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Cancer

Cover image for Vol. 117 Issue 19

1 October 2011

Volume 117, Issue 19

Pages 4337–4572

  1. CancerScope

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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    3. You have free access to this content
  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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      Early detection of ovarian cancer : If only we had a “Pap smear” for this disease (pages 4340–4342)

      Jeffrey G. Bell

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26025

      Primary care physicians are recognizing the symptoms of ovarian cancer and ordering the appropriate diagnostic tests. On the basis of the diverse behavior of epithelial cancers, the goal of screening technology should shift from diagnosing early stage to diagnosing low-volume disease.

  3. Review Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
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      Practical management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (pages 4343–4354)

      Francisco Cervantes and Michael Mauro

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26062

      The treatment paradigm for patients with chromic myeloid leukemia is changing rapidly with the availability of newer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The results of this review indicated that the second-generation TKIs nilotinib and dasatinib are recommended for patients with resistance to imatinib and are being used increasingly to treat patients who experience persistent, moderate toxicity with imatinib.

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      Radiotherapy and surgery—An indispensable duo in the treatment of retroperitoneal sarcoma (pages 4355–4364)

      Lien Van De Voorde, Louke Delrue, Marc van Eijkeren and Gert De Meerleer

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26071

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      There is good evidence from multiple single-institutions studies that radiation therapy improves the local control rate in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma. The results from this review indicate that preoperative external beam radiation followed by radical surgery seems to be the preferred sequence.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. CancerScope
    3. Editorials
    4. Review Articles
    5. Original Articles
    1. Disease Site

      Breast Disease
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      Intraoperative molecular assay for sentinel lymph node metastases in early stage breast cancer : A comparative analysis between one-step nucleic acid amplification whole node assay and routine frozen section histology (pages 4365–4374)

      Tomo Osako, Takuji Iwase, Kiyomi Kimura, Kyoko Yamashita, Rie Horii, Akio Yanagisawa and Futoshi Akiyama

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26060

      Intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay using a whole lymph node detects more sentinel lymph node metastases, particularly micrometastases, than routine frozen section histology using a 2 mm-sectioned lymph node. The OSNA assay can also detect more metastases in elderly patients or from less progressive primary tumors than the frozen section histology.

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      A galectin-3 sequence polymorphism confers TRAIL sensitivity to human breast cancer cells (pages 4375–4380)

      Nachman Mazurek, James C. Byrd, Yunjie Sun, Suguru Ueno and Robert S. Bresalier

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26078

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      A common galectin-3 polymorphism, rs4644, is known to influence the susceptibility of galectin-3 to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases and is associated with breast cancer incidence. The results of the current study demonstrated that this naturally occurring Pro64His mutation in galectin-3 increases sensitivity to death receptor-mediated apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL).

    3. Endocrine Disease
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      Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion : The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Experience (pages 4381–4389)

      Shamim Ejaz, Rena Vassilopoulou-Sellin, Naifa L. Busaidy, Mimi I. Hu, Steven G. Waguespack, Camilo Jimenez, Anita K. Ying, Maria Cabanillas, Maher Abbara and Mouhammed Amir Habra

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26029

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      In patients with Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion (CS-EAS) who attended a comprehensive cancer center, tumors originating in the chest cavity were the leading tumors associated with this syndrome. The authors suspect that CS-EAS is underreported, and they suggest a careful evaluation of patients with neuroendocrine tumors to avoid missing coexisting CS-EAS.

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      Higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer over time : A single-institution study (pages 4390–4395)

      Aarti Mathur, Willeford Moses, Reza Rahbari, Elham Khanafshar, Quan-Yang Duh, Orlo Clark and Electron Kebebew

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26072

      The authors found that the rate of BRAF V600E mutation increased significantly over a 15-year period at their institution. This finding suggests that a higher rate of BRAF V600E mutation may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer.

