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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 March 2010

Volume 116, Issue 5

Pages 1147–1391

  1. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
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      CER in 2010 (pages 1147–1149)

      Carrie Printz

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.25023

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  2. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
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      The persistent anchor of lymph node removal in patients with melanoma (pages 1150–1152)

      David R. Byrd

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24869

      Sentinel lymph node dissection is the most accurate method with which to identify regional metastases in clinically lymph node-negative patients with melanoma. Attempts to define which sentinel lymph node-positive patients will benefit from completion lymphadenectomy fall short and raise even more questions.

  3. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
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      Medicare reimbursement changes for bladder biopsies : A cautionary tale of unintended consequences (pages 1153–1154)

      David F. Penson

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24881

      Medicare reimbursement policies may have unintended consequences. These are not always negative.

  4. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
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      Implications of key trials in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (pages 1155–1164)

      Philip D. Bonomi

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24815

      Among the numerous targeted agents investigated in first-line advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), only bevacizumab and cetuximab have demonstrated overall survival improvements. The clinical development of these agents indicate that approaches based in randomized phase 2 trials before transitioning to phase 3 may have better chances of success. In addition, sound clinical development for any agent in NSCLC in the near future will almost certainly depend on reliable patient selection strategies.

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      Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia : Concepts and strategies (pages 1165–1176)

      Stefan Faderl, Susan O'Brien, Ching-Hon Pui, Wendy Stock, Meir Wetzler, Dieter Hoelzer and Hagop M. Kantarjian

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24862

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      Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has been a success story in pediatric oncology. Although results in adults lag behind those in children, an expansion of new drugs, more reliable immunologic and molecular techniques for the assessment of minimal residual disease, and efforts at more precise risk stratification are generating new expectations for adult ALL therapy.

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      Antiangiogenesis agents in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (pages 1177–1183)

      Kristen Ganjoo and Charlotte Jacobs

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24859

      Antiangiogenesis agents for soft tissue sarcomas are an attractive therapeutic option. The objective of this article was to review the angiogenesis surrogate markers and antiangiogeneis trials in soft tissue sarcoma.

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      Locoregional treatment of primary breast cancer : Consensus recommendations from an International Expert Panel (pages 1184–1191)

      Manfred Kaufmann, Monica Morrow, Gunter von Minckwitz and Jay R. Harris

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24874

      Guidelines for the locoregional treatment of primary breast cancer were last published by the US National Institutes of Health in 1991. New surgical and radiotherapeutic techniques and new clinical evidence since then have created a need for revised guidelines for the locoregional treatment of primary breast cancer.

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      Treatment of small-cell lung cancer in elderly patients (pages 1192–1200)

      Athanasios G. Pallis, Frances A. Shepherd, Denis Lacombe and Cesare Gridelli

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24833

      Although standard approaches for the treatment of small-cell lung cancer seem feasible in carefully selected elderly patients, the majority of data are drawn from retrospective studies, which are likely to suffer from selection bias. Prospective clinical trials specifically of the elderly are mandatory to provide evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of this special population.

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      Early (sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided) versus delayed lymphadenectomy in melanoma patients with lymph node metastases : Personal Experience and Literature Meta-Analysis (pages 1201–1209)

      Sandro Pasquali, Simone Mocellin, Luca G. Campana, Elena Bonandini, Maria C. Montesco, Alberto Tregnaghi, Paolo Del Fiore, Donato Nitti and Carlo R. Rossi

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24852

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      The authors compared the survival of patients with melanoma and lymph node metastases (n = 190) who underwent either early lymphadenectomy (after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy) or delayed lymphadenectomy (for clinically evident disease) at their institution and also conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on this issue. Although, in 2 series (including the authors' own), no significant difference in survival was observed, the pooling of summary data from all studies (n = 2633) that addressed this issue suggested that early lymphadenectomy is associated with a significantly better outcome.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Phase 2 trial of primary systemic therapy with doxorubicin and docetaxel followed by surgery, radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil based on clinical and pathologic response in patients with stage IIB to III breast cancer : Long-term results from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Study ID97-099 (pages 1210–1217)

      Ricardo H. Alvarez, Daniel J. Booser, Massimo Cristofanilli, Aysegul A. Sahin, Eric A. Strom, Laura Guerra, Shu-Wan Kau, Ana M. Gonzalez-Angulo, Gabriel N. Hortobagyi and Vicente Valero

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24901

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      The authors reported a phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with inoperable and locally advanced breast cancer who were treated with anthracyclines and taxanes followed by local treatment based on clinical and pathologic response. The authors published mature data with a median follow-up of 8 years.

