennifer K. Litton, Shannon N. Westin, Kaylene Ready, Charlotte C. Sun, Susan K. Peterson, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Ana M. Gonzalez-Angulo, Diane C. Bodurka, Karen H. Lu, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Banu K. Arun

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24199

      BRCA mutation carriers were found to be more likely to believe prophylactic mastectomy (PM) to be the best way to reduce both risk and worry of breast cancer. High-risk women who agreed that PM was more likely to reduce risk and worry of breast cancer were more likely to proceed with this intervention.

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      Prognostic significance of occult axillary lymph node metastases after chemotherapy-induced pathologic complete response of cytologically proven axillary lymph node metastases from breast cancer (pages 1605–1612)

      Asif Loya, Merih Guray, Bryan T. Hennessy, Lavinia P. Middleton, Thomas A. Buchholz, Vicente Valero and Aysegul A. Sahin

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24173

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      This study reported the frequency and clinical significance of residual occult axillary lymph node (ALN) breast cancer metastases in patients who were treated with primary chemotherapy for cytologically proven ALN-positive breast cancer and who were subsequently found to have pathologically negative ALNs at surgery on routine histologic examination.

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      Impact of axillary lymph node dissection on breast cancer outcome in clinically node negative patients : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (pages 1613–1620)

      Mona Sanghani, Ethan M. Balk and Blake Cady

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24174

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      This review and meta-analysis of contemporary randomized trials found no survival benefit to axillary dissection in the setting of early stage clinically lymph node negative breast cancer. Although the rate of axillary failure was increased in the absence of dissection, the absolute risk of regional recurrence was extremely low.

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      Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging in early breast cancer : Implications for partial breast irradiation (pages 1621–1630)

      Rahul D. Tendulkar, Melanie Chellman-Jeffers, Lisa A. Rybicki, Alice Rim, Ashwin Kotwal, Roger Macklis and Betty B. Obi

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24172

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      Preoperative breast MRI found mammographically occult ipsilateral breast tumors in 4.2% of patients who met criteria for accelerated partial breast irradiation on National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-39/RTOG 0413. Patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma had a higher risk of occult disease than other histologies.

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      Incidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in breast cancer patients (pages 1631–1637)

      Christian Walter, Bilal Al-Nawas, Andreas du Bois, Laura Buch, Philipp Harter and Knut A. Grötz

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24119

      With a prevalence of 5.3%, bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in breast cancer patients has become a relevant disease, the topic of which should be part of consultations with patients for whom bisphosphonates are recommended.

    6. Endocrine Disease
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      Predicting neuroendocrine tumor (carcinoid) neoplasia using gene expression profiling and supervised machine learning (pages 1638–1650)

      Ignat Drozdov, Mark Kidd, Boaz Nadler, Robert L. Camp, Shrikant M. Mane, Oyvind Hauso, Bjorn I. Gustafsson and Irvin M. Modlin

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24180

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      Definitive histopathologic assessment of neuroendocrine tumors has limitations and, in some circumstances, does not provide a reliable prediction of behavior. A gene-based approach was developed to characterize these tumors and to predict whether or not they metastasize.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as modulators of Hodgkin disease risk (pages 1651–1659)

      Randa El-Zein, Claudia M. Monroy, Carol J. Etzel, Andrea C. Cortes, Yun Xing, Amanda L. Collier and Sara S. Strom

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24205

      Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes play a role in modifying the risk of development of Hodgkin disease, especially when interaction between the pathways is considered.

    8. Head and Neck Disease
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      Association of p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism with human papillomavirus type 16 status in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-Hispanic whites (pages 1660–1668)

      Xuemei Ji, Erich M. Sturgis, Chong Zhao, Carol J. Etzel, Qingyi Wei and Guojun Li

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24184

      The p73 polymorphism was associated with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) status in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and may serve as a marker for susceptibility to HPV-16 positivity in patients with SCCHN, particularly those who are older, men, and ever drinkers and those with oropharyngeal cancer.