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      Steroid receptor expression in thymomas and thymic carcinomas (pages 4396–4405)

      Takahiro Mimae, Koji Tsuta, Fumiaki Takahashi, Akihiko Yoshida, Tadashi Kondo, Yoshinori Murakami, Morihito Okada, Masahiro Takeuchi, Hisao Asamura and Hitoshi Tsuda

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26061

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      The results of the current study indicate that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and estrogen receptor β were frequently expressed in thymoma and thymic carcinoma. GR protein expression was found to be correlated with a better prognosis for the patient with thymic epithelial tumors.

    6. Genitourinary Disease
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      Impact of androgen deprivation on physical well-being in patients with prostate cancer : Analysis from the CaPSURE (Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor) registry (pages 4406–4413)

      Natalia Sadetsky, Kirsten Greene, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Alan Hubbard, Peter R. Carroll and William Satariano

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26064

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      As androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) becomes a standard of treatment for men with recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer, evaluation of adverse effects associated with this treatment is needed. In this study, exposure to ADT was associated with worse physical well-being in prostate cancer survivors.

    7. Gynecologic Oncology
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      How are symptoms of ovarian cancer managed? : A study of primary care physicians (pages 4414–4423)

      Barbara A. Goff, Barbara Matthews, C. Holly A. Andrilla, Jacqueline W. Miller, Katrina F. Trivers, Donna Berry, Denise M. Lishner and Laura-Mae Baldwin

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26035

      The majority of primary care physicians, when asked about a patient with symptoms suggestive of ovarian cancer, recommended diagnostic tests that would likely lead to a correct diagnosis. Ovarian cancer testing was more commonly recommended by gynecologists, those involved with clinical teaching, and those in group practices.

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      Decitabine and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibit growth of ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts while inducing expression of imprinted tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis, G2/M arrest, and autophagy (pages 4424–4438)

      Min-Yu Chen, Warren S.-L. Liao, Zhen Lu, William G. Bornmann, Violeta Hennessey, Michele N. Washington, Gary L. Rosner, Yinhua Yu, Ahmed Ashour Ahmed and Robert C. Bast Jr.

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26073

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      A demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), inhibited the growth of ovarian cancer cell lines and xenografts while inducing the expression of imprinted tumor suppressor genes (guanosine triphosphate-binding Di-RAS-like 3 [ARHI] and paternally expressed 3 [PEG3]), G2/M arrest, and/or autophagy.

    9. Head and Neck Disease
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      Rising incidence of second cancers in patients with low-risk (T1N0) thyroid cancer who receive radioactive iodine therapy (pages 4439–4446)

      N. Gopalakrishna Iyer, Luc G. T. Morris, R. Michael Tuttle, Ashok R. Shaha and Ian Ganly

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26070

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      Despite the lack of evidence for any benefit from radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in patients with low-risk (T1N0), differentiated thyroid cancer, statistics from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database indicate that its use has increased from 3.3% to 38.1% in the last 3 decades. The use of RAI is associated with a significantly higher incidence of second primary malignancies, providing a strong rationale for limiting its use in this patient population.

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      Examination of laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival as an endpoint in nonsurgical treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx (pages 4447–4451)

      Jimmy J. Caudell, William R. Carroll, Sharon A. Spencer and James A. Bonner

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26066

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      Laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival (LEDFS) is a new endpoint recommended for future clinical trials for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. In this retrospective analysis, LEDFS was superior for patients who received concurrent chemoradiation over radiation alone.

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      Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA screening followed by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in detecting posttreatment failures of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (pages 4452–4459)

      Wen-Yi Wang, Chih-Wen Twu, Wan-Yu Lin, Rong-San Jiang, Kai-Li Liang, Kuan-Wen Chen, Ching-Te Wu, Yi-Ting Shih and Jin-Ching Lin

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26069

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      Applying the strategy of Epstein-Barr virus DNA screening followed by positron emission tomography as a diagnostic modality for the clinical follow-up of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) not only accurately predicted NPC relapse but also appropriately guided further treatment planning in a cost-effective manner.