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      The role of socioeconomic status in adjustment after ductal carcinoma in situ (pages 1218–1225)

      Janet S. de Moor, Ann H. Partridge, Eric P. Winer, Jennifer Ligibel and Karen M. Emmons

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24832

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      Women with medium or low socioeconomic status were vulnerable to escalating anxiety and depression after ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosis. We recommend that women with low financial status be provided with psychosocial interventions that are designed to accommodate their unique needs.

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      Stage IV breast cancer in the era of targeted therapy : Does surgery of the primary tumor matter? (pages 1226–1233)

      Heather B. Neuman, Mary Morrogh, Mithat Gonen, Kimberly J. Van Zee, Monica Morrow and Tari A. King

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24873

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      Surgical resection of the primary tumor was found to be associated with a trend toward improved survival in patients with stage IV breast cancer who were treated entirely in the modern era. This trend was observed most strongly in the subset of patients with estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor positive and/or HER-2/neu‒amplified disease and suggests that the impact of local control is most evident in the presence of effective targeted therapy.

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      Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in breast cancer association with biologic phenotype and clinical outcomes (pages 1234–1242)

      Mothaffar F. Rimawi, Priya B. Shetty, Heidi L. Weiss, Rachel Schiff, C. Kent Osborne, Gary C. Chamness and Richard M. Elledge

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24816

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      Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has a potent impact on breast cancer preclinical models, clinical studies on this biomarker yielded mixed results. This article provides EGFR expression data and its associated clinical and biologic phenotypes on a large set of breast tumors, along with long follow-up and outcome data.

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      Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for carcinoma of the breast (pages 1243–1251)

      Gordon F. Schwartz, Jonathan E. Tannebaum, Amelia M. Jernigan and Juan P. Palazzo

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24887

      The timing and accuracy of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer is controversial. In the authors' experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 79 patients from 1997 through 2008, the successful identification of sentinel lymph nodes was documented in 98.7% of patients with an accuracy >92%.

    6. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      Tumor suppressor XIAP-Associated factor 1 (XAF1) cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand to suppress colon cancer growth and trigger tumor regression (pages 1252–1263)

      Shui Ping Tu, Yun Wei Sun, Jian Tao Cui, Bing Zou, Marie C. M. Lin, Qing Gu, Shi Hu Jiang, Hsiang Fu Kung, Robert G. Korneluk and Benjamin C. Y. Wong

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24814

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      Combined treatment with adeno- XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) strongly enhanced the induction of apoptosis in vivo, significantly inhibited tumor growth, markedly prolonged the survival time of animals bearing colon tumor xenografts, and completely eradicated established tumors. The results suggest that the combination of XAF1 and TRAIL may be a potent strategy for colon cancer treatment.

    7. Genitourinary Disease
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      The effect of changes in Medicare reimbursement on the practice of office and hospital-based endoscopic surgery for bladder cancer (pages 1264–1271)

      Micah L. Hemani, Danil V. Makarov, William C. Huang and Samir S. Taneja

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24875

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      After an increase in physician reimbursement, the use of office-based endoscopic bladder surgery doubled. Because this trend was not explained by office treatment of bladder cancer alone, it suggests that there was a reduced threshold for performing office-based endoscopic bladder procedures in the period after changes in Medicare reimbursement.