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      Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy (pages 1669–1679)

      Richard A. Schwarz, Wen Gao, Crystal Redden Weber, Cristina Kurachi, J. Jack Lee, Adel K. El-Naggar, Rebecca Richards-Kortum and Ann M. Gillenwater

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24177

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      The diagnostic performance of a depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy system was evaluated to noninvasively distinguish oral dysplasia or cancer from non-neoplastic mucosa in 124 subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of this objective diagnostic technique were comparable to that of clinical diagnosis by expert observers, indicating its potential for augmenting oral cancer screening efforts in community settings.

    10. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Survival after Hodgkin lymphoma : Causes of death and excess mortality in patients treated in 8 consecutive trials (pages 1680–1691)

      Olav Favier, Natacha Heutte, Aspasia Stamatoullas-Bastard, Patrice Carde, Mars B. van't Veer, Berthe M. P. Aleman, Evert M. Noordijk, José Thomas, Christophe Fermé, Michel Henry-Amar and for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Lymphoma Group and the Groupe d'Études des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (GELA)

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24178

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      This analysis of mortality in recurrence-free adult patients who had Hodgkin lymphoma indicated that, along with age ≥40 years and sex, only unfavorable prognostic features were associated with excess mortality. Progressive disease remained the primary cause of death among these patients in the first decades after treatment.

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      Mechanisms of constitutive activation of Janus kinase 2-V617F revealed at the atomic level through molecular dynamics simulations (pages 1692–1700)

      Tai-Sung Lee, Wanlong Ma, Xi Zhang, Francis Giles, Hagop Kantarjian and Maher Albitar

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24183

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      Molecular simulations on the wild-type and the valine-to-phenylalanine mutation at amino acid 617 (V617F) of the entire Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) assembly were performed, and a possible detailed mutational mechanism of V617F was revealed. The simulation results suggested that, in the V617F mutant, F617 residue forms strong interaction with F595, resulting in blocking key interactions in the JH1/JH2 interface and activating the JH1 domain.

    12. Lung Disease
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      Prognostic significance of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors A, B, C, and D and their receptors R1, R2, and R3 in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1701–1712)

      Enrique Carrillo de Santa Pau, Fernando Carrillo Arias, Enrique Caso Peláez, Gemma María Muñoz Molina, Ignacio Sánchez Hernández, Ignacio Muguruza Trueba, Ramón Moreno Balsalobre, Silvia Sacristán López, Alejandro Gómez Pinillos and María del Val Toledo Lobo

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24193

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      The authors analyzed expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) family of proteins and survival in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results indicated that the overexpression of VEGFs and VEGFRs plays an important role in the survival of patients with NSCLC, and the inclusion of angiogenic factors in the standard pathologic study of lung cancer may improve the clinical evaluation of patients with NSCLC.

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      A phase 2 study of cetuximab in combination with docetaxel in chemotherapy-refractory/resistant patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1713–1722)

      Edward S. Kim, Ann M. Mauer, William N. William Jr, Hai T. Tran, Diane Liu, Jack J. Lee, Paul Windt, Waun K. Hong, Everett E. Vokes and Roy S. Herbst

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24148

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      Cetuximab in combination with docetaxel was examined in chemotherapy-refractory and/or resistant patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to determine response rate, survival, safety, and pharmacokinetics (PK). Cetuximab in combination with docetaxel was well tolerated, and the response rate supports more definitive evaluation of this combination in the second-line setting.

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      The EML4-ALK fusion gene is involved in various histologic types of lung cancers from nonsmokers with wild-type EGFR and KRAS (pages 1723–1733)

      Daisy Wing-Sze Wong, Elaine Lai-Han Leung, Kimpton Kam-Ting So, Issan Yee-San Tam, Alan Dart-Loon Sihoe, Lik-Cheung Cheng, Kwok-Keung Ho, Joseph Siu-Kie Au, Lap-Ping Chung, Maria Pik Wong and University of Hong Kong Lung Cancer Study Group

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24181

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      The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4–anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase fusion gene EML4-ALK was present in approximately 5% of various histologic types of nonsmall cell lung cancers. It occurred in mutual exclusion of mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene EGFR and the v-Ki-ras2/Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog KRAS and was associated with nonsmokers.