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      The prognostic and staging implications of bone invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma (pages 4460–4467)

      Ardalan Ebrahimi, Rajmohan Murali, Kan Gao, Michael S. Elliott and Jonathan R. Clark

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26032

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      This retrospective study demonstrated that medullary bone invasion is an independent predictor of reduced survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and this appears to result from an increased risk of distant metastatic failure. However, within the subset of patients with medullary invasion, survival differs significantly based on tumor size, limiting the prognostic utility of designating all such tumors as T4. We propose a revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer T staging system based on our results.

    13. Hematologic Malignancies
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      Solitary plasmacytomas : Outcome and prognostic factors after definitive radiation therapy (pages 4468–4474)

      Valerie Reed, Jatin Shah, L. Jeffery Medeiros, Chul S. Ha, Ali Mazloom, Donna M. Weber, Isidora Y. Arzu, Robert Z. Orlowski, Sheeba K. Thomas, Ferial Shihadeh, Raymond Alexanian and Bouthaina S. Dabaja

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26031

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      In this retrospective analysis, the authors evaluated the outcome of patients with solitary plasmacytoma who received definitive radiation therapy and investigated the impact of size, location, and the presence of serum paraprotein at diagnosis on the risk of developing multiple myeloma.

    14. Hepatobiliary Disease
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      Hepatocellular carcinoma with extrahepatic metastasis : Clinical features and prognostic factors (pages 4475–4483)

      Koji Uchino, Ryosuke Tateishi, Shuichiro Shiina, Miho Kanda, Ryota Masuzaki, Yuji Kondo, Tadashi Goto, Masao Omata, Haruhiko Yoshida and Kazuhiko Koike

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.25960

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      The major cause of death in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had extrahepatic metastases was the progression of intrahepatic HCC lesions. The current results indicate that the ability to control intrahepatic lesions and performance status are important prognostic factors in these patients.

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      Is resection of colorectal liver metastases after a second-line chemotherapy regimen justified? (pages 4484–4492)

      Antoine Brouquet, Michael J. Overman, Scott Kopetz, Dipen M. Maru, Evelyne M. Loyer, Andreas Andreou, Amanda Cooper, Steven A. Curley, Christopher R. Garrett, Eddie K. Abdalla and Jean-Nicolas Vauthey

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26036

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      Resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) after second-line chemotherapy regimen was found to be safe and was associated with a modest hope for definitive cure. This approach represents a viable option in patients with advanced CLM.

    16. Lung Disease
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      Neutrophil interactions with sialyl Lewis X on human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cells regulate invasive behavior (pages 4493–4505)

      Catherine A. St. Hill, Katherine Krieser and Mariya Farooqui

      Version of Record online: 22 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26059

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      A human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line that expressed the transfected α(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase (FucT-III) gene produced cell membrane sialyl Lewis X (sLeX), released neutrophil chemoattractants, and demonstrated increased invasiveness compared with the NSCLC cell line that lacked sLeX. Because exposure of transfected lung cancer cells to neutrophil-derived tumor necrosis factor-α further enhanced these properties, the authors concluded that FucT-III activity and sLeX expression in lung carcinomas may recruit neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment that subsequently enhance the invasive and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells.

    17. Neuro-Oncology
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      Pulmonary metastases in patients with recurrent, treatment-resistant meningioma : Prognosis and identification by 111indium-octreotide imaging (pages 4506–4511)

      Daniela Alexandru, Michael J. Glantz, Lyndon Kim, Marc C. Chamberlain and Daniela A. Bota

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26065

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      The presence of pulmonary metastases appears to negatively predict for survival in patients with recurrent meningioma. The utility of 111indium (111In)-octreotide scintigraphy should be considered in staging patients with recurrent meningioma who are being considered for further treatment.