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      Safety and efficacy results of the advanced renal cell carcinoma sorafenib expanded access program in North America (pages 1272–1280)

      Walter M. Stadler, Robert A. Figlin, David F. McDermott, Janice P. Dutcher, Jennifer J. Knox, Wilson H. Miller Jr, John D. Hainsworth, Charles A. Henderson, Jeffrey R. George, Julio Hajdenberg, Tamila L. Kindwall-Keller, Marc S. Ernstoff, Harry A. Drabkin, Brendan D. Curti, Luis Chu, Christopher W. Ryan, Sebastien J. Hotte, Chenghua Xia, Lisa Cupit and Ronald M. Bukowski

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24864

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      The authors report on the results of sorafenib administration in an expanded access program to patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

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      Is delayed radical prostatectomy in men with low-risk screen-detected prostate cancer associated with a higher risk of unfavorable outcomes? (pages 1281–1290)

      Roderick C. N. van den Bergh, Ewout W. Steyerberg, Ali Khatami, Gunnar Aus, Carl Gustaf Pihl, Tineke Wolters, Pim J. van Leeuwen, Monique J. Roobol, Fritz H. Schröder and Jonas Hugosson

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24882

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      Men with low-risk screen-detected prostate cancer who received immediate surgery were compared with men receiving surgery after an initial period of expectant management. No significant differences in histopathological or biochemical outcomes were observed.

    10. Head and Neck Disease
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      Genetic alterations between primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and recurrence after radiotherapy : Recurrence, genetically related cancer, or second primary? (pages 1291–1297)

      Alberto Deganello, Alessandro Franchi, Iacopo Sardi, Lorenzo Pignataro, C. René Leemans and Oreste Gallo

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24854

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      The molecular profiles of primary tumors and recurrences were compared; where a recurrence after radiotherapy is found, the timing of reappearance together with the genetic comparison could help to tailor more appropriate salvage treatment. The authors found that tumors with partially discordant mutations display more aggressive behavior.

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      N1S3: A revised staging system for head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastases : Results of 2 Australian Cancer Centers (pages 1298–1304)

      Veronique-Isabelle Forest, Jonathan J. Clark, Michael J. Veness and Chris Milross

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24855

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      A staging system for metastatic head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma that would be usable and applicable in all clinical settings and provide improved prognostic discrimination is long overdue. The proposed N1S3 system uses independent pathological variables to stage patients and has been externally validated.

    12. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Therapeutic equivalence in survival for hepatic arterial chemoembolization and yttrium 90 microsphere treatments in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma : A Two-Cohort Study (pages 1305–1314)

      Brian I. Carr, Venkateswarlu Kondragunta, Shama C. Buch and Robert A. Branch

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24884

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      Consecutive cohorts of patients (n = 932) with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent either repeated, cisplatin-based chemoembolization or transhepatic arterial chemoembolization (n = 691); or received a planned, single dose of intrahepatic arterial yttrium 90 microspheres (n = 99); or received no therapy (n = 142) and were followed until death. After patients were stratified into subgroups defined by liver function (bilirubin <1.5 mg/dL or >1.5 mg/dL), tumor extension (the presence or absence of portal vein thrombosis), or the presence or absence of elevated α-fetoprotein, there was evidence of therapeutic equivalence in survival. The authors concluded that yttrium 90 microspheres were equivalent to chemoembolization for the regional treatment of unresectable HCC.

    13. Gastrointestinal Disease
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      AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) enhances the antitumor activity of rapamycin in mouse models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (pages 1315–1325)

      Hung Huynh

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24863

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      We used the mouse models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which recapitulate many features of human HCC, to test the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of AZD6244/RAPA combination. We now report that combinatorial inhibition of the mTOR and MEK/ERK signaling pathways was highly effective for inhibition of HCC growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Our findings provide the rationale for combining MEK and mTORC1 inhibitors in the treatment of HCC.

    14. Lung Disease
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      Elevated levels of the acute-phase serum amyloid are associated with heightened lung cancer risk (pages 1326–1335)

      Mattia Cremona, Elisa Calabrò, Giorgia Randi, Maida De Bortoli, Piera Mondellini, Carla Verri, Gabriella Sozzi, Marco A. Pierotti, Carlo La Vecchia, Ugo Pastorino and Italia Bongarzone

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24868

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      The findings from this study clearly indicated that the elevation of acute-phase serum amyloid protein A was associated with a substantial risk of developing lung cancer in a heavy smoking population. The results were based on the assessment of low-dose, spiral computed tomography scans from a control group and from a large number of patients who had screen-detected, early stage lung cancer.