    15. Neuro-Oncology
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      Bevacizumab for recurrent alkylator-refractory anaplastic oligodendroglioma (pages 1734–1743)

      Marc C. Chamberlain and Sandra Johnston

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24179

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      Bevacizumab demonstrated efficacy and acceptable toxicity in adults with recurrent 1p19q codeleted alkylator-refractory anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

    16. Discipline

      Disparities Research
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      Race impacts outcome in stage III/IV squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck after concurrent chemoradiation therapy (pages 1744–1752)

      Kathleen Settle, Rodney Taylor, Jeffery Wolf, Young Kwok, Kevin Cullen, Kevin Carter, Robert Ord, Ann Zimrin, Scott Strome and Mohan Suntharalingam

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24168

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      In patients with stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who have completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy, African American patients had inferior disease-free survival and a trend toward worse overall survival.

    17. Medical Oncology
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      Extracellular and intracellular mechanisms that mediate the metastatic activity of exogenous osteopontin (pages 1753–1764)

      Jami Mandelin, Emme C. K. Lin, Dana D. Hu, Susan K. Knowles, Kim-Anh Do, Xuemei Wang, E. Helene Sage, Jeffrey W. Smith, Wadih Arap and Renata Pasqualini

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24170

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      Osteopontin affects several steps of the metastatic cascade, but the molecular basis for these observations remains elusive. In this study, the authors observed that soluble osteopontin played a role in triggering an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-dependent activation pathway in circulating tumor cells involving the Src oncogene (Rous sarcoma virus) that enhances binding to the endothelium and promotes metastasis.

    18. Pediatric Oncology
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      Phase 1 study of oxaliplatin and irinotecan in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors : A Children's Oncology Group Study (pages 1765–1775)

      Lisa M. McGregor, Sheri L. Spunt, Wayne L. Furman, Clinton F. Stewart, Paula Schaiquevich, Mark D. Krailo, RoseAnne Speights, Percy Ivy, Peter C. Adamson and Susan M. Blaney

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24175

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      This phase 1 dose-finding study of oxaliplatin combined with irinotecan in children with refractory solid tumors indicated that the maximum tolerated doses were oxaliplatin at a dose of 40 mg/m2 per dose on Days 1 and 8 in combination with irinotecan at a dose of 15 mg/m2 per dose on Days 1 through 5 and Days 8 through 12. Evidence of antitumor activity was observed; however, severe toxicity, which was expected (diarrhea) and unexpected (elevation in pancreatic enzymes), also was noted.

    19. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors: A controlled comparison (pages 1776–1783)

      Heather S. L. Jim, Kristine A. Donovan, Brent J. Small, Michael A. Andrykowski, Pamela N. Munster and Paul B. Jacobsen

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24192

      The objective of the current study was to determine whether neuropsychologic functioning differs in breast cancer survivors 6 months after the completion of adjuvant treatment compared with women without cancer. Results indicated small but statistically significant differences in cognitive functioning and cognitive impairment in survivors treated with chemotherapy and their matched controls, as well as in survivors treated with radiotherapy only and their matched controls.

    20. Radiation Oncology
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      Dose-escalated radiation therapy for intermediate-risk prostate cancer : Patient selection for androgen deprivation therapy using percentage of positive cores (pages 1784–1790)

      Stanley L. Liauw, Janine Fricano, David Correa, Ralph R. Weichselbaum and Ashesh B. Jani

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24176

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      The role of concurrent androgen deprivation therapy for men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer is uncertain in the setting of dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. In this series of 238 men with intermediate-risk disease treated with radiation therapy, patients with ≥50% positive cores at biopsy had the highest risk for biochemical failure, and, therefore, may be the patients most likely to derive a benefit from androgen deprivation therapy.

    21. Translational Research
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      Interstitial wires releasing diffusing alpha emitters combined with chemotherapy improved local tumor control and survival in squamous cell carcinoma-bearing mice (pages 1791–1801)

      Tomer Cooks, Lior Arazi, Margalit Efrati, Michael Schmidt, Gideon Marshak, Itzhak Kelson and Yona Keisari

      Version of Record online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24191

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      The authors studied the use of radiation therapy with diffusing alpha emitters to destroy solid tumors, and its augmentation by chemotheraphy affecting regional and distant metastases. The results highlighted the potential benefit of alpha radiation-based radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs for anticancer treatment.

  4. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. News
    3. Review Article
    4. Original Articles
    5. Correspondence
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    2. You have free access to this content

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