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      High frequency of neurolymphomatosis as a relapse disease of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (pages 4512–4521)

      Kosei Matsue, Brian Y. Hayama, Kan-Ichi Iwama, Takafumi Koyama, Hideaki Fujiwara, Masayuki Yamakura, Masami Takeuchi and Toshihiro O'uchi

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26090

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      Over the past 4 years, the authors identified 4 patients with neurolymphomatosis (NL) among 11 patients who had intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVL) at their institution. Considering the rarity of IVL and NL, the current observations indicate that IVL may have a predilection not only for the vessels but also both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    19. Sarcoma
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      Proton-based radiotherapy for unresectable or incompletely resected osteosarcoma (pages 4522–4530)

      I. Frank Ciernik, Andrzej Niemierko, David C. Harmon, Wendy Kobayashi, Yen-Lin Chen, Torunn I. Yock, David H. Ebb, Edwin Choy, Kevin A. Raskin, Norbert Liebsch, Francis J. Hornicek and Thomas F. DeLaney

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26037

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      The cohort of Massachusetts General Hospital patients with inoperable or incompletely resectable osteosarcoma treated with proton or combined photon/proton therapy was reviewed. Local control could be achieved in >70% of cases with acceptable toxicity in most patients.

    20. Discipline

      Disparities Research
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      Persistent disparities in liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States, 1998 through 2007 (pages 4531–4539)

      Anthony S. Robbins, Derrick D. Cox, Lynt B. Johnson and Elizabeth M. Ward

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26063

      Between 1998 and 2007, there were large and persistent racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of liver transplantation among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. These disparities were not explained by socioeconomic or clinical factors.

    21. Pediatric Oncology
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      Post-transplant Burkitt lymphoma is a more aggressive and distinct form of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (pages 4540–4550)

      Jennifer Picarsic, Ronald Jaffe, George Mazariegos, Steve A. Webber, Demetrius Ellis, Michael D. Green and Miguel Reyes-Múgica

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26001

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      Burkitt lymphoma as a post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder appears to be distinct and monomorphic with a more aggressive course; thus, there is a need for immediate antineoplastic therapy. Burkitt lymphoma post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder has a more prevalent Epstein-Barr virus expression than that seen in sporadic and immunodeficient Burkitt lymphoma and represents a distinct entity.

    22. Psychosocial Oncology
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      Undocumented alcoholism and its correlation with tobacco and illegal drug use in advanced cancer patients (pages 4551–4556)

      Rony Dev, Henrique A. Parsons, Shana Palla, J. Lynn Palmer, Egidio Del Fabbro and Eduardo Bruera

      Version of Record online: 28 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26082

      The objectives of the current study were to determine the frequency of undiagnosed alcoholism among patients with advanced cancer and to explore its correlation with alcoholism, tobacco abuse, and the use of illegal drugs. The findings suggested that alcoholism is highly prevalent and frequently underdiagnosed in patients with advanced cancer. Patients who scored positive on a screening survey that was designed to identify alcoholism were more likely to have a history of, or to actively engage in, smoking and illegal recreational drug use, placing them at risk for unnecessary opioid escalation.

    23. Radiation Oncology
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      Three-dimensional external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer increases the risk of hip fracture (pages 4557–4565)

      Sean P. Elliott, Stephanie L. Jarosek, Shaheen R. Alanee, Badrinath R. Konety, Kathryn E. Dusenbery and Beth A. Virnig

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.25994

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      In a SEER-Medicare dataset of men treated for prostate cancer, external beam radiotherapy was associated with a 76% increased risk of hip fracture without any increased risk of fall-related fractures outside the radiation field (ie, forearm fractures).

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      A survey of stereotactic body radiotherapy use in the United States (pages 4566–4572)

      Hubert Pan, Daniel R. Simpson, Loren K. Mell, Arno J. Mundt and Joshua D. Lawson

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26067

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      Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has rapidly become a widely adopted treatment approach among radiation oncologists in the United States. SBRT use appears to be increasing, and further research is needed to determine its benefits and risks.

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