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      Frequent central nervous system failure after clinical benefit with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in Korean patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (pages 1336–1343)

      Young Joo Lee, Hye Jin Choi, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Jin Wook Moon, In Kyu Park, Joo-Hang Kim and Byoung Chul Cho

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24877

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      The central nervous system (CNS) was frequently the initial failure site after a clinical benefit to epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in Korean nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients. A role of prophylactic cranial irradiation or close surveillance on the CNS during EGFR-TKI treatment is worthy of further study in these selected patients.

  6. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Lung Disease
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      Phase 2 study of irinotecan and paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or refractory small cell lung cancer (pages 1344–1349)

      Suresh S. Ramalingam, Judy Foster, William Gooding, Terry Evans, Matthew Sulecki and Chandra P. Belani

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24753

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      The combination of irinotecan and paclitaxel combination is reported to be tolerated well in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer. The regimen is active in patients with both sensitive and refractory disease recurrence.

  7. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorial
    4. Editorials
    5. Review Articles
    6. Original Articles
    7. Original Article
    8. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Lung Disease
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      Survival outcomes with the use of surgery in limited-stage small cell lung cancer : Should its role be re-evaluated? (pages 1350–1357)

      David Schreiber, Justin Rineer, Jeremy Weedon, Dan Vongtama, Angela Wortham, Anne Kim, Peter Han, Kwang Choi and Marvin Rotman

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24853

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      The use of surgery, particularly lobectomy, in selected patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer was associated with improved survival outcomes. The authors of this report concluded that future prospective studies should consider the role of surgery as part of the multimodality management of these patients.

    2. Neuro-Oncology
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      Clinical characteristics and outcomes for a modern series of primary gliosarcoma patients (pages 1358–1366)

      Seunggu J. Han, Isaac Yang, Brian J. Ahn, Jose J. Otero, Tarik Tihan, Michael W. McDermott, Mitchel S. Berger, Michael D. Prados and Andrew T. Parsa

      Article first published online: 5 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24857

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      Primary gliosarcoma is a rare central nervous system malignancy with limited experience reported in the literature. The current modern series of 20 primary gliosarcoma patients reported herein supports the existence of 2 clinically distinct subtypes of primary gliosarcoma.

    3. Discipline

      Disparities Research
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      Race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status influence the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States (pages 1367–1377)

      Avo Artinyan, Brian Mailey, Nicelio Sanchez-Luege, Joshua Khalili, Can-Lan Sun, Smita Bhatia, Lawrence D. Wagman, Nicholas Nissen, Steven D. Colquhoun and Joseph Kim

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24817

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      Significant racial and ethnic disparities in the outcome of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma persist despite the receipt of comparable treatment. Controlling for other clinical factors, black race was associated with the worst survival after surgical treatment and the worst graft survival and overall survival after liver transplantation, whereas Hispanics had the best transplantation outcomes.

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      Prostate cancer treatment for economically disadvantaged men : A comparison of county hospitals and private providers (pages 1378–1384)

      J. Kellogg Parsons, Lorna Kwan, Sarah E. Connor, David C. Miller and Mark S. Litwin

      Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24856

      In this economically disadvantaged cohort, prostate cancer care differed significantly between county hospitals and private providers. This study—the first to compare prostate cancer treatments between different types of healthcare facilities—reveals substantial variations in care that merit further investigation.

    5. Pediatric Oncology
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      Long-term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors in Sweden: A population-based study of education, employment, and income (pages 1385–1391)

      Krister K. Boman, Frank Lindblad and Anders Hjern

      Article first published online: 19 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.24840

      Swedish non-central nervous system cancer survivors had similar education, employment, and income as the general population, indicating the efficacy of surveillance, societal remedial measures, or both. However, brain tumor survivors presented with poorer socioeconomic outcomes, even after exclusion of those with indicated disability.

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